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Haplogroup R1b (Atlantic Modal Haplotype)

The Atlantic Modal Haplotype is the most common variation of R1b. It is defined by the

six basic marker values below.

(DYS # 19/388/390/391/392/393)

14-12-24-11-13-13

This and related R1b haplotypes originated in Europe during the Paleolithic. During the Ice Age,

the carriers of R1b wintered in the Pyrenees. When the Ice Age ended, these carriers radiated across

Western Europe. They became the pre-Roman population of Spain, France, the British Isles, and large

portions of the Rhineland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Northern Italy.

Although the Celtic language itself has roots in Asia, the indigenous people of Western Europe

became its primary speakers. They comprised the largest proportion of those people we know from history

as "Celtic", and remain so today. Traditional areas of Celtic settlement are Ireland, Wales, Scotland,

Cornwall, Brittany, and Galicia in Northern Spain. Celtic culture is epitomized archaeologically by the La Tene

settlement, which existed near Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland during the Iron Age.

The Paleolithic population of Europe also became one of the earliest components of the Spanish,

Italian and German peoples, and were among the first speakers of the the Romance languages and the

Teutonic languages, even though the Indo-European source of these languages, too, lay elsewhere.

The Basques, who are perhaps the purest "Paleolithic" population in Europe, do not speak a

Celtic language and are not Celts, even though they are ancestrally related to those who are.

R1b does not mean "Celtic". And, even though R1b is found everywhere in Western Europe,

no country in Western Europe is entirely R1b, or has been so for a very long time.

The Chart Above Shows The Distribution of R1b (alias HG1) In Green

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #17

This appears to be far more common among Basques than any other group. Two other

frequencies in the top ten occur in Iberia or Latin America, three occur among white Americans in

Indiana, Texas and Pennsylvania (all of which have a history of British or Scots-Irish settlement),

and one each occurs in Northern Italy and the Rhineland.

This haplotype most likely entered Britain with the prehistoric Iberians, and proliferated

among the Picts, Welsh and the Cruithne of Ireland.

There are hits in Russia and the Ukraine, which are unusual for an R1b haplotype, but

which may be attributed to the spread of Celtic culture to Poland and beyond.

(An additional source of Iberian R1b in Eastern Europe may be the Sephardic diaspora

of The Late Middle Ages.)

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 28 24 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Northern Spain [Basque] 6.55
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Southern Portugal 2.68
Strasbourg, Alsace 2.02
Novgorod, Western Russia 2.00
Umbria, Central Italy 1.96
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Antioqua, Colombia 1.47
Dresden, Saxony 1.47
Texas [European-American] 1.27
Liguria, Western Italy 1.23
Kiev, Ukraine 1.22
Emilia Romagna, Central Italy 1.12
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Leiden, Western Netherlands 1.04
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Bulgaria .82
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .71
Bogota, Colombia .68
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] .67
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .67
Bialyostok, Poland [Byelorussians] .64
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Northern Portugal .55
Central Portugal .54
Munster, Westphalia .51
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Tuscany, Central Italy .46
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Latium, Central Italy .45
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .45
Tyrol, Western Austria .44
Warsaw, Central Poland .42
Chemnitz, Saxony .37
Sweden .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #18

This haplotype is not common, but it exhibits its highest frequencies in the Rhineland

and Iberia.  It is most likely of Iberian or Celtic origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 28 24 11 13 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Southern Portugal .89
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #19

This haplotype most likely has an Iberian or Celtic origin, and may

have entered Britain with Flemish immigrants after the Norman conquest.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 24 11 13 13 14 14

Geographical Locale

%
Limburg, Southern Netherlands 2.00
Liguria, Western Italy 1.23
Caceres, Central-West Spain 1.09
Bogota, Colombia .68
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
London, England .40
Antioquia, Colombia .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #20

This haplotype is too common to be restricted to one place of origin. Of the top ten

frequencies, seven are among Basques, Spaniards or Hispanic Americans. This definitely

suggests that a person of British origin with this haplotype is descended from the Iberians

who came to Britain after the last Ice Age.

However, of the top ten European frequencies, two fall in Denmark and Sweden,

and one falls in Paris, France. The Cajuns, who are of predominantly French-Canadian

descent, rank sixth. Our hunch is that some of those with this haplotype may be of

Scandinavian origin - or, at the very least, descended from the Normans. The

Normans were not only of Viking stock - there were many Bretons among them as

well, and it is important to consider that the Basque country and the Pyrenees

are not that far from Brittany or adjacent French regions.

This haplotype has many hits in other locales, including The Netherlands,

Germany and Scandinavia.

An Iberian or "Celtic" origin is, again, most likely for most Britons or

Anglo-Americans with this haplotype, but some of these Britons undoubtedly

had other origins.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 30 24 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Oregon [Hispanic-American] 7.14
Louisiana [Hispanic-American] 6.67
Northern Spain [Basque] 5.36
Pyrenees, Spain 5.30
New York City [Hispanic-American] 4.67
Cajun [European-American] 4.55
Virginia [Hispanic-American] 4.35
Skaraborg, Sweden 4.26
Barcelona, Catalonia 3.57
Missouri [African-American] 3.57
Caceres, Central-West Spain 3.29
Northern Portugal 3.29
Denmark 3.17
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Valencia, Eastern Spain 2.86
Paris, France 2.75
Bogota, Colombia 2.72
Madrid, Central-East Spain 2.70
Texas [Hispanic-American] 2.70
Texas [European-American] 2.56
Netherlands 2.29
Antioquia, Colombia 1.97
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia 1.94
Connecticut [Hispanic-American] 1.92
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate 1.92
Krakow, Southern Poland 1.87
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] 1.57
Munster, Westphalia 1.53
Vienna, Austria 1.52
Dresden, Saxony 1.47
Maryland [African-American] 1.37
New York City [African-American] 1.33
London, England 1.21
Emilia Romagna, Central Italy 1.12
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Berlin, Brandenburg 1.09
Central Portugal 1.08
Leiden, Western Netherlands 1.04
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Athens, Greece .99
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Southern Ireland .93
Latium, Central Italy .90
Southern Portugal .89
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Brussels, Belgium .80
Munich, Bavaria .79
Choco, Colombia .75
Cologne, Westphalia .74
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
New York City [European-American] .65
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .65
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Sweden .49
Tuscany, Central Italy .46
Tyrol, Western Austria .44
Chemnitz, Saxony .37
Gdansk, Northern Poland .37
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Leipzig, Saxony .15

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #21

This haplotype exhibits its highest frequencies in Sweden, Ireland, among Americans of

possibly British or Irish descent, and in areas which have a Celtic history, but which were

also influenced by Normans, such as Zaragoza and Belgium. Both Paris and London

also appear in this table, but not at such elevated frequencies.

The match pattern for this haplotype is not unlike that for 14-14-30-24-11-13-13-11-14,

which is only step away on DYS389ii. But while the other haplotype suggests a Viking

or Norman origin only as a secondary possibility, this haplotype suggests it more

strongly.

There is also the possibility that both of these haplotypes may be signatures of

the Hiberno-Norse or "Gall-Gaedhil". These were Irish Gaels who joined Norse

society, either as slaves, warriors or camp followers. The Hiberno-Norse

accompanied the Norse to Iceland, Cumbria, and the Isle of Man - and perhaps

even to Normandy or back to Norway itself. This would account for how a

seemingly Celtic-Iberian pair of haplotypes could have made its way into a

Scandinavian context.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 31 24 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Blekinge, Sweden 4.76
Southern Ireland 2.80
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.13
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Zaragoza, Aragon 1.67
Northern Portugal 1.65
Brussels, Belgium 1.60
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Texas [African-American] 1.45
Northern Spain [Basque] 1.19
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Cantabria, Northern Spain .99
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Paris, France .92
Southern Portugal .89
Barcelona, Catalonia .89
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Bogota, Colombia .68
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Central Portugal .54
London, England .40
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .22
Leipzig, Saxony .15

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #22

In spite of the high frequency hits in Norway and Turkey, the other top

frequencies fall largely in Iberia, and in areas with a Celtic history, such as

Western Austria and Switzerland. This haplotype most likely came to Britain

with the prehistoric Iberians or later Celtic settlers. Its appearance in Norway,

Turkey and Macedonia may reflect a connection with the Viking slave trade -

or with Vikings in general. This is a possible candidate for a

Hiberno-Norse haplotype.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 28 24 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Southern Norway 4.00
Ankara, Turkey 2.56
Caceres, Central-West Spain 2.19
Andulacia, Southern Spain 1.23
Central Portugal 1.08
Cantabria, Northern Spain .99
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Tyrol, Western Austria .87
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Macedonia .67
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .67
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Sweden .49
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #23

This haplotype most likely has an Iberian or Celtic origin,

although its presence in Italy may indicate that it came

to Britain with Roman colonization.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 28 24 11 13 13 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Bologna, Italy 1.96
Valencia, Eastern Spain .71
Tuscany, Central Italy .46
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22