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Haplogroup R1b (Atlantic Modal Haplotype)

The Atlantic Modal Haplotype is the most common variation of R1b. It is defined by the

six basic marker values below.

(DYS # 19/388/390/391/392/393)

14-12-24-11-13-13

This and related R1b haplotypes originated in Europe during the Paleolithic. During the Ice Age,

the carriers of R1b wintered in the Pyrenees. When the Ice Age ended, these carriers radiated across

Western Europe. They became the pre-Roman population of Spain, France, the British Isles, and large

portions of the Rhineland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Northern Italy.

Although the Celtic language itself has roots in Asia, the indigenous people of Western Europe

became its primary speakers. They comprised the largest proportion of those people we know from history

as "Celtic", and remain so today. Traditional areas of Celtic settlement are Ireland, Wales, Scotland,

Cornwall, Brittany, and Galicia in Northern Spain. Celtic culture is epitomized archaeologically by the La Tene

settlement, which existed near Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland during the Iron Age.

The Paleolithic population of Europe also became one of the earliest components of the Spanish,

Italian and German peoples, and were among the first speakers of the the Romance languages and the

Teutonic languages, even though the Indo-European source of these languages, too, lay elsewhere.

The Basques, who are perhaps the purest "Paleolithic" population in Europe, do not speak a

Celtic language and are not Celts, even though they are ancestrally related to those who are.

R1b does not mean "Celtic". And, even though R1b is found everywhere in Western Europe,

no country in Western Europe is entirely R1b, or has been so for a very long time.

The Chart Above Shows The Distribution of R1b (alias HG1) In Green

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #1

The most common variant of the Atlantic Modal Haplotype in the YHRD database has DYS389i,ii values of

13 and 29, and DYS385a,b values of 11 and 14. The haplotype below differs only by one step from this variant.

Although it is widespread, like all AMH variants, half of the top ten frequencies are among populations

of largely Iberian origin (including the R1b among the Amerindians), one in Italy and one in Belgium

(both with histories of "Celtic" settlement) - and yet also three in Scandinavia.

In the next twenty frequencies, half again are of Iberian origin - but Scandinavia appears once more.

The rule of thumb about the appearance of AMH in Britain is that it represents "deep ancestry" among

British aborigines with Paleolithic Iberian roots, and that very likely applies to most individuals with this

haplotype. Nonetheless this haplotype could also suggest a Viking origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 13

Geographical Locale

%
Tehuelche, Argentina [Amerindians] 16.67
Western Norway 3.13
Southern Portugal 2.68
Brussels, Belgium 2.40
Virginia [Hispanic-American] 2.17
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.13
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] 2.00
Marche, Eastern Italy 1.85
Denmark 1.66
Central Portugal 1.62
Vienna, Austria 1.52
Zaragoza, Aragon 1.49
Bogota, Colombia 1.36
New York City [Hispanic-American] 1.34
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Eastern Norway 1.18
Emilia Romagna, Central Italy 1.12
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Caceres, Central-West Spain 1.09
Athens, Greece .99
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Tuscany, Central Italy .92
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Pyrenees, Spain .76
Antioqua, Colombia .74
Sweden .74
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
New York City [African-American] .67
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .67
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Budapest, Hungary .51
Munster, Westphalia .51
Chemnitz, Saxony .49
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
London, England .40
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #2

The haplotype below is the most common haplotype in the YHRD database, and it may be considered

classic (or "Western") AMH. It occurs all over Europe, and the paternal ancestors of someone with this haplotype

could easily have come from anywhere. When that person has British roots, Occam's Razor is generally applied

and a "deep ancestry" among the Celtic-speaking, pre-Roman population of Britain is assumed.

Much of this population has been in Western Europe since the Paleolithic, and is thought to have

migrated to the British Isles from either Spain or France.

Sure enough, of the top twenty frequencies listed below, half occur in samples of Iberian origin.

The highest frequency occurs among the Basques, who have been shown to be nearly identical, in

Y chromosome terms, to predominantly Celtic populations like the Irish and the Welsh. Southern

Ireland itself exhibits the sixth highest frequency of this haplotype.

Yet a sample from Saxony comes in second, and one from the western Netherlands comes

in fourth. Two Italian samples also exhibit frequencies among the top twenty. Since the Atlantic

Modal Haplotype occurs in relatively high proportions, not just in Iberia and the British Isles, but

also in areas like Germany and The Netherlands, we cannot rule out an Anglo-Saxon origin for

any "Border Reiver" descendant with this haplotype. It is not the simplest assumption we can

make, but it is a reasonable assumption. Nor, with the high frequencies in Iberia and Italy,

can we rule out an origin among Roman settlers.

The best assumption that we can make about the ancestry of "Border Reiver" descendants

with this haplotype is that it is most likely a mixture of several possible origins.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Northern Spain [Basque] 19.05
Saxony [Sorbs] 18.18
Florida [European-American] 13.64
Zeeland, Southwestern Netherlands 13.04
Pyrenees, Spain 12.88
Southern Ireland 10.28
Maryland [European-American] 9.38
Florida [Hispanic-American] 8.69
Zaragoza, Aragon 8.33
Birmingham, England 8.25
Barcelona, Catalonia 8.04
Texas [European-American] 7.69
Lombardy, Northern Italy 7.14
Madeira, Portugal 7.14
Northern Portugal 7.14
Central Portugal 7.03
Limburg, Southern Netherlands 6.00
Cantabria, Northern Spain 5.94
Andulacia, Southern Spain 5.88
Emilia Romagna, Central Italy 5.62
Munster, Westphalia 5.61
Asturias, Northern Spain 5.56
Indiana [African-American] 5.41
Leiden, Western Netherlands 5.21
Virginia [European-American] 4.92
London, England 4.86
Brussels, Belgium 4.80
Oregon [Hispanic-American] 4.78
Blekinge, Sweden 4.76
Madrid, Central-East Spain 4.73
Eastern Norway 4.71
Antioqua, Colombia 4.67
New York City [Hispanic-American] 4.67
Lausanne, Western Switzerland 4.63
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg 4.62
Cajun [European-American] 4.55
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] 4.47
Northern Norway 4.44
Bern, Switzerland 4.39
Virginia [Hispanic-American] 4.35
Groningen, Northern Netherlands 4.17
Cordoba, Argentina 4.00
Dusseldorf, Westphalia 4.00
Umbria, Central Italy 3.92
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt 3.89
Connecticut [Hispanic-American] 3.85
Maryland [Hispanic-American] 3.85
Marche, Eastern Italy 3.70
Missouri [African-American] 3.57
Valencia, Eastern Spain 3.57
Uppsala, Sweden 3.51
Bogota, Colombia 3.40
Louisiana [Hispanic-American] 3.33
Oslo, Norway 3.33
Louisiana [European-American] 3.23
Munich, Bavaria 3.19
Denmark 3.17
Strasbourg, Alsace 3.03
Pennsylvania [European-American] 2.98
Berlin, Brandenburg 2.91
Tuscany, Central Italy 2.75
Texas [Hispanic-American] 2.70
Southern Portugal 2.68
Cabinda, Angola 2.67
Tyrol, Western Austria 2.62
Chemnitz, Saxony 2.56
Liguria, Western italy 2.47
Leipzig, Saxony 2.42
Ostergotland Jonkoping, Sweden 2.38
Varmland, Sweden 2.33
Netherlands 2.29
Friesland, Northern Netherlands 2.27
Caceres, Central-West Spain 2.19
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.13
Virginia [African-American] 2.13
Sicily, Southern Italy 2.01
New York City [African-American] 2.00
London, England [Afro-Caribbean] 1.98
Sweden 1.98
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg 1.94
Latium, Central Italy 1.80
Hamburg, Northern Germany 1.76
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Cologne, Westphalia 1.48
Rostock, Mecklenburg 1.48
Dresden, Saxony 1.47
Maryland [African-American] 1.37
New York City [European-American] 1.29
South Caucasus [Georgian] 1.29
Baranya, Southern Hungary [Romani] 1.28
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Albania .99
Romania .98
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Krakow, Southern Poland .93
Gdansk, Northern Poland .92
Paris, France .92
El Salvador .83
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Bulgaria .82
Choco, Colombia [African-Colombian] .75
Tartu, Estonia .75
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] .67
Macedonia .67
Turkey .63
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland .59
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Finland .25

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #3

The most common variant of the Atlantic Modal Haplotype in the YHRD database has DYS389i,ii values of

13 and 29, and DYS385a,b values of 11 and 14. This haplotype differs by one step upward on the most quickly

mutating marker.

This haplotype is very interesting, from the perspective of the YHRD database, because most of the

top frequencies are not in Europe but in the United States. Of the top twenty, twelve are among U.S.

populations. Two are Hispanic samples, three are African-American (most likely of Anglo-American origin),

and the rest are European American. These samples seem to congregate in areas of the U.S. settled

by French, Scottish, English, Irish and German immigrants. That accords with the Western European

origin of AMH.

Southern Ireland and London, England appear among the top ten European frequencies, along with four

separate locales in The Netherlands. Although "Border Reiver" descendants would most likely have

acquired this haplotype through British "Celtic" ancestry, the multiple hits in The Netherlands suggest

that an Anglo-Saxon origin is also quite possible.

(The high frequency in Mongolia, on the other hand, does not suggest a Mongolian origin. However,

it does underscore the fact that, even though R1b has been in Europe since the Paleolithic, that does

not mean that R1b always stayed put. If R1b can find its way to Asia, it can also migrate from one

place to another within Western Europe.)

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Louisiana [European-American] 6.45
Indiana [European-American] 5.88
Cajun [European-American] 4.55
Florida [Hispanic-American] 4.35
Groningen, Northern Netherlands 4.17
Maryland [Hispanic-American] 3.85
Southern Ireland 3.74
Mongolia 3.33
Virginia [European-American] 3.28
Maryland [European-American] 3.13
Pennsylvania [European-American] 2.98
Oregon [European-American] 2.86
Indiana [African-American] 2.70
Pennsylvania [African-American] 2.33
Netherlands 2.29
Asturias, Northern Spain 2.22
Zeeland, Southwestern Netherlands 2.17
Central Portugal 2.14
Valencia, Eastern Spain 2.14
Virginia [African-American] 2.13
Leiden, Western Netherlands 2.08
London, England 2.02
Strasbourg, Alsace 2.02
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] 2.00
Dusseldorf, Westphalia 2.00
New York City [African-American] 2.00
Cantabria, Northern Spain 1.98
New York City [European-American] 1.94
Marche, Eastern Italy 1.85
Barcelona, Catalonia 1.79
Uppsala, Sweden 1.75
Veneto, Northern Italy 1.67
Pyrenees, Spain 1.52
Dresden, Saxony 1.47
Texas [African-American] 1.45
Greifswald, Pomerania 1.44
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg 1.39
Tuscany, Central Italy 1.38
Madrid, Central-East Spain 1.35
Tyrol, Western Austria 1.31
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg 1.29
Leipzig, Saxony 1.21
Egypt 1.20
Bern, Switzerland 1.09
Caceres, Central-West Spain 1.09
Madeira, Portugal 1.02
Munster, Westphalia 1.02
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Krakow, Southern Poland .93
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Paris, France .92
Hamburg, Northern Germany .88
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
Brussels, Belgium .80
Munich, Bavaria .79
Choco, Colombia [African-Colombian] .75
Berlin, Brandenburg .73
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .71
Macedonia .67
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .67
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Chemnitz, Saxony .49
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Luzon, Phillipines .47
Latium, Central Italy .45
Sweden .25
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #4

This haplotype differs from the most common AMH variant in the YHRD database by two steps in

the value of DYS385b. Half of the top ten frequencies are among people of Iberian descent. Ireland also

appears. The haplotype most likely originated with Celtic-speaking Britons, but the presence of Zeeland and

Freiburg in the top ten suggest the possibility that it might also have entered Britain with the Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 11 16

Geographical Locale

%
Zeeland, Southwestern Netherlands 2.17
Texas [African-American] 1.45
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] 1.34
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Marche, Eastern Italy .93
Southern Ireland .93
Pyrenees, Spain .76
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemberg .69
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] .67
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Central Portugal .54
Budapest, Hungary` .51
Tuscany, Central Italy .46
Munich, Bavaria .39
Sweden .25
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15

Atlantic Modal Haplotype #5

This haplotype differs from the most common R1b haplotype in the YHRD database only by one step

upward on the DYS385a marker. It occurs with the highest frequency among Basques, but is found elsewhere.

Among the top ten frequencies in this table, five are Iberian, two occur in The Netherlands, one in Italy, and

one in Norway.

This is an interesting match pattern for an AMH haplotype. High frequencies among both Iberian and

Dutch samples suggest a possible Flemish or Sephardic connection, although a "Celtic" ancestry is probably

most likely. Nonetheless, a Norman origin is always a possibility with an AMH haplotype, as the Normans

included groups of more or less Celtic origin like the Bretons and the Franks, as well as the Flemish. Even

Central Norway and Paris, France have strong showings here. Finally, the hits in The Netherlands may point

to an Anglo-Saxon origin. As with most AMH haplotypes, many different origins are possible.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 29 24 11 13 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Northern Spain [Basque] 4.76
Louisiana [Hispanic-American] 3.33
Oregon [European-American] 2.86
Texas [Hispanic-American] 2.70
Netherlands 2.29
Zeeland, Southwestern Netherlands 2.17
Central Norway 2.08
Cordoba, Argentina 2.00
Umbria, Central Italy 1.96
Connecticut [Hispanic-American] 1.92
Paris, France 1.83
Northern Portugal 1.65
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Cologne, Westphalia 1.48
Dresden, Saxony 1.47
Greenland [Inuit] 1.45
Madrid, Central-East Spain 1.35
New York City [Hispanic-American] 1.33
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Emilia Romagna, Central Italy 1.12
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Barcelona, Catalonia .89
Southern Portugal .89
Veneto, Northern Italy .83
Munich, Bavaria .79
Bogota, Colombia .68
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] .67
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .67
New York City [European-American] .65
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg .65
Central Portugal .54
Budapest, Hungary .51
Leipzig, Saxony .45
Southern Ireland .45
London, England .40
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Sweden .25
Berlin, Brandenburg .18
Chemnitz, Saxony .12