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Haplogroup R1a

The fabled haplogroup R1a - or, more precisely, its subclade R1a1 - is said to indicate a "Viking origin"

when it is found among men of British descent. This is the haplogroup that will earn you a "Viking" certificate

from Oxford Ancestors, and its presence was the main focus of the Capelli study "A Y Chromosome

Census of The British Isles".

It is believed to have originated among the Kurgan culture of western Asia, which is often credited

with spreading the Indo-European languages to northwestern Europe. The Kurgans were nomads with a

pastoral economy, and to this day their descendants bear the genetic traces of a dependence on livestock and

animal products. The incidence of milk tolerance among the Swedes, for instance, is among the highest

in the world.

The Scandinavians have long believed that their ancestors originated in Asia. The Icelandic sagas claim

descent for the Jarls of Norway from the warriors of Troy, and the anthropologist Thor Heyerdahl - the author of

the classic "Kon Tiki" - spent his final years attempting to trace the human originals of Wodin and the Aesir

back to Azerbaijan in the Caucasus.  There may be an element of truth to these speculations, since individuals with

R1a haplotypes often score matches with Indians, Siberians, Chinese and other Asians - even when they score no

matches with persons from Europe. The recent discovery of fair-haired mummies in the Takla Makan desert of western

China has revived interest in the long forgotten Indo-Iranian tribe, the Tocharians, their possible role in the economy

of the Silk Road, and their relationship with the people of Europe. Haplogroup R1a is also, implicitly, the "Aryan"

haplogroup, and perhaps the less said about that, the better.

A person who does not belong to haplogroup R1a may, in fact, have a "deep ancestry" in Scandinavia.

R1a accounts for only about 30% of the men of Norway. The various subclades of Haplogroup I account for

about 35%, and even R1b accounts for as much as 28%. Conversely, a person who does belong to R1a does

not necessarily have Scandinavian ancestors - even if his people are from Britain.

Suppose you take three Britons - one whose grandfather was a Pakistani immigrant, another whose grandfather

was a Polish pilot with the RAF, and the third a Scot descended from one of the Hungarian noblemen who

accompanied Margaret Atheling to the court of Malcolm Canmore - and who, perhaps, bears the name

Drummond, Borthwick or Crichton.

All three gentlemen could easily be R1a, but that doesn't make them Vikings.

However, some DNA genealogists have asserted not only that R1a was "Viking", but that only R1a was truly Viking -

and that all the occurrence of R1b in the Norwegian population is due to the importation of Celtic slaves. This is a

curiously Anglo-Centric argument. Vikings took slaves from many foreign lands, and sold most of them to

other foreign lands. Most of the slaves in Norway were, in fact, the descendants of prisoners captured in wars

with other Vikings. Even those foreign slaves who were imported to Norway were more likely to be Slavic

than Celtic, as Slavs comprised the largest number of the slaves the Vikings bought and sold. Slavs had been

common victims of the "peculiar institution" since Roman times.

R1a is, in fact, far more prevalent in Poland and Hungary than in Norway. One could actually mount a

counterargument that it was not R1b, but R1a, whose incidence in Scandinavia was artificially enhanced by slavery.

R1a could also have entered Britain with the Goths, who served with the Roman Army in Britain. Many

Visigoths also settled in France, and some of their descendants accompanied the Normans to England. The De Vaux

family of Dirleton Castle, for instance, came from Normandy. Before that, however, they were reputedly descended

from a Visigothic family that obtained lands in Roman Gaul.

Indo-Iranian nomads like the Alans and the Sarmatians also probably carried R1a, and they found their

way to Britain as well.

Viking DNA Among The Border Reivers

Many of the Border Reiver families are rumored to have Viking origin. That is a reasonable assumption in view of the

fact that Cumbria - the heart of the "Debateable Lands" - offers abundance evidence of Viking settlement, from place

names and Norse dialect, to archaeological finds of Viking artifacts and "hogback" style tombstones. Most of

these Vikings were actually Hiberno-Norse, which means that their forebears had resided in Ireland for generations

and had intermarried with the Irish Gaels. From the start of the wars in Dublin in the early tenth century, up until Brian

Boru finally ejected the Vikings at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, there was a steady stream of refugees to the Isle

of Man, the Wirral (near Chester) and the sparsely populated areas of Galloway and Cumbria.

Penrith, which is in Cumbria, showed the highest proportion of R1a haplotypes of any place tested in England -

about 8 percent, according to the Capelli study. The percentage of R1a in our sample so far is less than half that.

R1a Haplotype #11

The high frequencies in Greece and Turkey suggest the Black Sea wanderings of the

Goths, Heruls and Rugians - or, possibly, the later military exploits of the Normans in

the Mediterranean. The hit in Brussels also suggests a Norman connection.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the Norwegian Vikings or the Normans.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 32 24 11 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Thessaly, Greece 6.67
Northern Norway 2,22
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Brussels, Belgium .80
Gdansk, Northern Poland .37
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35

R1a Haplotype #12

Among the top five frequencies, Oslo comes in second and Groningen (part of Frisia)

comes in third. Both suggest a Scandinavian origin.  The hit in the Caucasus most likely

reflects the ancestral origin of the haplotype, and the top frequency - among Gypsies in

Hungary - may reflect either the pre-Viking period wanderings of the Rugians in

southeastern Europe or the "Indian" ancestry of the Romani.

Additional hits in Greenland, Finland, Sweden, along the Baltic coast of Germany

and among Byelorussians also support an origin in Scandinavia or Eastern Europe.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 31 25 10 11 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Baranya, Hungary [Romani] 5.12
Oslo, Norway 3.03
Groningen, Northern Netherlands 2.08
Caucasus {Kabardinian] 1.72
Munster, Westphalia 1.53
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Greenland [Inuit] 1.45
Panjab, India .93
Bialystok, Poland [Byelorussians] .64
Central Portugal .54
Budapest, Hungary .51
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Tyrol, Western Austria .44
London, England [Asian] .38
Finland .25
Sweden .25
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

R1a Haplotype #13

This haplotype is fairly typical R1a, in that it includes high frequencies in Southern

Asia and Eastern Europe. Among the highest European frequencies, however, four

out of the top five fall in areas of the Baltic that saw considerable Viking settlement.

Therefore, it is safe to conclude that this haplotype entered Britain with the Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 - - 26 11 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Florida [European-American] 4.55
Tartu, Estonia 3.76
Pakistan [Makrani Negroid] 3.03
Pakistan [Parsi] 2.22
Riga, Latvia 2.07
Graz, Austria 1.54
Byelorussia 1.45
Maryland [African-American] 1.37
Vilnius, Lithuania 1.27
Tehran, Iran 1.25
Damascus, Syria 1.00
Athens, Greece .99
Krakow, Poland .93
Panjab, India .93
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Veneto, Italy .83
Pakistan [Sindhi] .82
London, England [Asian] .76
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Turkey .63
Bydgoszcz, Poland .59
Budapest, Hungary .51
Munster, Westphalia .51
Tyrol, Austria .44
Munich, Bavaria .40
Gdansk, Poland .37
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Leipzig, Saxony .30
Finland .25
Berlin, Brandenburg .18
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1a Haplotype #14

The haplotype below is very rare, and appears to have a Baltic origin. It most likely

came to Britain with the Norse Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 - 25 11 12 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Pakistan [Sindhi] .82
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland .59
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1a Haplotype #15

The haplotype below shows its highest frequencies in Southern Norway and in multiple locations

in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is, of course, possible that this haplotype was spread by Norman

activity in the Eastern Mediterranean, but its presence here probably dates from an earlier period.

This haplotype may have originated ancestrally among the Indo-Iranian tribes of

Western Asia, and spread southeast to the Indian subcontinent, west to Anatolia, and northwest

to the plains of Eastern Europe. From Eastern Europe, it may have migrated north to

Scandinavia in prehistoric times, or was absorbed by Heruls, Rugians or Goths during

their wanderings in the Balkans, the Ukraine and around the Black Sea.

It most likely came to Britain with the Vikings, but it just as easily might have

come with Roman troops or settlers.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 12 - 24 11 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Epirus, Greece 7.14
Southern Norway 4.00
Virginia [Hispanic-American] 2.17
Adana, Turkey 1.10
Damascus, Syria 1.00
Athens, Greece .99
Krakow, Poland .93
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Panjab, India .93
Chiang Mai, Thailand .89
Pakistan [Sindhi] .82

R1a Haplotype #16

The haplotype below is very common in Eastern Europe. Of the nineteen samples where this haplotype

occurs in more than 2 percent of the population, eleven fall in Russia, two each fall in Romania, Hungary, and

Poland, and one each falls in Lithuania and Bosnia-Herzogovina. It also falls in numerous locales in Scandinavia

and Germany, but at somewhat lower percentages.

Some have speculated that Scandinavian R1a has a different geographical pattern from Slavic R1a, in that the former

has matches in India and the Caucasus while the latter is confined to Eastern Europe. The match pattern for this

haplotype bears a strong bias towards the latter. Nonetheless, it most likely came to Britain with the Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 25 10 11 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Lunca de Sus, Romania [Csango] 8.33
Tambov, Russia 6.25
Vladimir, Russia 4.00
Limanova, Poland 3.77
Hungary 3.51
Volot, Russia 3.13
Rjasan, Russia 2.86
Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzogovina 2.86
Budapest, Hungary [Ashkenazi Jews] 2.70
Vilnius, Lithuania 2.55
Pensa, Russia 2.50
Vologda, Russia 2.50
Southeast Poland 2.48
Orel, Russia 2.47
Tula, Russia 2.38
Moscow, Russia 2.35
Smolensk, Russia 2.33
Tver, Russia 2.33
Miercurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 2.20
Nowy Targ, Poland 1.92
Nowy Sacz, Poland 1.75
Caucasus [Kabardinian] 1.72
Warsaw, Poland 1.67
Kiev, Ukraine 1.64
Central Norway 1.58
Graz, Austria 1.54
Riga, Latvia 1.38
Pskov, Russia 1.38
Bulgaria [Romani] 1.23
Suwalki, Poland 1.22
Gdansk, Poland 1.17
Bergen, Norway 1.08
Budapest, Hungary 1.04
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Bydgoszcz, Poland .97
Szczecin, Poland .95
Wladiwostok, Russia [European] .90
Leipzig, Germany .87
Halle, Germany .85
Wroclaw, Poland .83
Bulgaria .82
Lublin, Poland .81
Bialystok, Poland [Old Believers] .78
Tartu, Estonia .75
Berlin, Germany .73
Magdeburg, Germany .71
Munich, Germany .71
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
Dusseldorf, Germany .67
Bialystok, Poland [Belarussians] .64
Andulacia, Spain .61
Bratislave, Slovakia .61
Bialystok, Poland .55
Chemnitz, Germany .49
Rostock, Germany .49
Greifswald, Germany .48
Cologne, Germany .43
Eastern Norway .41
Central Bohemia, Czechia .40
Macedonia .40
Hamburg, Germany .36
London, England .35
Stuttgart, Germany .33
Western Norway .33
Northern Norway .27
Finland .25
Sweden .25

R1a Haplotype #17

The highest European frequencies for the haplotype below fall in Russia and Romania.

Russian and Eastern European matches appear to predominate throughout - with a few

exceptions, such as Sweden, Lombardy, Pakistan and the Kurds of Iraq.

This haplotype most likely came to Britain with Norse Vikings or the Normans.

The Scandinavian element involved was most likely Swedish rather than Norwegian.

An alternative origin among Roman troops of Gothic, Herulian or Sarmatian descent

is always possible as well.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
17 13 29 - 11 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Pakistan [Kalash] 6.82
Novgorod, Russia 2.00
Byelorussia 1.45
Miecurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 1.10
Romania .98
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Ljubljana, Slovenia .82
Kurds, Iraq .79
Riga, Latvia .69
Wladiwostok, Russia [European] .68
Bialystok, Poland [Byelorussians] .64
Bialystok, Poland .55
Gdansk, Poland .55
Kiev, Ukraine .55
Lombardy, Italy .55
Budapest, Hungary .52
Sweden .49
Warsaw, Poland .42

R1a Haplotype #18

The match pattern for the haplotype below suggests that it occurs most commonly among Slavic groups, and

perhaps also among the Ashkenazim. There are no matches in Scandinavia, although there are matches near

the Baltic, as well as among ethnic Indians in Singapore - both areas where R1a haplotypes show an affinity with

Scandinavia. This haplotype most likely came to Britain with Norse Vikings, but we cannot rule out the possibility

that it might also have arrived with Roman troops of Eastern European origin, such as Thracians, Dacians,

Dalmatians and Sarmatians.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
17 13 30 25 11 11 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Warsaw, Poland 1.67
Leiden, Netherlands 1.04
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Romania .98
Wladiwostok, Russia [European] .68
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Berlin, Brandenburg .55
Gdansk, Poland .55
Kiev, Ukraine .55
Singapore [Indian] .55
Chemnitz, Saxony .24
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23

R1a Haplotype #19

Four of the top five European match frequencies fall in Sweden and Norway - principally Norway. This haplotype

almost certainly came to Britain with Norse Vikings. Common to most R1a, there are also matches in South Asian

and Eastern European samples. Most of the Eastern European samples are circum-Baltic or Ukrainian, so a Viking

origin is just as likely among these matches as a Slavic one. Interestingly, there are also a few matches in Goth

territory, such as Macedonia and Spain.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 31 25 11 11 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Lousiana [European-American] 3.23
Gotland, Sweden 2.44
Northern Norway 2.22
Central Norway 2.08
England-Wales [Indo-Pakistani] 1.89
Eastern Norway 1.18
Birmingham, England 1.03
Macedonia .67
Madrid, Spain .66
Vilnius, Lithuania .64
Bydgoszcz, Poland .59
Bialystok, Poland .55
Kiev, Ukraine .55
Lombardy, Italy .55
Budapest, Hungary .52
Sweden .49
Berlin, Brandenburg .28
Finland .25
Leipzig, Saxony .15

R1a Haplotype #20

This haplotype is extremely widespread, and its match pattern includes the "usual suspects" for R1a populations -

Scandinavians, Balts, Slavs, Southern and Central Asians. Top fifteen match frequencies include two samples of

North Indian Jats, one sample from the Caucasus, one each from Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, Slovenia and

the Ukraine, two from Greece, one from Sweden and two from Norway.

The rule of thumb for R1a found in North Britain is to assume a Norse Viking origin. However, it is interesting to

note that, of the top five match frequencies, two may fall among samples that may ultimately be of Circassian or Scythian

origin - the Abkhazians and the Jats - and one each is from Russia and Greece, where Scythians, Sarmatians and other

steppe nomads had a presence for centuries.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 13 30 25 11 11 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Caucasus [Abkhazian] 8.33
Panjab, India [Jat Sikhs] 7.41
Moscow, Russia 7.05
Chios, Greece 6.25
Central Norway 4.17
Vilnius, Lithuania 3.82
Oslo, Norway 3.33
Manchuria, China 3.13
Crete, Greece 25.00
Ljubljana, Slovenia 2.48
Bialystok, Poland [Old Believers] 2.33
Varmland, Sweden 2.33
Tartu, Estonia 2.26
Panjab, India [Jat Haryana] 2.20
Kiev, Ukraine 2.19
Wladiwostok, Russia [European] 2.03
Macedonia 2.01
England-Wales [Indo-Pakistani] 1.89
Wroclaw, Poland 1.65
London, England [Indo-Pakistani] 1.60
Munich, Bavaria 1.59
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] 1.59
Western Norway 1.56
Graz, Austria 1.54
Caucasus [Georgian] 1.30
Bialystok, Poland [Byelorussians] 1.27
Turkey 1.27
Bulgaria [Romani] 1.23
Bialystok, Poland 1.10
Miercurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 1.10
Budapest, Hungary 1.03
Rostock, Mecklenburg .98
Krakow, Poland .93
Paris, France .92
Gdansk, Poland .88
Warsaw, Poland .83
Zaragoza, Spain .83
Kurds, Iraq .79
Leipzig, Saxony .76
Lublin, Poland .75
Riga, Latvia .69
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
New York City [European-American] .65
Bydgoszcz, Poland .59
Finland .50
Sweden .49
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Luzon, Phillipines .47
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .46
Latium, Italy .45
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Malaysia [Indian] .34
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

R1a Haplotype #21

This haplotype is widespread, but is clearly most common in Eastern Europe, particularly Russia and Poland.

The conventional interpretation is to attribute any R1a haplotype found in a person of British descent to the Norse

Vikings, but this geographical match pattern - at least in theory - could support an ancestry among the Alans or

the Sarmatians.

However, far more Danes and Norwegians are likely to have settled in Britain than Alans or

Sarmatians, so our final vote must go to the Scandinavians.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 13 29 25 11 11 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Caucasus [Abkhazian] 8.33
Bialystok, Poland [Old Believers] 3.10
Friesland, Netherlands 2.27
Riga, Latvia 2.07
Wladiwostok, Russia [European] 2.02
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Moscow, Russia 1.18
Bialystok, Poland 1.10
Miercurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 1.10
Kiev, Ukraine 1.09
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Athens, Greece .99
Sweden .99
Gdansk, Poland .92
Bulgaria .82
Tartu, Estonia .75
Bydgoszcz, Poland .60
Krakow, Poland .48
Wroclaw, Poland .45
Cologne, Westphalia .43
Warsaw, Poland .42
Lublin, Poland .41
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
Chemnitz, Saxony .12
Leipzig, Saxony .12

R1a Haplotype #22

The match pattern for this haplotype falls exclusively in Russia, Poland and Germany, and appears to have a Baltic focus.

It most likely came to Britain with the Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 13 29 25 10 11 14 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Novgorod, Russia 2.00
Bialystok, Poland [Byelorussians] 1.27
Bialystok, Poland [Old Believers] .78
Muenster, Germany .51
Krakow, Poland .48
Warsaw, Poland .42
Munich, Germany .36
Bydgoszcz, Poland .24
Gdansk, Poland .18

R1a Haplotype #23

This haplotype is rare, but three of the four matches fall in Poland and Northeast Germany. The focus is once again

on the Baltic. This haplotype also most likely came to Britain with the Vikings. It would be tempting to suggest that

the Turkish match is a legacy of the Varangian Guard, but it is more likely due to the Indo-Iranian ancestry of the

Kurds, who compose a large portion of the Turkish population.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 30 25 11 11 13 11 13

Geographical Locale

%
Bialystok, Poland [Old Believers] .78
Turkey .63
Berlin, Germany .18
Chemnitz, Germany .12

R1a Haplotype #24

The haplotype below exhibits its highest match frequencies in Norway and Northeastern Europe, with a strong focus

on the Baltic region (e.g., Russia, Latvia, Poland, Northeast Germany). It most likely came to Britain with the Norse Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 30 25 10 11 13 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Oslo, Norway 3.03
Novgorod, Russia 2.00
Szczecin, Poland .95
Riga, Latvia .69
Dusseldorf, Germany .67
New York City [European-American] .65
Bydgoszcz, Poland .49
Magdeburg, Germany .35
Chemnitz, Germany .12

R1a Haplotype #25

The haplotype below exhibits a large number of hits in parts of Saxony (e.g., Dresden, Chemnitz, Magdeburg, Leipzig

and Hamburg), as well as some in Poland, and one each in France and England. The high German match frequencies

are unusual for an R1a haplotype, and suggest an Anglo-Danish origin.

We would do well to remember that the Angles, and the Jutes in particular, originated from what is now known as

Denmark. Eastern Germanic tribes like the Suevi mixed with the Saxons. Roman auxiliaries from all over Germany

also served in Britain, and may have included members of such Baltic tribes as the Goths, the Heruls and the Rugians.

It is unrealistic to insist that all R1a in pre-Norman Britain would have been of exclusively Norwegian origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 13 29 26 10 11 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Dresden, Germany 2.33
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Suwalki, Poland 1.22
Chemnitz, Germany 1.10
Warsaw, Poland .83
Lyon, France .80
Central Bohemia, Czechia .79
Hamburg, Germany .73
Leipzig, Germany .73
Greifswald, Germany .62
Wroclaw, Poland .45
London, England .35
Magdeburg, Germany .35
Bydgoszcz, Poland .35
Freiburg, Germany .23
Gdansk, Poland .18

R1a Haplotype #26

Most of the matches for the haplotype below fall among Pakistani or Indian populations, with some additional hits

in the Baltic region. The second highest frequency falls in Latvia. Since Scandinavian R1a typically scores high match

frequencies among South Asians, this haplotype most likely came to Britain with the Norse Vikings.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 - 24 10 11 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
London, England [Indo-Pakistani] 1.60
Riga, Latvia 1.38
Panjab, India [Jat Haryana] 1.10
Singapore [Indian] 1.10
Reunion Island [Malbar] .97
Panjab, India [Jat Sikhs] .93
Southern India .82
Malaysia [Indian] .63
Wroclaw, Poland .45
Leipzig, Germany .25
Bhutan .12
Chemnitz. Germany .12

R1a Haplotype #27

The highest match frequency in the old world falls in Sweden, followed by additional matches in Croatia, the

Czech Republic, and Indo-Pakistani samples. This haplotype is most likely of Norse Viking origin, but could

conceivably have come to Britain with Gothic or Sarmatian troops.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 - 25 10 11 13 11 15

Geographical Locale

%
Oregon, USA [European] 2.86
Gotland, Sweden 2.44
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Central Bohemia, Czechia .40
London, England [Indo-Pakistani] .40
Malaysia [Indian] .32

R1a Haplotype #28

This R1a variant is found in Sweden and England exclusively, which unambiguously indicates a Norse Viking

or Danish origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 12 30 25 10 11 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Blekinge, Sweden 2.48
London, England .35
Sweden .25

R1a Haplotype #29

The match pattern for the haplotype below exhibits its highest frequencies in Eastern Europe, and could easily

be of Slavic origin. However, the preponderance of matches fall in areas of Eastern Europe that front the Baltic,

areas once controlled by the Varangian "Rus", and among Indo-Pakistani samples, whose association with

Scandinavian R1a is well-known. Hence, we suspect this haplotype probably came to Britain with the Vikings.

Nevertheless, the high frequencies in the Balkans could indicate an Indo-Iranian origin - e.g., among the Alans

and Sarmatians. The Indo-Iranians settled in many of the Northern Slavic nations as well - and in Northern

India. The bottom line is that this R1a haplotype isn't necessarily of Viking origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 30 25 10 11 13 11 14

Geographical Locale

%
Macedonia, Greece 3.57
Moscow, Russia 1.18
Corund, Romania [Szekely] 1.02
England-Wales [Indo-Pakistani] .94
Bialystok, Poland [Old Believers] .78
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
New York City [European-American] .65
Singapore [Indian] .55
Muenster, Germany .51
Kiev, Ukraine .41
London, England [Indo-Pakistani] .40
Gdansk, Poland .18
Leipzig, Germany .12