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Haplogroups R and R1

These haplogroups are very rare.

Haplogroup R - the undifferentiated "R", from which more common haplogroups such as R1b and R1a may descend

- probably originated in Central Asia. It now appears mostly in Southern Asia, particularly in India and Pakistan.

R Haplotype #1

This partial haplotype is extremely common in two Pakistani samples - particularly the

Parsi sample. The Parsi are a minority group in Pakistan of predominantly Indo-Iranian

descent. Any person of Scottish Borders ancestry who has such high matches with

an Indo-Iranian population group may well be descended from the Sarmatian troops

who served along Hadrian's Wall, or from the Alans who settled in Brittany and later

came to England with William The Conqueror.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 - 23 10 10 14 - -

Geographical Locale

Pakistan [Parsi] 17.78
Pakistan [Makrani Baloch] 8.00
Indiana [European-American] 5.88
Panjab, India 2.78
Djarkarta, Indonesia 2.44
New York City [African-American] .67
New York City [European-American] .65
London, England [Asian] .38
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

R1 Haplotype #1

By far the highest frequency for the haplotype below falls among the Hazara, a minority in Pakistan of mixed Mongol and

Indo-Iranian origin. Those matches are probably all legitimate R1 haplotypes. Although many of the other matches displayed

are probably the result of convergence with R1b haplotypes, some of them may also belong to R1.

R1 haplotypes undoubtedly entered Europe with Indo-Iranian nomads such as the Sarmatians and the Alans, who were

pushed westward from their Asian homelands by the invasion of the Huns.  The Avars and the Huns themselves may

also have brought R1 into Europe. The Alans, Sarmatians and Huns mixed extensively with the Goths and other "barbarian"

groups, and many of the matches in Poland, East Germany, Austria, Northern Italy and Iberia could reflect the spread of

these amalgamated peoples. The matches in Birmingham, Ireland and London may be the descendants of Sarmatian troops

in Northern Britain, or of Normans of Alanic descent.

We must emphasize once again, however, that many of these matches may simply be unrelated R1b haplotypes.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 - - 23 11 13 14 - -

Geographical Locale

Pakistan [Hazara] 39.13
Liguria, Western Italy 2.47
Northern Spain [Basque] 2.38
Friesland, Northern Netherlands 2.27
Birmingham, England 2.06
Limburg, Southern Netherlands 2.00
Cantabria, Northern Spain 1.98
Vienna, Austria 1.52
Dresden, Saxony 1.47
Ireland 1.32
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Asturias, Spain 1.09
Leiden, Netherlands 1.04
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .92
Southern Portugal .89
Hamburg, Northern Germany .88
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] .79
Tartu, Estonia .75
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .67
Bialystok, Poland .55
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .49
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Leipzig, Saxony .45
Warsaw, Central Poland .42
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
London, England .35
London, England [Afro-Caribbean] .34
Argentina [European] .33
Northern Portugal .32
Finland .25
Sweden .25
Gdansk, Poland .18
Chemnitz, Saxony .12