Haplogroups R and R1
These haplogroups are very rare.
Haplogroup R - the undifferentiated "R", from which more common haplogroups such as R1b and R1a may descend
- probably originated in Central Asia. It now appears mostly in Southern Asia, particularly in India and Pakistan.
R Haplotype #1
This partial haplotype is extremely common in two Pakistani samples - particularly the
Parsi sample. The Parsi are a minority group in Pakistan of predominantly Indo-Iranian
descent. Any person of Scottish Borders ancestry who has such high matches with
an Indo-Iranian population group may well be descended from the Sarmatian troops
who served along Hadrian's Wall, or from the Alans who settled in Brittany and later
came to England with William The Conqueror.
|Pakistan [Makrani Baloch]||8.00|
|New York City [African-American]||.67|
|New York City [European-American]||.65|
|London, England [Asian]||.38|
R1 Haplotype #1
By far the highest frequency for the haplotype below falls among the Hazara, a minority in Pakistan of mixed Mongol and
Indo-Iranian origin. Those matches are probably all legitimate R1 haplotypes. Although many of the other matches displayed
are probably the result of convergence with R1b haplotypes, some of them may also belong to R1.
R1 haplotypes undoubtedly entered Europe with Indo-Iranian nomads such as the Sarmatians and the Alans, who were
pushed westward from their Asian homelands by the invasion of the Huns. The Avars and the Huns themselves may
also have brought R1 into Europe. The Alans, Sarmatians and Huns mixed extensively with the Goths and other "barbarian"
groups, and many of the matches in Poland, East Germany, Austria, Northern Italy and Iberia could reflect the spread of
these amalgamated peoples. The matches in Birmingham, Ireland and London may be the descendants of Sarmatian troops
in Northern Britain, or of Normans of Alanic descent.
We must emphasize once again, however, that many of these matches may simply be unrelated R1b haplotypes.
|Liguria, Western Italy||2.47|
|Northern Spain [Basque]||2.38|
|Friesland, Northern Netherlands||2.27|
|Limburg, Southern Netherlands||2.00|
|Cantabria, Northern Spain||1.98|
|Cape Town, South Africa [European]||1.00|
|Hamburg, Northern Germany||.88|
|Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European]||.79|
|Sao Paulo, Brazil [European]||.67|
|Lombardy, Northern Italy||.55|
|Antioquia, Colombia [European]||.49|
|Warsaw, Central Poland||.42|
|London, England [Afro-Caribbean]||.34|