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Haplogroup I2b

Scientists believe that haplogroup I originated with the Gravettian culture of Paleolithic Europe.

A newly identified subclade, I2b, which has occasionally been mistaken for a variant of haplogroup G

in previous studies, occurs in parts of Northern Ireland and Western Scotland, as well as in the Northern

Germanic parts of Europe.

Like I1, I2b is believed to have originated during the Paleolithic, and to have taken refuge

from the Ice Age in Iberia. Afterwards, it spread into other portions of Europe,

especially The Low Countries, Germany and, possibly, the British Isles.

Many of the Celts who colonized the British Isles from continental Europe may have

belonged to I2b. I2b may even have come to the British Isles far earlier.

The Caledonians, a Pictish tribe that was defeated by Agricola at the battle of

Mons Graupius, were described as Germanic in appearance. Other tribes were

described as dark and Iberian. This anecdotal evidence of an ethnic difference

among the aborigines of Britain does suggest a mixture of haplogroups in their ancestry.

It also supports the coexistence of both "Iberian" R1b and "Germanic" I2b on British

soil prior to either Roman or Anglo-Saxon colonization.

(For more information on the various subclades of haplogroup I, read this excellent study.)

I2b Haplotype #1

The high frequencies in Ireland and the American heartland suggest a

Anglo-Saxon or Anglo-Celtic signature.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 13 29 24 10 12 15 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Maryland [European-American] 3.13
Oregon [European-American] 2.86
Southern Ireland 1.87
Albania .99
Bulgaria .82
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] .67
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
London, England .40
Munich, Bavaria .39
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .24
Leipzig, Saxony .15

I2b Haplotype #2

This one is hard to interpret. The high frequencies in Switzerland and Ireland

suggest an Celtic signature.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 30 23 10 12 14 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Bern, Switzerland 1.09
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Southern Ireland .93
Wroclaw, Western Poland .83
Sweden .74
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] .67
Budapest, Hungary .51
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Tuscany, Central Italy .46

I2b Haplotype #3

This haplotype may be Norse, Norman, Anglo-Saxon or even Flemish.

The hits are simply too far flung to suggest anything definitive.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 30 23 10 12 15 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Southern Norway 4.00
Florida [African-American] 2.08
Netherlands 1.15
Athens, Greece 1.01
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .65
Northern Portugal .55
Warsaw, Central Poland .42
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

I2b Haplotype #4

The origin of this one is anybody's guess. The presence of both Brazil

(implying Portuguese roots) and the Caucasus (implying West Asian nomads)

could indicate a Gothic signature, but the information is really way too scanty.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 30 24 10 12 14 - -

Geographical Locale

%
North Caucasus [Kabardinian] 1.61
Vietnam .48
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .22

I2b Haplotype #5

This haplotype appears Southern European in origin.

It may have entered Britain with the Romans - or,

possibly, with Sephardic Jewish merchants in the

wake of the Norman conquest.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 30 23 10 12 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Sicily, Southern Italy 1.01
Bogota, Colombia .68
Latium, Central Italy .45
Munich, Bavaria .39

I2b Haplotype #6

The highest frequencies are in Sweden and Russia, followed by Switzerland,

the Netherlands, the Rhineland, Belgium and - finally - Northern Germany.

This haplotype may have an origin among the Norse, the Normans, the Flemish

or the Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 32 23 10 12 15 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.13
Maryland [African-American] 1.38
Moscow, Western Russia 1.18
Bern, Switzerland 1.09
Leiden, Western Netherlands 1.04
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Brussels, Belgium .80
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Berlin, Brandenburg .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

I2b Haplotype #7

This haplotype could have entered Britain with either the Vikings or the

Anglo-Saxons. Groningen saw many Viking raids, the Swedes at one time

controlled Gdansk, and the numbers favor a Swedish origin. Nonetheless,

Groningen is also Frisian territory and Saxony is, well, "Saxony".

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 33 23 10 12 14 -3 -

Geographical Locale

%
Vasterbotten, Sweden 4.88
Groningen, Northern Netherlands 2.08
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15

I2b Haplotype #8

This is a rare one. The single match in Slovenia suggests a Gothic or Germanic

origin. This haplotype may have entered Europe with Roman troops.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 29 23 11 12 15 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Ljubljana, Slovenia .82

I2b Haplotype #9

This is also a rare one. There is scarcely enough info to say anything definitive.

The single hit in Gdansk could suggest an origin in either Scandinavia or Saxony.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
17 13 29 24 11 12 14 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18

I2b Haplotype #10

The appearance of Ireland and Portugal among the higher frequencies

is more typical of an R1b haplotype. This is suggestive of a Celtic origin.

Some of the other matches suggest that an alternate origin in

the Balkans or Western Germany.

This haplotype, if not Celtic, may have spread to Iberia with the Suevi or

the Visigoths - and to Ireland with the descendants of the Normans

or the Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 13 - 24 10 12 15 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Maryland [European-American] 3.13
Oregon [European-American] 2.86
Ireland 1.87
Central Portugal 1.08
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 1.00
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Albania .99
Bulgaria .82
Tartu, Estonia .75
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Northern Portugal .55
London, England .40
Munich, Bavaria .39
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Leipzig, Saxony .15