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Haplogroup I2a

The undifferentiated subclade of Haplogroup I2a is centered in the Balkans,

where its founders may have taken refuge from the Ice Age. After the Ice Age, I2a spread into

Eastern Europe. Unlike subclade I1, it is not commonly found in Scandinavia and Western Europe.

Where it is found in Britain at all, it may reflect the genetic influence of Roman troops and settlers,

many of whom came from the Balkans or other parts of southeastern Europe.

Another subclade, formerly known as I2b2, may have originated in Sardinia and spread into Iberia

and France, after migrating to the British Isles during the upper Paleolithic. A recent study has indicated

that this subclade, although far more common in Sardinia than anywhere else, also occurs among the Basques,

and in Ireland at a rate of about 2.6 percent. Since this subclade is found among the Basques and the Irish,

one may assume that it was part of the genetic make-up of the aboriginal population of Western

Europe - a kind of junior partner to the much more widely prevalent AMH.

I2a Haplotype #1

This haplotype may reflect the movement of the Germanic tribes -

particularly the Goths - during the period of The Great Migrations.

The Goths were active around the Black Sea, and controlled portions

of Eastern Spain and Northern Italy.

This haplotype may have entered Britain with troops in the Roman army.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 30 23 10 11 12 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Pakistan [Kalash] 4.55
Turkey 1.27
Liguria, Western Italy 1.23
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Lombardy, Northern Italy .55
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Cheonan, South Korea .32
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

I2a Haplotype #2

This haplotype exhibits its highest European frequencies in Poland, Macedonia

and Italy. There are also hits in Sweden and Saxony.

This haplotype may have come to Britain with Gothic or Herulian troops, or with

Normans of Visigothic descent. It may also have arrived with the Anglo-Saxons

or the Vikings, but the match pattern definitely favors a Gothic origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 30 23 10 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [African-American] 2.70
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Lublin, Eastern Poland .75
Macedonia .67
New York City [European-American] .65
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Latium, Central Italy .45
Sweden .25
Leipzig, Saxony .15

I2a Haplotype #3

The hits in Asia may reflect either the phenomenon of haplotype "convergence",

or the incorporation of Goths into a nomadic population that moved eastward

into Asia from the Ukraine or the Caucasus. The Aorsi, an Indo-Iranian tribe

related to the Alans and Sarmatians, were known to the Chinese and very likely

made incursions in the Far East.

The two matches in Germany suggest that this haplotype most likely came to Britain with

the Anglo-Saxons.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 30 24 10 11 13 12/13 -

Geographical Locale

%
Taraz, Kazakhstan .57
Greifswald, Germany .45
Halle, Germany .43
Cheonan, South Korea .32

I2a Haplotype #4

This haplotype is difficult to assess because it is close to an R1a signature,

and many of the matches here may be the result of convergence. The hits in

Pakistan and Norway are particularly suspect, not just because the locales

are typically R1a, but because the DYS385a value for these is 11 - also

typically R1a. Paradoxically, the DYS385a value of 13, which is more

typical of an I haplotype, was found only among the Far East Asian hits.

This haplotype may represent the easternmost reach of Gothic

and Indo-Iranian migration, and may have reached Britain with Roman

conscripts, or as an admixture among the Anglo-Saxons.

However, if the Norwegian hits are not the result of convergence, then

this haplotype most likely entered Britain with the Vikings.

(Please note that a partial haplotype was used in this search only because

the "Border Reiver" haplotype that bore these markers scored no matches

in the YSTR database when the DYS385a,b values were included.)

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 14 30 24 11 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Southern Norway 4.00
Western Norway 1.56
Pakistan [Pathan] 1.08
Ibaraki/Tokushima/Yamaguchi, Japan .96
Pakistan [Sindhi] .82
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Vietnam .48

I2a Haplotype #5

This is another haplotype with an ambiguous origin. An Anglo-Saxon

origin is often "the rule of thumb" for I haplotypes, but this has the

earmarks of a Gothic signature. Although it most likely came to Britain

with the Anglo-Saxons, it might also have arrived with Roman troops

of Germanic descent.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 14 32 23 10 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Maryland [European-American] 1.56
Graz, Austria 1.54
Pakistan [Sindhi] .82
East Timor .72
New York City [European-American] .65
Tyrol, Austria .44
Gdansk, Poland .18

I2a Haplotype #6

This is a rare haplotype, but most of the hits are in Northern and Western Germany.

An Anglo-Saxon origin is most likely.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
17 13 29 23 11 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Luzon, Phillipines .47

I2a Haplotype #7

The haplotype below is rare, but unambiguously Germanic.

An Anglo-Saxon origin is most likely.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 14 30 23 11 11 13 12 -

Geographical Locale

%
Tyrol, Austria .44
Berlin, Brandenburg .18
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

I2a Haplotype #8

The haplotype below is also rare, but more ambiguous. The relatively high match rate

in India is probably due to convergence with "H" haplotypes, and the match in Japan is also

most likely due to convergence.

The relevant matches are those in Zaragoza and Northern Italy. If this haplotype is, in fact,

undifferentiated I2a, it may have originated in the Balkans and was brought west by the Goths or

Roman colonization.

This haplotype may have come to Britain with Roman troops or settlers, or with Normans

of Visigothic descent.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 14 31 23 10 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Panjab, India 1.85
Ibaraki/Tokushima/Yamaguchi, Japan .96
Marche, Italy .93
Zaragoza, Aragon .83

I2a Haplotype #9

The match pattern for this haplotype falls in the U.S. heartland and in Ireland.

It may be indigenous to the British Isles, or at least Northern Europe.

Both Whit Athey's Haplotype Predictor and Ysearch suggested it was I2a,

but it has I1 features and may belong to that group instead.

Or, possibly, it is an example of I2a2, which appears to

have Iberian-Paleolithic origins.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 13 29 23 10 11 13 12 -

Geographical Locale

%
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Oregon [European-American] 2.85
Ireland .66

I2a Haplotype #10

The data for this haplotype is equally scanty, but the hit

in Spain is consistent with I2a2 as well.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
16 12 29 23 10 11 13 12 -

Geographical Locale

%
Caceres, Spain 1.10
New York City [African-American] .67

I2a Haplotype #11

The match pattern below, which is concentrated in Eastern Europe, is

typical of an I2a signature.

It may have come to Britain with Roman troops from Thrace, Pannonia

or territory controlled by Goths and Sarmatians.

It might also have come to Scotland with the Hungarian servants and courtiers

of Margaret Atheling when she married Malcolm Canmore in the 11th century.

Lowland noble families of reputedly Hungarian descent include the

Crichtons, Borthwicks and Drummonds.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
16 13 32 24 11 11 13 15 15

Geographical Locale

%
Eastern Hungary [Roma] 1.41
Budapest, Hungary .52
Kiev, Ukraine .55

I2a Haplotype #12

The haplotype below has a fairly typical I2a match pattern, with the highest frequencies

concentrated in Southeastern Europe. It most likely came to Britain with Roman troops or

settlers (e.g., Dacians, Thracians, Goths, possibly Sarmatians).

However, there are several matches in the Baltic region, so a Norse connection is possible.

That is especially germane, considering that this match table was prepared for a "Border

Reiver" surname entry with a background in the Orkneys.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 13 31 24 11 11 13 14 15

Geographical Locale

%
Macedonia, Greece 3.57
Bialystok, Poland [Byelorussians] 1.91
Bulgaria 1.64
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Albania .99
Vilnius, Lithuania .63
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Gdansk, Poland .36
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

I2a Haplotype #13

The haplotype below is very rare, but the single match in Greenland suggests a Danish, or at least some kind of

Northern Germanic, origin. However, similar haplotypes yield matches in Asiatic matches that are probably the result of

convergence, so possibly this Inuit match may be the result of convergence as well, and not really Y-line "Danish" after all.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 13 29 24 11 11 13 12 16

Geographical Locale

%
Greenland [Inuit] 1.43

I2a Haplotype #14

This haplotype has two matches of Iberian origin. Although the match in Saxony would be consistent with

the Eastern European focus of I2a, we should consider the possibility that this haplotype might actually be

Iberian I2a2. If so, it may have come to Britain with prehistoric Iberian migrants.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
16 14 30 23 10 11 13 12 -

Geographical Locale

%
Southern Portugal .89
New York City [Hispanic-American] .67
Leipzig, Saxony .15

I2a Haplotype #15

This haplotype has only two matches, both of which fall in the vicinity of the Rhine basin. It may be of Central European

origin, and could have come to Britain with the Romans, the Flemish, the Anglo-Saxons or even the continental European

Celts. It is unlikely to be of native British origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 12 29 23 11 11 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .22

I2a Haplotype #16

This haplotype has only match. It is difficult to say what group brought this haplotype to Britain, other than that it

is most likely not of native British origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 13 28 24 10 11 13 12 12

Geographical Locale

%
Caceres, Spain 1.09

I2a Haplotype #17

The haplotype below is confined to Eastern Europe, with its highest match frequencies in Bulgaria, Poland

and Slovenia. It does not appear Norse or Anglo-Saxon in origin, but could have come to Britain with the Dacian

and Thracian troops who resided at Birdoswald Fort along Hadrian's Wall from the 3rd century to the end of

Roman rule - and possibly beyond.

The Dacian empire in its heyday ranged across Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and the Ukraine, while Thrace shared a

border with Macedonia and occupied most of Bulgaria.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
16 13 31 24 11 11 13 14 16

Geographical Locale

%
Bulgaria [Romani] 1.23
Szczecin, Poland .95
Ljubljana, Slovenia .56
Bialystok, Poland .55
Budapest, Hungary .52
Wroclaw, Poland .45
Gdansk, Poland .37
Bydgoszcz, Poland .24
Chemnitz, Germany .12

I2a Haplotype #18

The haplotype below is very rare, with only a couple of low frequency matches in Germany. Since Germany is very

overrepresented in YHRD, matches in Germany do not necessarily indicate a Germanic origin. However, it may be safe

to assume that this haplotype originated somewhere in Central Europe and came to Britain with invaders of some sort,

whether Anglo-Saxon or Roman.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
16 12 28 25 10 11 13 13 16/17

Geographical Locale

%
Muenster, Germany .51
Chemnitz, Germany .25

I2a Haplotype #19

The haplotype below resembles an R1a haplotype because of the low DYS385a value of 12. Hence, the matches

in Poland may be the result of convergence with an R1a haplotype, rather than an accurate indication of where this

I2a haplotype can be found. An Eastern European origin, however, would be consistent with the known range of

this sub-clade.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 13 31 25 10 11 13 12 16

Geographical Locale

%
Bialystok, Poland [Byelorussians] 1.27
Suwalki, Poland 1.22
Bialystok, Poland .55

I2a Haplotype #20

The matches of the haplotype below fall exclusively in the Rhineland, which could suggest an origin among

either the Flemish, the Saxons or the Celts.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
15 12 29 23 11 11 13 12 14

Geographical Locale

%
Strasbourg, France 1.01
Stuttgart, Germany .22

I2a Haplotype #21

The only exact match falls in Sardinia, which strongly suggests a Mediterranean origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
17 13 28 23 10 11 14 12 13

Geographical Locale

%
Sardinia 1.0

I2a Haplotype #22

The table below is restricted to European matches only. These suggest overwhelmingly that this haplotype is of Mediterranean origin.

In fact, the top two matches are in Sardinia, and the third highest match occurred in a region with a large concentration of Basques - further

suggesting that this haplotype belongs to the I2a subclade I2a2, which is associated with isolated outlier populations that may predate

Indo-European colonization.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385a
17 13 28 23 10 11 13 12 12

Geographical Locale

%
Sardinia, Italy [Sardinian] 10.70
Northern Sardinia, Italy [Italian] 3.00
Pyrenees, Spain [Spanish] 1.49
Caceres, Spain [Spanish] 1.10
Cantabria, Spain [Spanish] .99
Belgium [Flemish] .88
Zaragoza, Spain [Spanish] .83
Brussels, Belgium [Belgian] .80
Madrid, Spain [Spanish] .66
Lombardy, Italy [Italian] .55
Barcelona, Spain [Spanish] .45
Central Portugal [Portuguese] .38
Northern Portugal [Portuguese] .35
Andalucia/Extremadura, Spain [Spanish] .66