Scientists believe that haplogroup I originated with the Gravettian culture of Paleolithic Europe. One subclade,
known as I1, is common among Icelandic populations, and is generally considered to indicate Scandinavian or
Anglo-Saxon ancestry when it is found in a person of British descent.
I1 is currently believed to have originated during the Paleolithic, and to have taken refuge from the
Ice Age in Iberia. Afterwards, it spread northeast into other portions of Europe, such as The Low Countries,
Germany and Scandinavia.
(For more information about Haplogroup I and its various subclades, read this excellent study.)
There are a fair number of matches with samples of African descent, but these
are most likely examples of convergence. A high frequency match in Denmark,
plus several other matches in Northern and Western Germany suggest that this
haplotype came to Britain with the Anglo-Saxons or the Danes.
|New York City [European-American]||1.29|
|London, England [Afro-Caribbean]||1.19|
I1 Haplotype #28
Once again, there is convergence with some African samples, but most of the other
matches fall in Sweden, Northern and Western Germany, Catalonia (which was controlled
by the Goths for centuries), and places like Virginia and Cape Town, where many
persons of Anglo-Saxon or Germanic descent are known to have settled.
This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the Anglo-Saxons or the Danes.
|Cape Town, South Africa [European]||1.00|
|Hamburg, Northern Germany||.88|
|Choco, Colombia [African]||.75|
|Antioquia, Colombia [European]||.49|
I1 Haplotype #29
Four of the five top frequencies among European samples fall in Sweden, Denmark and
Finland. Among the next five frequencies, two fall in The Netherlands, one in Estonia (which
is genetically close to Finland), and one occurs in a portion of Italy once controlled by the
Normans. This haplotype most likely came to Britain with the Vikings (Danish or otherwise),
the Normans or the Anglo-Saxons - with the numbers strongly favoring the Vikings.
|Transylvania, Romania [Szekely]||2.04|
|Gdansk, Northern Poland||.18|
I1 Haplotype #30
This haplotype is very rare. As such, it is difficult to interpret. The presence
of both Ireland and Estonia suggest that the haplotype may have come to
Britain with Hiberno-Norse refugees from Dublin. The Hiberno-Norse
were the descendants of Vikings and their Gaelic allies. For centuries, they
dominated the Irish Sea and settled in considerable numbers in the relatively
depopulated hinterlands of Galloway and Cumbria.