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Haplogroup G (and G2)

Haplogroup G, like haplogroups E3b and J2, is thought to have originated in the Middle East, and to have

spread into Europe during the Neolithic. Beyond that, it is somewhat mysterious. According to the Capelli study,

it also occurs in about 2% of the male population in Oban and Stonehaven, which are in Argyll and

Aberdeenshire respectively, and in 4% of the men in Llanidloes in eastern Wales.

One study purported to find haplogroup G at high proportions among the native Gaelic clans of Ulster. These

results suggested that haplogroup G was associated with Q-Celtic speakers who migrated to Ireland and

Britain from continental Europe.

However, the authors of the study later recanted their conclusions, claiming that what they believed was

G was, in fact, a subclade of haplogroup I called I1c. Many G and I haplotypes resemble one another,

and cannot be distinguished without the aid of a SNP test. Hence, many of the matches in Nordic

countries posted in the table below are probably the result of convergence with I haplotypes.

One should also note that G haplotypes with low DYS390 values, such as 21 or 22, can sometimes

be mistaken for E3a haplotypes, which are predominantly African.

Their Neolithic origin suggests that the carriers of the G haplogroup were not among the original inhabitants of the

British Isles. Moreover, the rarity of the haplogroup makes it unlikely that its carriers arrived in great numbers.

Haplogroup G may yet be the genetic remnant of the European Celts who brought the Celtic languages into Britain.

Between 1 and 2 percent of the Border Reiver sample exhibit haplogroup G, which is consistent with the proportion

found in Penrith (Cumbria) and in Morpeth (Northumbria).

A far more likely source of haplogroup G is the multi-ethnic settlement of Roman Britain. Some areas with relatively

high levels of G in Capelli's study, such as those in northern England and eastern Wales, lie where there are comparably

high levels of haplogroups E3b or J/J2. All three haplogroups may have either a Middle Eastern or a Central Asian

origin. E3b and J/J2 are also widespread on both sides of the Mediterranean basin, while G is most common in the

Caucasus - especially Georgia.

Troops from all these areas were stationed at Hadrian's Wall and along the Welsh March.

A recent paper by I. Nasidze et al, entitled "Genetic Evidence Concerning The Origins of North and

South Ossetians", has identified of levels of G in Northern Ossetia ranging from 21 to 75 percent,

depending on the region. Since the Ossetians are considered to be the descendants of the Alans, the

G haplogroup may be construed as a possible marker of Alanic or Sarmatian ancestry when it is

found among Border Reiver descendants. The G haplotype data set of the Nasidze paper, in fact,

contains many signatures similar to the haplotypes displayed here.

Further discussion of the history of haplogroup G, sample G haplotypes and other G-related issues

may be found at this link. Another discussion focusing specifically on the distribution of G and G2

through lands controlled or settled by Sarmatians may be found at this link.

G Haplotype #1

The haplotype below is widespread. Nonetheless, it is interesting that the highest frequency is among the Ossetians,

who are considered the descendants of the Alans and Sarmatians. The Alans accompanied the Visigoths and the Vandals

into Iberia and Gaul, settling in Brittany. Centuries later, some of their descendants joined the Normans in the invasion

of England. The Sarmatians served in the Roman Army in Lancashire and along Hadrian's Wall.

This haplotype also occurs repeatedly in Norwegian, Dutch and Italian samples. This is a curious mix

that could feasibly suggest any number of ways the haplotype could have entered Britain - Roman, Anglo-Saxon,

Flemish or Scandinavian settlement. It is impossible to know for sure which.

Although "G" matches in Nordic countries may, in fact, be the result of convergence with "I"

haplotypes, a "Germanic" origin is not inconsistent with a "G" haplotype. We would do well to remember that

haplogroups G and I may have originated in neighboring areas, and spread through the same territory.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Digora, North Caucasus [Ossetian] 3.23
Oslo, Norway 3.03
Indiana [African-American] 2.70
Friesland, Northern Netherlands 2.27
Asturias, Northern Spain 2.22
Central Norway 2.08
Groningen, Northern Netherlands 2.08
Umbria, Central Italy 1.96
Connecticut [Hispanic-American] 1.92
Marche, Eastern Italy 1.85
Tyrol, Western Austria 1.75
Uppsala, Sweden 1.75
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Western Norway 1.56
Puglia, Southern Italy 1.43
Latium, Central Italy 1.35
Bern, Switzerland 1.09
Budapest, Hungary 1.02
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Romania .98
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Tuscany, Central Italy .92
Berlin, Brandenburg .91
Leipzig, Saxony .91
Veneto, Northern Italy .83
Warsaw, Central Poland .83
London, England .81
Choco, Colombia .75
Valencia, Eastern Spain .71
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .69
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Macedonia .67
New York City [European-American] .65
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .65
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland .59
Gdansk, Northern Poland .37
Madgeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Sweden .25
Chemnitz, Saxony .24

G Haplotype #2

This haplotype exhibits its highest frequency among Italian samples, and also appears in France, Iberia

and Armenia. All of these areas were part of the Roman Empire, suggesting that this haplotype could have

entered Britain through Roman settlement.

This basic haplotype also appeared in the Ossetian data set of the Nasidze paper, so a Sarmatian

or Alanic ancestry is also possible.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Virginia [African-American] 2.13
Bologna, Italy 1.96
Marche, Eastern Italy 1.85
Central Portugal 1.40
Liguria, Western Italy 1.23
Sicily, Southern Italy 1.01
South Caucasus [Armenian] 1.00
Paris, France .92
Tyrol, Western Austria .87
Veneto, Northern Italy .83
Zaragoza, Aragon .83
London, England .70
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Vilnius, Lithuania .64
Leipzig, Saxony .45
Munich, Bavaria .39
Finland .25
Sweden .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemberg .23
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .22
Berlin, Brandenburg .18
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18
Chemnitz, Saxony ,24

G Haplotype #3

This haplotype is not common. The type of "European" in the Buenos Aires sample is not specified,

and the only other match is in Poland. It may point to a distant ancestry in Eastern Europe.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Buenos Aires, Argentina [Europeans] .67
Warsaw, Central Poland .42

G Haplotype #4

This haplotype has matches in three known areas of Gothic and

Sarmatian settlement - Bulgaria, Austria, and Northern Italy - and

may have entered Britain with Roman troops.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Bulgaria 1.64
Tuscany, Italy .46
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .22
Tyrol, Austria ,44

G Haplotype #5

This haplotype occurs with by far the highest frequency among the Ossetians,

who are descendants of the Alans. The four next highest frequencies in

in the old world occur in France, Romania, London, Eastern Italy and Croatia.

Let us note the following:

1) Sarmatians resided in Romania and Hungary in Roman times, and many

Croatians believe that they are descended from the Sarmatians.

2) France and Eastern Italy were at one time overrun and controlled by

Visigoths, Alans, Huns and other nomadic tribes.

This is very possibly an Indo-Iranian signature that spread across Europe with

The Great Migrations of the Goths and their allies. It may have came to Britain with

Normans of Alanic descent, or with the Sarmatians who served along Hadrian's Wall.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Digora, Caucasus [Ossetians] 6.45
Lousiana [European-American] 3.23
Missouri [African-American] 1.79
Lyon, France 1.60
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Miercurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 1.10
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Marche, Eastern Italy .93
London, England .79
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23
Berlin, Brandenburg .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

G Haplotype #6

The haplotype is too rare to have an obvious place of origin. The fact that

two out of three matches fall in Italy indicate that the haplotype may have originated

in the eastern Mediterranean, and came to Italy - and eventually to Britain - by way

of the Roman Empire. It may also be Sephardic Jewish or Gothic in origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
16 12 - 22 11 11 14 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Bologna, Italy 1.96
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Latium, Italy .45

G Haplotype #7

The haplotype below is identical to a common "I" haplotype, and is only

placed here because it is associated with a Border Reiver haplotype that

was assigned to, or SNP-tested as, "G2".

Therefore, if it really is a "G2" haplotype, the likely "I" matches below should

be ignored. The high frequencies in Scandinavia, Germany and Poland are most

likely "I" matches.

The high frequencies in Greece, among the Bulgarian Turks and Hungarian gypsies -

and perhaps that in Portugal - are most likely "G" or "G2" matches.

If that is so, then this haplotype most likely came to Britain with Roman troops

or settlers - or with the Sephardic Jews of Eastern Mediterranean descent who

settled in Iberia, then finally came to England with the Normans or the Flemish.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Epirus, Greece 7.14
Thessaly, Greece 6.67
Eastern Norway 3.53
Blekinge, Sweden 2.38
Ostergotland/Jonkoping, Sweden 2.38
Northern Norway 2.22
Skaraborg, Sweden 2.12
Madeira, Portugal 2.04
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 2.00
Dusseldorf, Westphalia 2.00
Krakow, Poland 1.87
Uppsala, Sweden 1.75
Bulgaria [Turks] 1.64
Maryland [European-American] 1.56
Cologne, Westphalia 1.48
Rostock, Mecklenburg 1.48
Sweden 1.48
Eastern Hungary [Roma] 1.41
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt 1.41
Zagreb, Croatia 1.33
Ireland 1.32
Munich, Bavaria 1.19
Moscow, Russia 1.18
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg 1.15
Birmingham, England 1.03
Budapest, Hungary 1.03
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Athens, Greece .99
Romania .98
Greifswald, Pomerania .96
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Marche, Italy .93
Tyrol, Austria .87
Chemnitz, Saxony .85
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
Warsaw, Poland .83
Wroclaw, Western Poland .83
Lyon, France .80
Leipzig, Saxony .76
Finland .75
Valencia, Spain .71
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .65
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland .59
Kiev, Ukraine .55
Northern Portugal .55
Munster, Westphalia .51
Latium, Italy .45
Argentina [European] .33
Berlin, Brandenburg .18
Gdansk, Northern Poland .18

G Haplotype #8

The match pattern for the haplotype below most likely contains some examples of convergence with "I" haplotypes,

particularly among the Germanic samples. The haplotype for which this match table was prepared was apparently

SNP-tested as G2, so matches germane to that origin is what we should look for.

The highest frequency matches in the Old World fall in Ossetia, Georgia and Iran - all of which suggest an origin

among Indo-Iranian groups like the Sarmatians and the Alans. Additional matches in Romania, Poland and

Northern Italy also fall in areas where the Alans and Sarmatians were known to have settled for long periods

after they were pushed out of Asia by the Huns.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Cajun [European-American] 4.55
Maryland [Hispanic-American] 3.85
Digora, Caucasus [Ossetian] 3.23
Pennsylvania [European-American] 2.98
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Caucasus [Georgian] 2.60
Miercurea Ciuc, Romania [Szekely] 2.20
Isfahan, Iran 2.08
Lombardy, Italy 1.65
Maryland [European-American] 1.56
Rostock, Mecklenburg 1.48
Liguria, Italy 1.23
Suwalki, Poland 1.22
Lunca de Sus, Romania [Csango] 1.19
Dresden, Saxony 1.16
Bern, Switzerland 1.10
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Paris, France .92
Veneto, Italy .83
Hamburg, Northern Germany .73
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .69
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Bialystok, Poland [Byelorussians] .64
Budapest, Hungary .52
Reunion Island [Creole Blanc] .51
Chemnitz, Saxony .49
Latium, Italy .45
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .44
Halle, Saxony-Anhalt .43
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Sweden .25
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .23
Gdansk, Poland .18
Leipzig, Saxony .12

G Haplotype #9

The only hint of an Asiatic origin for this G haplotype is the match in Romania among ethnic Hungarians, many of

whom are descended from Magyars. All the rest are solidly European - the Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Germany.

This haplotype may have been spread from the Middle East or Southern Europe by Mediterranean traders, Roman

expansion or the Jewish diaspora.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Texas [Hispanic-American] 1.35
Leiden, Netherlands 1.04
Corund, Romania [Szekely] 1.02
Santiago de Compostela, Spain .97
Madrid, Spain .66
Sicily, Italy .50
Munich, Germany .36
Stuttgart, Germany .22
Berlin, Germany .18

G Haplotype #10

The high frequency match in Bulgaria is consistent with an origin in the Sarmatian lands of Southeast Europe.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 12 30 21 10 11 14 13 15

Geographical Locale

%
Bulgaria 2.48
USA [European-American] .42

G Haplotype #11

The haplotype below is found in West Germany and England. It is very likely of Anglo-Saxon origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Mainz, Germany 1.82
London, England .35

G Haplotype #12

The haplotype below is also found in primarily among Germanic samples. It could very well be of

Anglo-Saxon origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Wroclaw, Poland .45
Freiburg, Germany .23
Berlin, Germany .18
Northern Portugal .18

G Haplotype #13

The haplotype below could easily have multiple origins. The combined presence of Spain, Italy and the Netherlands

could suggest that it came to Britain with Norman or Flemish immigrants of Sephardic origin. The high frequencies for the

samples from Macedonia, Romania and Italy could suggest that it came to Britain with Roman troops or settlers. Finally,

the fact that two of the three highest Old World frequencies fall in the Netherlands could suggest an origin among the

Frisians, the Batavians or the Flemish.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Netherlands 3.45
Krusevo, Macedonia [Aromun] 2.33
Texas [Hispanic-American] 1.35
Leiden, Netherlands 1.04
Corund, Romania [Szeklely] 1.02
Santiago de Compostela, Spain .97
Chubut, Argentina [European] .93
Veneto, Italy .83
Madrid, Spain .66
New York City [European-American] .65
Sicily, Italy .50
Rio Negro, Argentina [European] .45
Munich, Germany .36
London, England .35
USA [African-American] .28
USA [European-American] .28
Central Portugal .20
Berlin, Germany .18
Stuttgart, Germany .16
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] .15
Leipzig, Germany .12

G Haplotype #14

The haplotype below is found at low levels in Austria, Germany and the Ukraine. This most likely reflects a Germanic

ancestry, but an origin among proto Slavic peoples or Indo-Iranians is another possibility. Although such groups as

the Sarmatians settled in portions of Austria, it should be noted that many German farmers emigrated to the Ukraine -

so, in fact, all of these matches could be fundamentally Germanic.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 12 29 22 10 12 14 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Tyrol, Austria .43
Halle, Germany .43
Kiev, Ukraine .41

G Haplotype #15

The haplotype below is found in Belgium, England and Germany, but appears to be most common in Greece and Italy

and may be Mediterranean in origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
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Geographical Locale

%
Central Greece 7.14
Piazza Armerina, Italy 3.33
Northern Sardinia, Italy 2.02
Leuven, Belgium .88
London, England .35
Magdeburg, Germany .35
Berlin, Germany .18

G Haplotype #16

There is only a single Eurasian match for the haplotype below. This falls in Germany, suggesting an origin among Northern Germanics

such as Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Danes or Norwegian Vikings. It is clearly a variant of G2.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
15 12 - 21 10 11 16 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Leipzig, Germany [German] .12