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Haplogroup E3b

Scientists believe that haplogroup E3b originated in the Near East, and spread across the Mediterranean

and North Africa during the Neolithic. It may also have spread up through the Balkans into northwestern Europe,

becoming a minority admixture in Germany and Denmark, and eventually arriving in England with the Anglo-Saxons

and the Danes. Judging from the results of the Capelli study, we may conclude that E3b is not associated with

either Norse Viking settlement or the Q-Celtic speakers of Ireland and northern Scotland.

The highest level of E3b among the Capelli samples appears in Southwell, once part of the Danelaw zone, but

most of the elevated levels appear outside the main areas of Anglo-Saxon and Danish settlement. Moreover,

the ratio of E3b to I1a/I1b/I1c in all these areas is 2 to 6 times higher than that in the Germany/Denmark

sample. This suggests that E3b in Britain may have had additional sources.

 Phoenicians and other traders from the Mediterranean may have brought E3b to Britain in the centuries before

Christ. It could also been brought to Britain in more recent times by Iberian sailors, Viking slave traders or

Norman administrators and Flemish merchants of Portuguese Sephardic ancestry.

Almost certainly, it arrived with Roman troops and settlers from such places as Mauretania, Asturias, Syria

and Mesopotamia. The population of Roman Britain is now thought to have been between 3 and 4 million, greater

than at any other time until the late Middle Ages. Respected scholars believe that at least 75 percent of

the English population has some Roman DNA.

In fact, much of the E3b in the Germany/Denmark sample may have originated during the Roman settlement

of the Rhineland in such places as Cologne ("Colonia" in Latin).

Data obtained by "A Y Chromosome Census of The British Isles" show that the highest levels of E3b were found

in areas with a known history of Roman settlement. In addition to Southwell, these include Uttoxeter in the midlands,

Dorchester and Faversham in southern England, and towns in Wales, like Llangefni and Llanidloes, where the Romans

established forts and mined for gold and lead.

The incidence of E3b in our Border Reiver sample is comparable to that found in these towns by the Capelli study.

Both E3b and J2 could have come to The Borders with Roman troops and support personnel of Middle Eastern descent.

To learn more about E3b, check out this scientific paper and the E3b Haplogroup Project at Family Tree DNA.

E3b Haplotype # 1

This haplotype appears Mediterranean in origin, with a greater occurrence among Iberians, Hispanics,

Italians, Greeks and Turks. It most likely arrived in Britain with Roman troops and settlers.

(I can't explain the Japanese hits as anything other than coincidental convergence from another haplogroup.)

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 30 23 10 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Madeira, Portugal 4.08
Maryland [Hispanic American] 3.84
Oregon [European-American] 2.86
Ankara, Turkey 2.56
Liguria, Western Italy 2.47
Virginia [Hispanic-American] 2.17
New York City [Hispanic-American] 2.00
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Texas [European-American] 1.28
Turkey 1.27
Moscow, Western Russia 1.18
Netherlands 1.15
Okinawa, Southern Japan 1.15
Sicily, Southern Italy 1.01
Cordoba, Argentina 1.00
Osaka, Central Japan 1.00
South Caucasus [Armenian] 1.00
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Athens, Greece .99
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Marche, Eastern Italy .93
Southern Portugal .89
Macedonia .71
Bogota, Colombia .68
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Andulacia, Southern Spain .61
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland .59
Northern Spain [Basque] .59
Central Portugal .54
Nagoya, Central Japan .48
Barcelona, Catalonia .47
Latium, Central Italy .45
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .45
Gdansk, Northern Poland .36
Antioquia, Columbia .25

E3b Haplotype # 2

This haplotype occurs far more often in the Balkans than anywhere else. It

probably originated in that area and spread through Europe with nomadic tribes

such as the Goths or the Alans - or with the expansion of the Roman Empire.

It most likely came to Britain with Roman troops or settlers. It might also

have come to Britain indirectly, with Sephardic Jews of Roman-Iberian origin

who accompanied the Normans and their allies into England.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 30 24 10 11 13 16 18

Geographical Locale

%
Albania 10.89
Macedonia 7.38
Zagreb, Croatia 3.33
Lousiana [Hispanic-American] 3.33
Bulgaria 3.28
Pennsylvania [Hispanic-American] 3.13
New York City [Hispanic-American] 2/00
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Emilia Romagna, Eastern Italy 2.24
Tyrol, Austria 2.18
Athens, Greece 1.98
Hamburg, Northern Germany 1.75
Bolivia [Amerindian] 1.64
Bulgaria [Turks] 1.64
Brussels, Belgium 1.60
Pennsylvania [European-American] 1.49
Puglia, Southern Italy 1.43
Latium, Central Italy 1.35
Egypt 1.20
Asturias, Northern Spain 1.11
Lombardy, Northern Italy 1.10
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt 1.06
Transylvania, Romania [Szekely] 1.02
Munster, Westphalia 1.02
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Cantabria, Northern Spain .99
Romania .98
Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate .96
Lausanne, Western Switzerland .93
Ljubljana, Slovenia .83
London, England .81
Berlin, Brandenburg .73
Chemnitz, Saxony .73
Madrid, Central-East Spain .68
Turkey .63
Bydgoszcz, Northern Poland .59
Central Portugal .54
Sicily, Southern Italy .50
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .46
Leipzig, Saxony .45
Munich, Bavaria .39
Gdansk, Northern Poland .36
Argentina [European] .33
Sweden .25
Sao Paulo, Brazil [Europeans] .22

E3b Haplotype # 3

This haplotype has some very interesting matches for E3b, and suggests multiple interpretations.

The hits among Iberian, Hispanic, Syrian and Croatian populations suggest a Mediterranean origin.

Yet there are also hits in Germany, Ireland and even Greenland. This, in turn, suggests that the

haplotype may have originated in the Mediterranean, but was spread to far flung places by the

Viking slave trade. One might note that Magdeburg was a major slave market during the

Viking era, and that Stuttgart and Munster are close to the Rhineland, where Roman settlement

took place in antiquity.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 14 31 25 10 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Pennsylvania [Hispanic-American] 3.13
Greenland [Inuit] 1.45
Damascus, Syria 1.00
Southern Ireland .93
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg .65
Munster, Westphalia .51
Barcelona, Catalonia .44
Madgeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35

E3b Haplotype # 4

The partial haplotype is widespread, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe. Its arrival in Britain

could have come from any source, including Danish or Anglo-Saxon migration.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 25 10 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Lublin, Eastern Poland 3.73
Central Norway 2.08
Vienna, Austria 1.52
Griefswald, Pomerania 1.44
Puglia, Southern Italy 1.43
Chiang Mei, Thailand 1.41
Eastern Hungary [Roma] 1.41
New York City [African-American] 1.33
Warsaw, Central Poland 1.25
Athens, Greece .99
Hamburg, Northern Germany .88
Brussels, Belgium .80
London, England [Asian] .76
Dusseldorf, Westphalia .67
Central Portugal .54
Leipzig, Saxony .45
Gdansk, Northern Poland .37

E3b Haplotype # 5

This is another very interesting partial haplotype. The higher frequencies for Egypt and Liguria, plus the

three showings in Hispanic areas, suggest a Mediterranean origin. There is a secondary cluster in the

circum-Baltic area, which may have come with the Viking slave trade or later Jewish settlement.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 12 29 24 10 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Egypt 2.41
Uppsala, Sweden 1.75
Virginia [European-American] 1.64
Liguria, Western Italy 1.23
Hamburg, Northern Germany .88
Choco, Colombia .75
Cologne, Westphalia .74
Antioqua, Colombia .49
Greifswald, Pomerania .48
Barcelona, Catalonia .45
Chemnitz, Saxony .12

E3b Haplotype # 6

This one is not common at all. It could have expanded north from the Mediterranean, or come

west from Asia Minor. There is too little data to say much else.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 12 29 24 10 12 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Leipzig, Saxony .15

E3b Haplotype # 7

This one is not common either, with only one match - in Sweden. This may be a

genetic vestige of the Viking slave trade. Whether or not this haplotype arrived

in Britain from Scandinavia is highly debatable.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 28 24 10 11 14 16 16

Geographical Locale

%
Sweden .25

E3b Haplotype # 8

This partial haplotype, which includes all matches with DYS385a values of 13 or

higher, is strongly biased toward the eastern Mediterranean and southeastern

Europe. The highest European frequencies fall in Greece, Italy, and among ethnic

Turks. This haplotype could easily have come to Britain with Mediterranean

merchants, Roman troops and settlers, or with Sephardic Jews who followed

the Normans and the Flemish into Scotland.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 24 10 11 13 13+ -

Geographical Locale

%
Thessaly, Greece 13.33
Bulgaria [Turks] 3.27
Oslo, Norway 3.03
Ankara, Turkey 2.56
Virginia [African-American] 2.13
Marche, Italy 1.85
Sicily, Italy 1.51
Zagreb, Croatia 1.33
Egypt 1.20
Cape Town, South Africa [European] 1.00
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Albania .99
Romania .98
Latium, Italy .90
Barcelona, Catalonia .89
Chiang Mai, Thailand .89
Kurds, Iraq .79
London, England [Asian] .76
Macedonia .67
New York City [European-American] .65
Vilnius, Lithuania .64
Lombardy, Italy .55
Tyrol, Austria .44
Munich, Bavaria .39
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Leipzig, Saxony .15

E3b Haplotype # 9

This partial haplotype is very common, its highest frequencies falling overwhelmingly

in Spain, Portugal and Latin America. There are also a few hits in Egypt, Iran and Italy,

which is consistent with the Middle Eastern or North African origin of most E3b haplotypes.

The highest frequencies, outside of the Hispanic areas and the Mediterranean basin,

fall in France and in Zeeland, in the southwestern Netherlands.

This haplotype may have come to Britain from these areas, with Norman,

Flemish or Hungarian settlers of Jewish descent.

An alternate possibility is that the haplotype came to Britain with Roman troops

or settlers from Spain or North Africa.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 14 - 24 9 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Pennsylvania [Hispanic-American] 15.63
Florida [Hispanic-American] 9.62
Cantabria, Northern Spain 8.91
Asturias, Northern Spain 4.44
Virginia [Hispanic-American] 4.35
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia 3.88
New York City [Hispanic-American] 3.33
Central Portugal 3.24
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] 3.17
Madeira, Portugal 3.06
Antioquia, Colombia [European] 2.70
Madrid, Central-East Spain 2.70
Texas [Hispanic-American] 2.70
Lyon, France 2.40
Oregon [Hispanic-American] 2.38
Northern Portugal 2.20
Zeeland, Netherlands 2.17
Central Norway 2.08
Isfahan, Iran 2.08
Paris, France 1.83
Zaragoza, Spain 1.67
Valencia, Spain 1.42
Bogota, Colombia [European] 1.36
Barcelona, Catalonia 1.34
Argentina [European] 1.33
Bulgaria [Romani] 1.23
Liguria, Italy 1.23
Egypt 1.20
Budapest, Hungary 1.02
Sicily, Southern Italy 1.01
Strasbourg, Alsace 1.01
Buenos Aires, Argentina [European] 1.00
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .89
Southern Portugal .89
Brussels, Belgium .80
Munich, Bavaria .80
Choco, Colombia [African] .75
Pyrenees, Spain .75
Northern Spain [Basque] .60
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Sweden .49
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
Finland .25
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .23

E3b Haplotype # 10

The haplotype below is extremely common among Eastern European gypsies,

much more so than among any other sample. This may indicate an ultimate origin in

Western Asia. The other matches fall mostly in Southern Europe - and/or in locales

known to have a substantial Jewish population at one time, such as Bern, Switzerland.

This haplotype may have to come to Britain with Roman troops or settlers.

It may also have arrived with Sephardic Jewish immigrants during the medieval period.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 31 24 10 11 13 16 18

Geographical Locale

%
Eastern Hungary [Roma] 8.45
Eastern Slovakia [Romani] 7.94
Liguria, Italy 1.23
Bern, Switzerland 1.10
Albania .99
Athens, Greece .99
Madrid, Spain .68
Sicily, Italy .50
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Tyrol, Austria .43
Munich, Bavaria .40
Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt .35
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .25
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

E3b Haplotype # 11

The highest match frequencies for the haplotype below fall largely

in Southeastern Europe, although there are multiple matches in Swabia,

and one each in Austria and London.

This haplotype may be associated with Sephardic Jews, but this is not

obvious from the match pattern. The haplotype could easily have come

to Britain with Roman troops or settlers.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 14 31 24 10 11 13 16 18

Geographical Locale

%
Florida [Hispanic-American] 4.35
Albania .99
Central Anatolia, Turkey .91
Bulgaria .82
Macedonia .67
Zagreb, Croatia .67
Budapest, Hungary .52
Freiburg, Baden-Wurttemburg .46
Tyrol, Austria .43
London, England .35
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .22

E3b Haplotype # 12

This haplotype appears among Bulgarian Turks, and in Romania, Spain and Italy. Yet it also appears in

scattered metropolitan areas, such as Vienna, Paris and Berlin. We suspect that it may have originated

in the eastern Mediterranean, but spread elsewhere with Roman settlement and the urban diaspora of

Sephardic Jews.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 30 24 10 11 13 15 17

Geographical Locale

%
Bulgaria [Turks] 1.64
Vienna, Austria 1.52
Romania .98
Marche, Italy .93
Paris, France .92
Valencia, Spain .71
Lombardy, Italy .55
Chemnitz, Saxony .24
Berlin, Brandenburg .18

E3b Haplotype # 13

This haplotype exhibits its highest frequencies in Romania, Switzerland, among the Brahui of Pakistan, and in Syria.

There also numerous matches in Germany, although a German origin in unlikely. The presence of Syria suggests

that the haplotype could be Middle Eastern in origin. The matches in Romania and Tuscany may have come

from the Eastern Mediterranean - and those in Switzerland and Germany could have resulted from the spread

of the haplotype through the Jewish diaspora.

This haplotype probably came to Britain with Roman troops or settlers, slaves of Mediterranean or Levantine

descent, or with later Sephardic immigrants.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 - 25 11 11 13 14+ -

Geographical Locale

%
Romania .98
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Syria .85
Munster, Westphalia .51
Rostock, Mecklenburg .49
Tuscany, Italy .46
Berlin, Brandenburg .36
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .22
Leipzig, Saxony .15

E3b Haplotype # 14

The haplotype below scored matches in Italy and Spain. It may have came to Britain with Roman slaves, settlers

or troops, or with later Sephardic immigrants.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 14 30 25 9 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Liguria, Italy 1.23
Santiago de Compostela, Galicia .97
Madrid, Spain .66
Barcelona, Catalonia .45

E3b Haplotype # 15

The haplotype below is probably associated with Jewish populations. The European matches appear in The Rhineland,

Poland and eastern Germany, all areas of known Jewish settlement. We might even go so far as to speculate that the

match in Louisiana is with a Franco-American of partially Sephardic descent, as the ancestors of the Cajuns came from

parts of France where many Sephardim had emigrated before and after The Spanish Inquisition.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 31 25 10 11 13 16 18

Geographical Locale

%
Louisiana [European-American] 3.23
Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemburg .22
Gdansk, Poland .18
Leipzig, Saxony .15

E3b Haplotype # 16

The haplotype below is most likely of Iberian origin. Although we have made much of the fact that many of the Roman

auxiliaries who served in North Britain came from exotic places like Sarmatia and Syria, most actually came from Germany,

Spain and Gaul. That would have made them indistinguishable genetically from the natives or at least, in the case of

the Germans, indistinguishable from later arrivals like the Angles and the Saxons.

However, E3b is not native to Britain, and may well have arrived with Spanish troops - as well as with other Roman

troops or settlers of Mediterranean extraction.

(As it happens, the "Border Reiver" for which this match table has been posted speculated in his Ysearch record

that his ancestors, although Irish, may have had some Spanish forebears of far more recent vintage.)

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 30 22 9 11 13 - -

Geographical Locale

%
Virginia [Hispanic-American] 2.17
Cantabia, Spain .99
Lausanne, Switzerland .93

E3b Haplotype # 17

Of the four top match frequencies for this haplotype, three fall in the Balkans. Two lower frequency matches occur in

Spain, another falls in Poland, and one higher frequency match falls in Bern, Switzerland. The matches in Poland and Bern

are most likely Jewish in origin. The matches in Spain could easily be Sephardic, North African or Mediterranean.

This haplotype could have come to Britain with Roman settlers, or with troops - like the Dacians and Thracians of

Birdoswald - of Balkan or Mediterranean origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 30 25 10 11 13 16 19

Geographical Locale

%
Bulgaria [Romani] 1.23
Bern, Switzerland 1.10
Albania .99
Macedonia .67
Northern Spain [Basque] .60
Andulacia/Extremadura, Spain .26
Gdansk, Poland .18

E3b Haplotype # 18

The match pattern for this haplotype is mostly Northern European, suggesting an association with the Jewish diaspora.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 30 24 11 11 13 16 18

Geographical Locale

%
Szczecin, Poland .95
Lausanne, Switzerland .93
Riga, Latvia .69
Sweden .25

E3b Haplotype # 19

The top Old World frequencies for this haplotype fall in Italy, Tunisia, Spain and Portugal. It may have come to Britain

from the Mediterranean, either with merchants (such as the Phoenicians), Roman settlers or Roman auxiliaries of North

African origin.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 14 30 24 9 11 13 14 14

Geographical Locale

%
Mazara del Vallo, Italy 4.00
Tunisia [Berber] 3.33
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [European] 1.59
Santiago de Compostela, Spain .97
Tunisia [Andulasian Arabs] .76
Bogota, Colombia [European] .68
Central Portugal .61
London, England .35
Munich, Germany .35
Northern Portugal .35
Antioquia, Colombia [European] .13

E3b Haplotype # 20

The haplotype below has matches in Sicily and Iraq. Although the Kurds speak an Indo-Iranian language, they have

considerable Mediterranean admixture, of which E3b would be quite typical. We suspect that this haplotype may

have reached Britain with Mediterranean traders, miners or fishermen in pre-Roman times - and certainly with many

other Mediterranean peoples during Roman times.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 13 - 26 10 11 13 16+ -

Geographical Locale

%
Kurds, Iraq .79
Sicily, Italy .50

E3b Haplotype # 21

The top Old World match frequencies for the haplotype below in Southeastern Europe - in Bosnia, Hungary, Macedonia,

Italy, Southeast Poland and Turkey. It is found among Jews, Aromuns and Romani alike. It appears to be predominantly

of Mediterranean origin, and may have come to Britain with Roman troops and settlers, Sephardic Jews or pre-Roman miners

and traders.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 13 31 24 10 11 13 17 18

Geographical Locale

%
Florida [European-American] 4.55
Doboj-Banja Luka-Bjeljina, Bosnia-Herzegovina 3.23
Indiana [European-American] 2.94
Budapest, Hungary [Ashkenazi Jews] 2.86
Krusevo, Macedonia [Aromun] 2.33
Missouri [European-American] 1.69
Puglia, Italy 1.43
Southeast Poland 1.24
Szeged, Hungary 1.00
Kahramanmaras, Southern Turkey [Romani] .90
New York City [European-American] .65
Kiev, Ukraine .41
London, England .35

E3b Haplotype # 22

The haplotype below probably originated along the Mediterranean and spread northward into Central and Western

Europe. It may have arrived in Britain with Neolithic traders or settlers, Romans, Normans, Jews or other peoples.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 - - 23 10 11 12 17 17

Geographical Locale

%
Puglia, Italy 1.43
Freiburg, Germany .23

E3b Haplotype # 23

The haplotype below is found predominantly among Iberians and Italians, which is a fairly typical distribution for an

E3b haplotype. It may have come to Britain with Roman troops or settlers, Sephardic Jews, or any number of earlier

migrants from the Mediterranean.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
13 12 29 24 10 11 13 17 18

Geographical Locale

%
Caceres, Spain 1.10
Ecuador [Mestizo] .98
Marche, Italy .49
Tuscany, Italy .46
Sao Paulo, Brazil [European] .22
Stuttgart, Germany .16

E3b Haplotype # 24

The haplotype below is found among Italians, Arabs and Latin Americans. It most likely came to Britain from the Mediterranean.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 14 - 24 10 11 13 17 19

Geographical Locale

%
Catanzaro, Italy [Italian] 3.39
Misiones, Argentina [European] 1.43
Rabat, Morocco [Arabs] .77
Rio Negro, Argentina [European] .45
Sicily, Italy [Italian] .32
Antioquia, Colombia [Mestizo] .08

E Haplotype # 1

The match table below has been prepared for a "Border Reiver" whose closest matches in the FTDNA Haplogroup

database are two 4 steps - one an Australian aboriginal "C" and the other an Ashkenazi "E". The only other match in this

database is 1 step away from a person of indeterminate haplogroup who nonetheless tested positive for the "YAP" SNP.

"YAP" is common primarily to haplogroups "D" and "E", so we believe our "Border Reiver" most likely belongs to a

subclade of E - possibly E3b. The only close match in YHRD falls in Sicily, which is typical for an E3b.

We surmise that this haplotype came to Britain with Mediterranean traders, Roman settlers and troops, or

Sephardic Jews arriving under the aegis of the Norman conquest.

19 389i 389ii 390 391 392 393 385a 385b
14 - - 22 9 12 13 15 17

Geographical Locale

%
Sicily .50