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Gazetteer of the State of New York: Embracing a Comprehensive View of the Geography, Geology, and General History of the State, and A Complete History and Description of Every County, City, Town, Village, and Locality, by J. H. French, Published by Pearsall Smith, Syracuse, N.Y.: 1860; pp. 232-240.

CLINTON COUNTY

This county was formed from Washington, March 7, 1788.[1] Essex was taken off in 1799. St. Lawrence was provisionally annexed in 1801, and taken off in 1802; a portion of Oneida was annexed in 1801; and Franklin was taken off in 1808. It lies upon Lake Champlain, and is the N.E. corner co. of the State. It is centrally distant 143 mi. From Albany, and contains 1,092 sq. me. The surface is generally hilly and broken, and in some parts mountainous. The Au Sable Range enters the S.W. corner from Essex co. and extends in spurs and broken ranges through more than one-half of the W. part of the co. The highest peaks, along the W. border, are 3,000 to 4,000 feet above tide. These mountains have the same general characteristics as those further S. They are wild and broken, and their declivities and summits are so covered with ragged ledges of rocks that they can produce but a scanty crop of timber and are almost inaccessible. The uplands decline toward the N.; and along the N. line of the co. is a wide tract nearly level. Along the lake shore the surface is level or moderately uneven; and from this tract it rises gradually but unevenly to the summits of the ridges in the interior. A large share of the central and W. portions of the co is covered by the original forests, and is too rough to ever admit of profitable cultivation. The mountainous region in the S.W., comprising about one-third of the co., is underlaid by gneiss, granite, and other primary rocks. A belt of Potsdam sandstone extends in a great curve around the primary region and occupies more than one-half of the remaining part of the co. On the N. it extends nearly to Canada, but toward the S. it gradually diminished, and on the S. line it is but a few miles wide. Surrounding this, and lying next above it, is a narrow belt of calciferous sand rock, outcropping on the surface, along the lake shore, between Au Sable and Salmon Rivers. The limestones next appear, occupying the N.E. corner of the co. and outcropping along the lake from Salmon River to Rouses Point. Tertiary clay is found in a few places along the lake; and drift deposits are abundant in the N. and E. parts. Peat bogs are numerous in the N.E. part. The primitive region is exceedingly rich in minerals. Magnetic iron ore is found in inexhaustible quantities, and of a quality equal to the best in the world.[2]

Au Sable River forms most of the S. boundary. North of this are Little Sable, Salmon, Saranac, Little Chazy, and Great Chazy or Champlain Rivers, all flowing into Lake Champlain. English River flows N. into Canada. Upon all these streams are numerous falls, furnishing an immense amount of water-power. In the western wilderness are numerous small lakes, the principal of which are Chateaugay and Chazy Lakes, and Sampson, Taylor, and Slush Ponds. The soil along the lake is clayey, and in the interior and W. a sandy loam, best adapted to pasturage.

The people are principally engaged in stock raising, dairying, lumbering,[3] mining, and in the manufacture of iron[4] and starch. A large business is carried on in peltries, the wilderness still furnishing numerous valuable fur-bearing animals.[5] Fish are abundant in the mountain streams and lakes, although the salmon, once so abundant, have now nearly disappeared.[6] The Northern (Ogdensburgh) R.R. extends W. from Rouses Point, on Lake Champlain, through Champlain, Mooers, Altona, Ellenburgh, and Clinton. The Plattsburgh & Montreal R.R. extends N. through Plattsburgh, Beekmantown, Chazy, and Mooers.

The co. seat is located at the village of Plattsburgh, on Lake Champlain.[7] The courthouse is a substantial brick building, with a stone basement, fronting the public square and the river. The jail, a stone building in the rear of the courthouse, affords no accommodations for the classification of prisoners, and is destitute of means of ventilation. The clerk's office is a fireproof building on an adjacent lot. The poorhouse is located in Beekmantown, 4 mi. N. of Plattsburgh. It has an average of 65 inmates, supported at a weekly cost of $1.00 each. The farm - 90 acres - yields a revenue of $800.[8]

Four weekly newspapers are published in the co.[9]

The first white man that ever visited this co. was Samuel Champlain, in 1609, under the auspices of the French. From that time until the final surrender of Canada in1760, the French claimed and held this region of country, and the lands were mostly occupied by parties holding title under French grants.[10]

At the close of the war in 1760, settlement rapidly spread down the lake shore. By the terms of the treaty between England and France, the French settlers were to be secured in their rights; but the Government of New York made conflicting grants, which gave rise to controversies and quarrels and seriously retarded the progress of settlement. A few families were scattered along the shore previous to the Revolution; but the expedition of Burgoyne in 1777 broke up every settlement in the co. An important naval engagement took place Sept. 11, 1776, in the strait between Valcour Island and the W. shore, between the British and American forces, without any decisive results. The conflict was renewed on the 13th, and the American vessels were nearly all run ashore on the Vt. side and burned.[11]

Settlements were made at all the principal places bordering upon the lake within 10 years after the close of the Revolution. Point Au Fer was occupied by the British until 1796, when, in common with several other posts along the N. frontier, it was surrendered to the Americans.[12] During the same year the St. Regis Indians ceded their claims to the State. The embargo of 1808 was openly violated, and many severe encounters took place between the revenue officers and organised bands of smugglers.[13] Several attempts were made by lawless bands to seize the collectors and revenue officers, but without success. During the last war with Great Britain this co. was the seat of important military transactions, and along its frontiers and upon the adjacent waters of the lake many skirmishes and engagements took place.[14]

In the summer of 1814, Sir Geo. Provost, Gov. of Canada, made extensive preparations for an invasion of the country along Lake Champlain. Toward the last of Aug. a land force of 14,000 men assembled on the frontier and commenced their march, supported by a formidable fleet under Commodore Downie. Gen. Macomb, who commanded the Americans, had a force of less than 3,000; but as the invading army drew nigh, he was continually re-inforced by volunteers and militia.[15] The American fleet, under the command of Commodore MacDonough, took position in Cumberland Bay, awaiting the attack of the British. On Sunday morning, Sept. 11, a simultaneous attack was made by the British land and naval forces, and a bloody and desperate battle ensued. At the end of 2 hours Commodore Downie's flag struck, and nearly the whole British fleet fell into the hands of the Americans.[16] The cannonade was continued upon the shore until night, when the British slowly and sullenly retreated and in a few days returned to Canada.[17] These engagements were justly considered among the most brilliant that occurred during the war, and they served to partially obliterate the disgrace that attached to most of the movements that were planned and executed along the N. frontier. The immense sums of money expended within the co. during the war greatly stimulated its industry; and although Plattsburgh was twice in the hands of the enemy and partly burned, still business prospered. At the close of the war the excitement subsided, and a commercial re-action followed that entirely prostrated business. Upon the completion of the Champlain Canal in 1823, business again revived; and a new impulse has again been given to it by the railroads and plank roads since constructed. In 1838-40 the co. shared the intense excitement attending the "Patriot Wars," and several encounters between the insurgents and the military authorities took place in the neighboring parts of Canada.

The lands in this co. were mostly granted in comparatively small patents. The W. portion embraces 4 townships of the Old Military Tract. A tract of 231,540 acres in the N.E. and central parts of the co. was included in the lands granted by the Legislature of New York to the refugees from Canada and Nova Scotia at the close of the Revolution.[18] These lands were divided into 80 and 420 acre lots, except 5,000 acres, which was divided into 15 equal parts, which were granted to the officers and privates among these refugees. Considerable land lying along the lake was granted in small tracts to English officers who served during the French War. Among the principal remaining patents were Platt's, Livingston's, Beekman's, Duerville, Dean's, and Graves.

ALTONA -- was formed from Chazy, Dec. 2, 1857. It is an interior town, lying N. of the center of the co. Its surface is a rolling upland, with a slight inclination toward the N.E. The W. half is underlaid by Potsdam sandstone, and hundreds of acres are covered with the naked rock. Great Chazy River is the principal stream. The soil is light and sandy, and a large share of it is unfit for cultivation. A few settlements are scattered through the town, and the people are mostly engaged in lumbering. There is no village or p.o. in town. Chazy, in the N. part, is a station on the N.R.R. Ellenburgh Depot lies on the W. line. The first settler was Simeon Wood, who located in town in 1800.[19] The town embraces parts of the Refugee Tract and Duerville Patent. The first church (French Bap.) was formed Jan. 1, 1856.

AU SABLE[20] -- was formed from Peru, March 29, 1839. It is the S.E. corner town in the co. Its surface is nearly level in the E., rolling in the center, and hilly in the W. The highest summits are 500 to 600 ft. above the lake. Au Sable River forms the S. boundary, and the Little Au Sable flows N.E. through the W. part. The soil is generally a light, sandy load, moderately fertile in the E. and center and nearly unfit for cultivation in the W. Upon the Au Sable where it breaks through the Potsdam sandstone is a beautiful cascade known as Birmingham Falls.[21] Iron ore of an excellent quality is found in abundance.[22] Keeseville,[23] (p.v.,) upon the Au Sable, 5 mi. from the lake, contains 7 churches, the Keeseville Academy, 2 extensive rolling mills, 3 nail factories, a machine shop, an ax and edge tool factory, a cupola furnace, an axletree factory, a horseshoe factory, a planing mill, 2 gristmills, and a nail keg factory.[24] Pop. 2,569, - of whom 1,999 are in Au Sable and 570 are in Essex co. Clintonville, (p.v.,) upon the Au Sable, in the W. part of the town, was incorp. April 11, 1825. It contains 2 churches and an extensive iron manufactory.[25] Pop. 855. New Sweden, (p.v.,) upon the Au Sable, in the S.W. corner of the town, contains 2 forges and 150 inhabitants. Birmingham Falls, at the head of the rapids upon the Au Sable, contains 20 houses. The Union is a hamlet, on the line of Peru, and contains two Quaker meetinghouses. Edward Everett located upon the site of The Union in 1786.[26] The first religious society (Friends) was organized in 1799.[27]

BEEKMANTOWN[28] -- was formed from Plattsburgh, Feb. 25, 1820. Dannemora was taken off in 1854. It lies upon Lake Champlain, near the center of the E. border of the co. The surface is level in the E. and moderately hilly in the W. Its streams are small creeks and brooks. St. Armands Bay extends into the S.E. corner. Point au Roche and Rams Head are capes upon the lake. The soil is a clay loam in the center and E., and a light sand in the W. A spring emitting sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid gases is found in town. Beekmantown (p.o.) and East Beekmantown (p. o.) are hamlets. The first settlers were Maj. Benj. Mooers and 7 associates, who located at Point au Roche Aug. 10, 1783.[29] The British passed through the town in 1814, and on the 6th of Sept. a slight skirmish took place, in which several were killed.[30] The census reports 4 churches; 3 M.E. and 1 Presb.

BLACK BROOK[31] -- was formed from Peru, March 29, 1839. It is the S.W. corner town in the co. Its surface is a rocky and mountainous upland, the highest summits being 1,500 to 2,500 ft. above the lake. Among the mountains are several nearly level table lands 200 to 300 ft. above the general level. Ledges, crags, and boulders cover a large share of the surface. The forest trees are thinly scattered, and nearly the whole town is too rough and poor for cultivation. Saranac River flows across the N.W. corner, and the Au Sable forms a portion of the S. boundary. Great Black Brook and Little Black Brook, tributaries of the Au Sable, drain the central parts of the town. In the mountainous region are several small lakes or ponds, the principal of which are Mud, Sampson, Taylors, Slush, and Military Ponds. The soil is cold, wet, and unproductive. Extensive beds of iron ore are scattered through the town.[32] The people are principally engaged in the manufacture of iron[33] and charcoal, and in lumbering.[34] Au Sable Forks, (p. v.,) on the Au Sable, in the S.E. part of the town, is mostly on the S. bank of the river, in Essex co. Black Brook, (p. v.,) near the S. border, contains extensive iron works, several sawmills, and about 85 houses. Clayburgh, on the Saranac, in the N. part, lies partly in the town of Saranac. It contains iron works and 30 houses.[35] Union Falls (p. o.) and Garlick Falls, (p. o.,) both on the Saranac, are hamlets and lumber stations. The first settler was Zephaniah Palmer, who located at Au Sable Forks about 1825.[36] The census reports one church (R.C.)

CHAMPLAIN -- was formed March 7, 1788. Chateguay (Franklin co.) was taken off in 1799, and Mooers and Chazy in 1804. It lies upon Lake Champlain, in the N.E. corner of the co. Its surface is generally level, with a gentle slope toward the lake. The crest of a swell of land between Champlain Village and Rouses Point is about 200 feet above the lake. Great Chazy or Champlain River flows in a tortuous course through the town and discharges its waters into Kings Bay. It is navigable to near Champlain Village. Corbeau Creed, its tributary, is the other principal stream. Point au Fer[37] and Stony Point are two capes projecting into the lake. The soil is a clay or clayey loam. Peat is found in numerous localities. Champlain, (p. v.,) upon the Chazy, near the N. line of the town, contains the Champlain Academy, 3 churches, w founderies, a linen factory, planing mill, and carriage factory.[38] Pop. 1,473. Perrys Mills[39] (p. o.) is a lumber station upon the Chazy, in the N.W. corner of the town. Rouses Point,[40] (p. v.,) upon the lake, is the N.E. corner of the town, contains 3 churches, a brewery, newspaper office, and extensive dep™ts and repair shops belonging to the Northern R.R. Co. It is divided into the Upper and Lower Villages, the latter being about twice as large as the former. Pop. 1,769. Coopersville,[41] or Corbeau, is a village upon Chazy River, opposite the mouth of Corbeau Creek. It contains 1 church and 40 houses. The first settlers were Canadian and Nova Scotia refugees, who located in town soon after the Revolution. The first English settler was Pliny Moore, who came in to reside in 1789.[42] The census reports 4 churches in town.[43]

CHAZY[44] -- was formed from Champlain, March 20, 1804. Altona was taken off in 1857. It lies upon Lake Champlain, N. of the center of the co. Its surface is rolling and has a gentle inclination toward the E. The principal stream is the Little Chazy, flowing N.E. through near the center. Corbeau Creek flows through the N. border. Potsdam sandstone underlies the W. part, and Chazy and Trenton limestone the E. Tertiary clay extends along the lake shore. The soil is clayey and productive in the central and E. parts, but sandy in the W. Chazy, (p. v.,) upon Little Chazy River, contains 2 churches and a saw and grist mill. Pop. 326. West Chazy, (p. v.,) upon Little Chazy River, in the S.W. part of the town, contains 2 churches, a saw and grist mill, and starch factory. Pop. 280. It is a station on the P. & M.R.R. Sciota (p. v.) is a station on the P. & M.R.R., in the N.W. corner of the town. Chazy Landing is a hamlet on the lake shore. Ingraham is a p. o. in the S.E. corner. The first settler was John La Trombois,[45] who came in town in 1763. After the revolution the first settlers were refugees from Canada and Nova Scotia. Of these, Lieutenant Murdock McPherson was the first one that could speak English.[46] The census reports 5 churches in town.[47]

CLINTON -- was formed from Ellenburgh, May 14, 1845. It is the N.W. corner town in the co. Its surface is generally level, with a gentle inclination toward the N.W. The highest points along its S. border are about 1,050 feet above Lake Champlain. A portion of the surface is undulating. It is nearly all underlaid by Potsdam sandstone, which here is remarkably white. The streams are small brooks. More than three-fourths of the town is yet a wilderness. The soil is a light, sandy loam, capable of supporting but a thin growth of forest trees. A large part of the land is owned by capitalists and speculators. Cherubusco, (p. o.,) the summit station upon the O.R.R., The Frontiers, (Frontier p. o.,) and Wrightsville, upon the W. border, are hamlets. This town lies within No. 6 of the Old Military Tract. The first settlers located upon the Old Military Road and near The Frontiers.[48] A M.E. church has lately been organised.

DANNEMORA[49] -- was formed from Beekmantown, Dec. 14, 1854. It is the central town upon the W. border of the co. Its surface is mostly a wild, mountainous upland, covered with a sandy soil and light growth of forest trees. Chazy Lake, near the center, 3½ miles long by 1¼ wide, discharges its waters E. into Chazy River. Upper Chateaugay Lake, on the W. border, 5 mi long by 1½ broad, discharges its waters W. into Chateaugay River. The few settlements in town are confined to the S.E. corner. Dannemora (p. v.) is a small village grown up around the Clinton Prison. This prison was located here in 1845, for the purpose of employing convicts in the mining and manufacture of iron, so that their labor would not come so directly in competition with the other mechanical trades.[50] The first permanent settler was Thomas Hooker, who came to reside in 1838. The census reports 1 religious society (Presb.) in town.

ELLENBURGH[51] -- was formed from Mooers, April 17, 1830. Clinton was taken off in 1845. It lies upon the W. border of the co., N. of the center. Its surface is an upland, mountainous in the S. and rolling in the N., with an inclination toward the N.E. English River flows E. across the N. border. The soil is generally sandy; but in many places the sand is covered with a rich vegetable mold. The settlements are principally confined to the valley. Potatoes are raised in large quantities. Lumbering is extensively carried on. Ellenburgh (p. v.) contains 3 churches, a sawmill, tannery, and 125 inhabitants. Ellenburgh Center (p. v.) contains a church, saw and grist mill, 2 starch factories, a machine shop, and 15 dwellings. Ellenburgh Depot is a hamlet on the line of Altona. James Hanchett came to this town in 1796, but left soon after. The first permanent settler was Abner Pomeroy, from Vt., about 1800.[52] There are 4 churches in town.[53]

MOOERS[54] -- was formed from Champlain, March 20, 1804. Ellenburgh was taken off in 1830. Its surface is generally level, with a gentle inclination to the N.E. The principal streams are Great Chazy and English Rivers. The surface is entirely underlaid by Potsdam sandstone, and is covered with a light, sandy soil. Along the N. border are several small swamps. Upon the Canada line, in the N.W. corner, is a remarkable chasm in the rocks, called The Gulf.[55] Centerville, (Mooers Forks p. o.,) upon the Chazy, contains 2 churches, a sawmill, stave factory, and 30 houses. It is a station on the N.R.R. Mooers, (p. v.,) upon the Chay, in the E. part, contains 2 churches and 40 houses. It is near the junction of the O. and P. & M.R.R's. Angellville, upon Corbeau Creek, in the S.E. corner, is a hamlet. The first settler was Joshua C. Bosworth, who located in town in 1796.[56] The first preacher was Rev. Andrew Blackman, in 1800; and the first settled minister was Rev. Martin Powell, in 1807.[57]

PERU[58] -- was formed from Plattsburgh and Willsborough, (Essex co.,) Dec. 28, 1792. A part was annexed to Willsborough in 1799, and Au Sable and Black Brook were taken off in 1839. It lies upon the lake, S. of the center of the co. The surface in the center and E. is rolling and slightly inclined toward the lake, and in the W. broken and mountainous. The Au Sable flows across the S.E. corner, and along its course are extensive swamps. Little Sable drains the greater part of the remaining portions of the town. The principal body of water is Military Pond, on the W. line. A strip of land 2 mi. wide, extending along the lake, has a soil composed of clay and clay loam. West of this is a plain 4 mi. wide, covered with sand and interspersed with swamps. In the W. the soil is a light, sandy loam. Peru, (p.v.) on the Little Sable, near the center of the town, contains 2 churches, a gristmill, starch factory, and tannery. Pop. 504. Laphams Mills, 2 mi. below Peru, contains a large flouring mill, a plaster mill, forge, and 15 dwellings; Peasleville, on Salmon River, in the N.W. corner, a forge and 25 dwellings. Port Jackson, (Valcour p. o.,) on the lake, opposite Valcour Island, is a hamlet containing a church. Peru Landing is a hamlet, N. of the mouth of the Little Sable. The first settler was Wm. Hay, a Scotchman, who located upon Steward's Patent in 1772.[59] The census reports 4 churches in town.[60]

PLATTSBURGH -- was first recognized as a town April 4, 1785. A part of Peru was taken off in 1792, Beekmantown in 1820, Saranac in 1824, and Schuyler Falls in 1848. It lies upon Lake Champlain, a little S. of the E. border of the co., and includes Valcour[61] and Crab[62] Islands in the lake. The surface is level in the E. and broken and hilly in the W. It is slightly included toward the E., its W. border being elevated about 500 feet above the lake. It is principally drained by Saranac River and its branches. In the E. part the soil is a clayey loam, underlaid by Trenton limestone; in the center, a sandy loam, underlaid by calciferous sandstone; and in the W. a light sand, underlaid by Potsdam sandstone. Cumberland Head is a peninsula extending into the lake and forming Cumberland Bay.[63] Plattsburgh, (p. v.,) upon Cumberland Bay, at the mouth of Saranac River, was incorp. March 3, 1815. It has a safe and commodious harbor, and an excellent water-power, gibing it facilities for a large amount of both commerce and manufactures. Besides the co. buildings, it contains a town hall,[64] customhouse,[65] the Plattsburgh Academy, 6 churches, a foundery, planing mill, sawmill, gristmill, and 2 tanneries. Pop. 2,926. Upon a sandy plain, 1 mi. S. of the village and 90 feet above the lake, are situated extensive barracks belonging to the U.S. Government.[66] Cadyville, (p. v.,) upon the Saranac, 10 mi. above Plattsburgh, contains a church, sawmill, and 25 houses. Elsinore, 1 mi. above Cadyville, contains a forge and a half dozen houses. Salmon River, (South Plattsburgh p. o.,) in the S. part, contains a church, sawmill, and 25 houses. West Plattsburgh is a p.o. The first settlement was made before the Revolution, by Chas. De Fredenburgh and several associates, under royal grants. During the war the settlers were driven off and the improvements were destroyed. In 1785 a tract 7 mi. square was granted to Zephaniah Platt and 32 associates, who had bought up military land warrants to that amount.[67] The first 3 families who settled under this grant were those of Charles Platt, Chas. McCreedy, and Kinner Newcomb. Nathaniel Platt was the first surveyor and agent for the proprietors. A farm of 80 acres was offered to each of the first 10 settlers in town.[68] Rev. Benj. Vaughan preached the first sermon, in 1787; and Rev. Frederick Halsey was the first settled minister, in 1795.[69] There are 9 churches in town.[70]

SARANAC -- was formed from Plattsburgh, March 29, 1824. It lies upon the W. border of the co., S. of the center. Its surface is a broken and mountainous upland. The highest summits, along the W. border, are 4,000 feet above the tide. Saranac River, flowing through the W.E. part, is the principal stream. Upon its course are several falls, affording an immense amount of water-power.[71] The E. part, sloping toward the river, is covered with a light, sandy soil, and the river intervale with a sandy loam and alluvium. The soil among the mountains is sandy; but the whole W. region is too rough for cultivation. Saranac, (p. v.,) upon Saranac River, contains a church, sawmill, forge, and 50 houses. Redford, (p. v.,) on the Saranac, near the S. border, contains 3 churches, several sawmills, and 60 houses.[72] Russia, 2 mi. above Saranac, contains 2 forges, and 20 houses. The first settlement was begun in 1802, by Russell Case and Ezekiel Pearce.[73] The first preacher was Rev. Lambert Hopper, in 1805.[74]

SCHUYLER FALLS[75] -- was formed from Plattsburgh, April 4, 1848. It is an interior town, lying a little S.E. of the center of the co. Its surface is rolling in the E. and hilly in the W., with an inclination toward the E. The Saranac forms its N. boundary, and Salmon River flows along its S. border. The soil is a light, sandy loam. Schuyler Falls, (p. v.,) on Salmon River, near the S. line of the town, contains a church, gristmill, starch factory, and 50 dwellings. Morrisonville, (p. v.,) on the Saranac, lies partly in Plattsburgh. It contains 3 churches, a gristmill, sawmill, starch factory, foundery, machine shop, and 35 houses. Norrisville, upon Salmon River, 3 mi. W. of Schuyler Falls, contains a starch factory, 2 forges, and 15 dwellings. The first settler was Ezra Turner, who located upon Salmon River in 1797.[76] The census reports 2 M.E. churches in town.[77]



[1] Named from Geo. Clinton, then Governor. When organised, it embraced all the land on both sides of Lake Champlain, as claimed by the State of New York. The claim E. of the lake was abandoned upon the recognition of Vermont as an independent State, in 1791.

[2] Clinton and Essex are the two most important mining cos. in the State. The veins of iron, in extent and richness, surpass those of any other part of the world. One was first discovered in the "Winter" ore bed, in Au Sable, by Geo. Shaffer, in 1800, - although travelers had previously frequently noticed the immense quantities of iron sand upon the lake shore. The principal veins now opened are the Arnold, Rutgers, Finch, Winter, Indian, Cook, Battle, Mace, Jackson, and McIntyre Mines, in Au Sable; the Palmer and Rutgers Mines, in Black Brook; and the Skinner and Averill Mines, in Dannemora. Veins of greater or less richness are found in all the towns underlaid by the primary rocks.

[3] Au Sable and Saranac Rivers flow through valuable lumber districts, and upon them are numerous sawmills. Immense quantities of logs are annually floated down these streams and worked up at the mills below. Several important plank roads have been constructed in the wilderness for the special accommodation of the lumber and iron business.

[4] The iron manufactured is principally in the form of blooms.

[5] Hunting is pursued as a business to some extent; and during the summer large numbers of amateur hunters from the cities flock to the wilderness for recreation and amusement.

[6] So abundant were salmon that 30 years ago 100 bbls. Were annually taken in the co.; and from its importance to the early settlers this fish was taken as a device for the first co. seal.

[7] The first court was held Oct. 28, 1788. A blockhouse erected at the time of the alarm occasioned by the defeat of St. Clair by the Indians was used for the first jail. A courthouse and jail of wood was erected in 1902-03, and burned in 1814 by the invading British army. A new one erected soon after was burned in 1836 and the present one was erected on its site. The first co. officers were Chas. Platt, First Judge; Josiah Throop and Chas. Hay, Judges; Robt. Cochran, Peter Sailly, Wm. McAuley, and Pliny Moore, Assistant Justices; Theodorus Platt, Surrogate; Benj. Mooers, Sheriff; amd Melanethon Lloyd Woolsey, Clerk.

[8] The Senate Committee of 1857 report that "this house is a very poor one, indifferently kept, and a disgrace to the co." The rooms were filthy and not at all ventilated; and the water supplied to the establishment is furnished from springs into which drains from the barnyard and privies empty. No school is taught and the children are not admitted to the public schools. The Supervisors have authorized a loan of $4,000 for rebuilding this establishment.

[9] The American Monitor was established in Plattsburgh in 1807 by W. Nichols and Sam'l Lowell, and continued a short time. The Plattsburgh Republican was begun in July, 1811, by - Reynolds. In 1813 Azariah C. Flagg became publisher, and continued it until 1826. It was subsequently under the charge of H.C. Miller and Wm. Laud. In Aug. 1833, it passed into the hands of Roby G. Stone, by whom it is still continued. The Northern Herald was begun April 18, 1813 by Fred C. Powell. In 1815 it was changed to The Plattsburgh Herald, and soon after it was discontinued. >The Northern Intelligencer was begun at Plattsburgh in May, 1821, by Fred. R. Allen. In 1832 it was united with The Aurora Borealis, which was established in 1828, the combined papers taking the name of the Plattsburgh Aurora. It was continued but a short time. The Democratic Press was published at Plattsburgh in 1834 by J.K. Averill. The Whig was started at Plattsburgh in 1835 by G.W. Platt. In 1838 it was changed to the Clinton County Whig. After several changes of ownership, in Oct. 1855, it was changed to The Plattsburgh Express, published by Albert G. Carver, and is still continued by him. The Berean Guide was published a short time at Beekmantown in 1837 by Rev. Mr. Bailey. The Free Democrat was published in 1848 by Oliver Hart. The Northern Lancet, mo., was begun in 1849 by Dr. Horace Nelson. It was soon changed toThe Lancet, and was continued till 1856. The Champlain Beacon was commenced in 1850 by Ketchum & Averill. In 1852 it was sold to D. Turner, of Keeseville, who changed it to The Rouses Point Advertiser, under which name it is still published. The Cottage Gazette was published in 1851 by Arthur C. Nelson. The American Sentinel was started Jan. 10, 1855, by Warren Dow. It was soon changed to The Plattsburgh Sentinel, and is still published.

[10] The Governor General and Intendant, on the 10th, 11th, and 12th days of April, 1733, granted 3 seigniories within the present limits of Champlain and Chazy, each 3 leagues in depth and fronting upon Lake Champlain. The first, granted to Hugues Jacques Pˇan, Sieur de Liviandi¸re, captain in the marines, extended from Chazy River 2½ leagues northward; the second was granted to Sieur Migeon de la Gauchit¸re, also a captain in the marines, and the third to Sieur de St. Vincent, jr., an ensign in the marines; each grant being 2 leagues in front. These grants were assigned forever, in fief and seigniory, with the right of superior, mean, and inferior jurisdiction, (haute, moyenne, et basse justice,) with the right of junting, fishing, and Indian trade, subject to the performance of fealty and homage at the Castle of St. Louis, in Quebec, agreeable to the custom of Paris followed in Canada. They were conditioned to the preservation by tenants of the oak-timber fit for the royal navy, the reservation of mines and highways to the crown, and the use of the beaches to fishermen unless actually occupied by the seignior. The patentees might grant concessions to tenants, subject to the customary cens et rentes and dues, for each arpent of land in front by 40 arpents in depth. If used for military purposes, materials for the erection of fortifications and firewood for the use of garrisons were to be given without charge, and the grant was to be submitted for the royal approbation within one year. The grantees having failed to make improvements on the 10th of May 1741, all these grants were declared to have reverted to his majesty's domain. On the 1st of Nov., 1752, a soigniory of 2½ leagues in front by 3 in depth, and including Chazy River, was granted to the Sieur Bedou, councellor in the Superior Council of Quebec, under conditions like those of Pˇan. - Titles and Docs. relating to the Seignorial Tenure.

[11] This engagement was one of the most gallant fought during the war, and although resulting disastrously it reflected no dishonor on the American arms. The American forces, commanded by Benedict Arnold, consisted of 1 sloop, 2 schooners, 4 galleys, and 8 gondolas, with 84 guns and 144 swivels; and the British forces, commanded my Capt. Thos. Pringles, of 1 ship, 2 schooners, 1 razee, 1 gondola, 20 gunboats, and 28 long boats, with 89 guns and 697 men. The American loss was 80 to 90, and the British about the same. The Americans saved themselves by running their vessels aground and swimming ashore.

[12] Judge Pliny Moore, who settled in Champlain in 1785, was visited on the 1st of every month by a British corporal and file of men, from Point Au Fer, to notify him that his claim under the State would not be recognised; but no attention was paid to these repeated warnings. - Palmer's Hist. Lake Champlain. p. 152.

[13] In 1808 two Government officers were killed in attempting to seize a smuggling vessel called the Black Snake.

[14] The following is a brief chronological list of the most important events of the war connected with this co.

1812,

Sept. 1.

-

Gen. Bloomfield, with 8,000 troops, prepared to attack Canada.

"

Sept. 16.

-

Troops consisting of 3,000 regulars and 2,000 militia, under Gen. Dearborn, encamped within a half mile of the Canada line.

"

Sept. 20.

-

Guardhouse at La Cole surprised; but, as plans of attack were frustrated, the troops retired to Plattsburgh for winter quarters.

1813,

Feb.

-

Two brigades marched to Sackets Harbor, leaving the W. side of the lake entirely unprotected till Sept.

"

June 2.

-

Naval engagement near Ash Island, Canada, between an American force, under Lieut. Sidney Smith, and several British gunboats, resulting in the loss of the American sloops Growler and Eagle and 112 men. The vessels were subsequently re-captured.

"

July 31.

-

A British force of 1,400 men, under Col. Murray, made a descent upon Plattsburgh and destroyed a large amount of public and private property.

"

Sept. 19.

-

A body of 3,000 American troops, under Gen. Hampton, concentrated at Cumberland Head and started on an expedition against Canada.

"

Sept. 21.

-

After remaining one day in Canada, the Gen. Changed his plan, and, ostensibly on his way to Montreal, he marched to Chateaugay, and there remained idle 26 days.

"

Oct. 1.

-

A small party of American militia surprised a picket guard at Odeltown, Canada.

"

Oct. 11.

-

Col. Isaac Clark, with 110 men, crossed the lake from Champlain, attacked a party of British at Missisco Bay, killed 9, wounded 14, and took 101 prisoners.

"

Nov.

-

A party of Vt. militia crossed the lake and placed themselves under General Hampton. The Gov. of Vt. ordered them to return; but they refused to obey.

"

Dec. 1

-

A British naval force, consisting of 6 armed galleys, under Capt. Pring, entered the lake and burned an empty storehouse near Rouses Point. In the report of Sir George Provost, this building was converted into a large magazine of stores at Plattsburgh.

1814,

Jan. 18.

-

A detachment of infantry from Plattsburgh arrived upon the frontier, soon followed by another body of troops, under Gen. Wilkinson.

"

March 30.

-

Under the direction of Gen. Wilkinson, Maj. Forsyth attacked a gristmill at La Cole, but was repulsed with a loss of 104 in killed and wounded. The British loss was 56.

"

May 9.

-

A British naval force, consisting of 5 sloops and 13 row-galleys, under Capt. Pring, were repulsed in an attack upon Otter Creek, in Vt. On their retreat they entered Baquet River, but were attacked by a body of militia, and nearly all the men in the rear galley were killed or wounded.

"

June 24.

-

Lieut. Col. Forsyth, with 70 riflemen, entered Canada, and was attacked by a British force of 200 men. He effected his retreat with little loss, but a few days after was killed in another skirmish.

"

Aug. 29.

-

Gen. Izard, with the greater part of the American force, left Champlain, leaving the immense amount of military stores at Plattsburgh in charge of Gen. Macomb, at the head of 3,400 men, 1,400 of whom were sick.

"

Aug. 30.

-

Gen. Brisbane, with the advance guard of his British army, took possession of Champlain.

"

Sept. 3.

-

Sir Geo. Provost, Gov. of Canada, at the head of 14,000 men, advanced S. from Champlain, arriving within 8 mi. of Plattsburgh on the evening of the 5th.

"

Sept. 6.

-

Skirmish at Culvers Hill, and the first attack on Plattsburgh, in which the British lost 200 men and the Americans 45.

"

Sept. 11.

-

Naval engagement in Cumberland Bay, resulting in the complete victory of the Americans, and an attack upon the American landworks, which was repulsed. The British army retreated during the following night.

"

Sept. 24.

-

Last division of the British army retired to Canada.

[15] Gov. Chittenden of Vt. issued a proclamation calling upon the militia to rally and repel the invasion; and large numbers promptly responded to the call and repaired to the camp. The call upon Washington and Warren cos. was answered by 350 more men than had ever mustered at an inspection or review.

[16] The comparative strength and loss of the two parties on the lake were as follows:-

AMERICAN

       

Vessels.

Men

Guns

Killed

Wounded

Flagship Saratoga, Com. Macdonough

212

26

28

29

Brig. Eagle, Capt. Henlyn

150

20

13

20

Schooner Ticonderoga, Lieut. Cassin

110

17

6

6

Sloop Preble, Lieut. Chas. Budd

30

7

2

 

Galleys Allen, Burrows, Borer, Nettle, Viper, and Centipede (each 1 long 24 and 1 Columbian)

210

12

   

Galleys Ludlow, Wilmer, Alwin, and Ballard (each 1 12 pound)

140

4

   

Total

852

86

49

55

BRITISH

       

Frigate Confiance, Capt. Downie

300

39

41

83

Brig Linnet, Capt. Pring

120

16

10

14

Sloop Chub, Lieut. McGhee

45

11

6

10

Sloop Finch, Lieut. Hicks

45

11

 

2

Galleys Sir Jas. Yeo, Sir Geo. Provost, Sir Sidney Beckwith, Broke, and Murray (each 2 guns)

225

10

   

Galleys Wellington, Tecumseh, Drummond, Simcoe, and 4 names unknown (each 1 gun)

360

8

   

Total

1,095

95

57

109

The action lasted 2¼ hours. The British galleys lowered their colors; but, not being pursued, they escaped, as did also a storeship which lay near the point of Cumberland Head during the engagement. The loss upon the enemy's galleys was not ascertained, but was large; and the total British loss was one-fifth of their whole number. In their retreat the British left behind them a vast quantity of provisions, tents, camp equipage, and ammunition, together with their sick and wounded. The British and American officers were buried separately near the center of the village cemetery; and the sailors and marines of both fleets side by side in one common grave, on Crab Island. Some time after, the sister-in-law of Com. Geo. Downie placed a tablet over his grave; and on the anniversary of the battle, in 1843, the citizens of Plattsburgh and the Clinton Co. Military Association erected plain marble monuments at the unmarked graves of Lieut. G.W. Runk, Lieut. Peter Gamble, Lieut. John Stansbury, Sailing Master Rogers Carter, Midshipman J.M. Baldwin, and Pilot Joseph Barrow of the American navy; and Col. Willington, Ensign J. Chapman, Lieut. R. Kingsbury, Boatswain Chas. Jackson, Capt. Purchase, Capt. Alex. Anderson (marines,) Acting Capt. Wm. Paul, and Midshipman V.M. Gunn, of the British army and navy.

[17] Sir Geo. Provost, in his official report, says, "This unlooked for event deprived me of the co-operation of the fleet, without which the further prosecution of the service was become impracticable. I did not hesitate to arrest the course of the troops advancing to the attack, because the most complete success would have been unavailing, and the possession of the enemy's works offered no advantage to compensate for the loss we must have sustained in acquiring possession of them."

[18] The act making this grant bears date of May 11, 1782. The names of Canadian refugees were reported by Brig. Gen. Moses Hazen and Col. Jeremiah Throop, and those of the Nova Scotia refugees by Col. James Livingston. The small lots were laid out in narrow strips fronting upon the lake, and the remainder in the rear. These lands were distributed among 252 persons, who drew the lots by ballot. The greater part of the tract was not occupied in the time specified by the act, and reverted to the State.

[19] Among the early settlers were Lyman Clothier, Eliphalet Hascall, Daniel and Robert Baker, Thos. Cudworth, Simon Goodspeed, and Daniel Robinson. The first birth was that of Matilda K Wood, May 30, 1802. Sarah Stockwell taught the first school, in 1804; and Lyman Clothier kept the first inn.

[20] Pronounced Au Saw«ble, a French name signifying river of sand. The name is said to have been derived from a sandy bar at the mouth of the river.

[21] This cascade is located about 2 mi. below Keeseville. From the face of the cliff the river has worn back a ragged and irregular channel in the solid sandstone for a distance of nearly 2 mi. and to the depth of 100 to 130 feet. The rocks that border it are perpenducular, and in some places overhanging, so that the water can scarcely be seen from the banks above. At several points this ravine is compressed to a width of less that 30 feet. The river plunges into the chasm in a perpendicular descent of 70 feet, and struggles through the tortuous channel, foaming, whirling, and eddying over its rocky bed.

[22] The Arnold ore bed, 2½ mi. N.W. of Clintonville, was first opened in 1809. The shaft is 350 feet deep, and the ore is raised by steam. For many years the average annual yield has been 1,000 tons; and for 5 years before 1856 it was 1,500 tons. There are 5 veins, with a total width of 25 feet, yielding ores of different qualities. This mine has supplied the forges of Jay, Wilmington, and Chesterfield, in Essex co., and of Peru, Au Sable, and Black Brook, in Clinton co. Other ore beds are found, of which the Finch vein, a continuation of the Arnold, is the only one now worked. It has supplied the force in Jay. The ore from this bed is a peroxid, and may be worked without washing or other separation.

[23] Named from Richard and Oliver Keese, sons of John Keese, one of the original proprietors. The two parts of the village are connected by 3 bridges, - one of stone, one of wood, and one an iron suspension foot bridge. The stone bridge is a single arch of 110 feet.

[24] About 3,500 tons of nails and 1,500 tons of merchant iron and 70,000 nail kegs are manufactured here annually. The first rolling mill in the State was established here, in 1816.

[25] The Peru Iron Co. was incorp. Nov. 11, 1824, with a capital of $200,000. The iron works built by them at Clintonville subsequently passed into the hands of Francis Saltus, and are now owned by him and his sons. In one building are 20 forge fires, and the blooms made are entirely worked up into merchant iron, of which 7,500 tons are produced annually.

[26] Among the other early settlers were John Keese and his sons Richard, John, Oliver, Stephen, and William, Caleb Green and his sons Henry, Rodman, John, and James, Peter Halleck, Danl. Jackson, Gilbert and Gerrit Thew, John Haff, Elisha Arnold, and John Stanton, about 1795. The first child born was in the family of John Stanton, about 1795. The mother of this child was a servant girl in the family. The wife, not being exactly reconciled to the circumstances, insisted upon being immediately taken to her friends in Dutchess co. It being winter, the husband took her upon a hand sled and drew her upon the lake to "Skenesborough," thence to Fort Edward, and down the Hudson to her father;s, after which he returned to Au Sable, having been 5 weeks in performing the journey. Upon his return he married the mother of the child, and lived with her many years. The first school was taught in 1791, by - Thompson; the first inn was kept by Joel Buck, in 1800; and the first forge was erected by Geo. Griswold, in 1812.

[27] The census reports 8 churches in town; 2 Cong., 2 M. E., 2 Friends, Presb., and R.C.

[28] Named from Wm. Beekman, to whom, with 29 others, the town was granted March 27, 1769. It embraced 22,475 acres.

[29] Mooers was appointed to survey the Refugee Tract. After several years he removed to Cumberland Head, and afterward to Plattsburgh. Thos. Treadwell, Ezekiel Hubbard, Henry Deming, Jonathan Scribner, Abner Pomeroy, Simon Newcomb, jr., Capt. John Jersey, and Joseph Main settled near Beekmantown Corners; Philip Roberts, Henry Barnes, Ephraim and Amos Mooers and John Deming were also among the early settlers. The first birth was that of Silas Pomeroy; the first marriage, that of Eli Howe and Miss Hubbard, in 1794; and the first death, that of a child of Simon Newcomb.

[30] Among the killed were Lieut. Col. Willington and Ensign Chapman, of the enemy, and several of the American militia. - Palmer's Hist. Lake Champlain, p. 152.

[31] Names from its principal stream. The town comprises portions of the Old Military Tract and of Livingston's Patent. The military lands were finally conveyed to Benj. Birdsall and his associates by act of Feb. 4, 1793, to satisfy claims growing out of the suppression of the lease of all of the Indian lands in the State for 999 years - Folio Laws, XVI. Sess., p.24. Clark's Hist. Onon., vol. I, p. 368.

[32] The Palmer Mine, 2 mi. N. of Au Sable Forks, was discovered by Z. Palmer in 1825. It is situated on a hill 400 to 500 feet above the river. The ore is raised by steam, and the yield is 15,000 to 20,000 tons per year. The Myers Mine, at Clayburgh, has been worked since 1846. It yields annually 1,500 tons of ore, principally used in the manufacture of wire, tacks, and small nails. The Trombois Mine was discovered in 1845, and about 10,000 tons of ore have been raised. The iron made from it is soft and tough, and is principally used in the manufacture of boiler plates, horse shoe nails, and car axles.

[33] The Sable Iron Company have extensive works at Au Sable Forks and at Black Brook, and they manufacture 2,600 tons of blooms, 900 tons of merchant iron, 50,000 to 55,000 kegs of nails, using 1,600,000 bush. Of charcoal per annum. 2,500 tons of blooms are manufactured at their establishment at Black Brook alone. The Co. was incorp. In Sept. 1834, and the stock is now owned by J. & J. Rogers.

[34] There are 8 to 10 large sawmills in town.

[35] The products of the Myers Mine are principally manufactured at this place. A water-power near the mine is improved, and a forge of 5 fires is in active operation. A steam forge and steam hammer for the manufacture of R.R. axles were in operation here about 4 years.

[36] Several plank roads have been built in this town to facilitate the iron and lumber business. - Curtis kept the first inn, near the center, in 1828. Halsey Rogers and John McIntyre located in town in 1830. The Sable Iron Co. erected the first forge the same year.

[37] Called Point au Feu (Fire Point) upon a map bearing date of 1748. During the Revolution, the Moira, a vessel of war, anchored off this point, and barracks were built upon the land for the winter quarters of the marines. The place was occupied by the British until 1796. It was reserved by the State in 1787 for military purposes, but was not used.

[38] This place contains a fine water-power, and a large amount of manufacturing is carried on. The greater part of the lumber brought down by the Ogdensburgh R.R. is shipped here.

[39] Names from Geo. Perry, former proprietor.

[40] Named for Jacques Rouse, a Canadian, who settled here in 1783. This village has grown to importance since the completion of the R.R. The passenger and freight dep™ts are both among the largest R.R. structures in the State. A bridge a mi. long here crosses the lake. A floating draw of 300 feet, opened and shut by steam, admits the passage of vessels. About one mi. N. of the village, upon the banks of the lake, Fort Montgomery is situated. This fort commands the entrance to the lake. It was begun soon after the War of 1812; but in 1818 it was found to be within the limits of Canada, and the work was abandoned. It became known as "Fort Blunder;" but by the Webster Treaty of 1842 it was ceded again to the U.S. Work upon it has been resumed; and it is estimated that the completed works will cost $600,000, of which sum $275,000 has already been expended.

[41] Named from Ebenezer Cooper, who erected mills there.

[42] Moore came in to survey the tract granted to Smith, Graves, and others, in 1785. He erected the first saw and grist mills, in 1789. Among the other early settlers were Elnathan Rogers, Wm. Beaumont, Chas. L. Sailly, Samuel Ashman, Joseph Corbin, Silas Hubbell, Elias Dewey, Charles Bedlow, David Savage, and Benj. Tyler.

[43] M.E., Prot. E., Presb., and R.C. Since 1855, 3 churches have been organized at Rouses Point; R.C., M.E. and Prot. E.

[44] Pronounced Sh‡-zee. It included the patent granted to Elkanah Dean and 29 others, July 11, 1769.

[45] He was accompanied by two men, named Gonde and Swarte. He was driven off in 1776, but returned after the war, and died there in 1810. - Palmer's Hist. Lake Champlain, p. 80.

[46] Among the early settlers were Levi Hazen, Septa Fillmore, John Bronson, Elisha Ransom, George Root, and John Douglas. Miss M. Bingham taught the first school, in 1802.

[47] 2 M.E., Bap., Cong., and Wes. Meth.

[48] Among these early settlers were Junio Howard, Calvin Johnson, C,A, Smith, Ebenezer Gates, George Peters, and Stephen Martin, mostly from Vt. The first child born was Rhoda S. Howard, Feb. 7, 1819; the first marriage, that of Cornelius Austin and Fanny Hall, in 1822; and the first death, that of a child of William Hunter, in 1820. Mary Emmonds taught the first school, in 1821; Benjamin Roberts kept the first inn; Charles D. Backus the first store, in 1835; and John McCoy erected the first sawmill.

[49] Named by Gen. Skinner, from a celebrated iron locality in Sweden.

[50] The prison was erected under the superintendence of Ransom Cook, under an act passed May 1, 1844. The prison grounds, comprising 25 acres, are located upon the slope of a hill, and are surrounded by pickets 23 feet high. The main buildings, constructed of dressed stone, are in the form of a T, and are respectively 364 by 56 feet, and 160 by 40 feet. The cells are constructed in a block 3 stories high in the center of the building, a wide corridor extending completely around between them and the outer walls. The main buildings have slate roofs and are completely fireproof. Within the grounds are a steam forge, with 10 fires, a rolling mill, foundery, steam separator capable of washing 600 tons of ore per month, 7 coal kilns, a steam sawmill machine shop, and the ruins of a blast furnace, burned June 24, 1856. A large share of the labor of constructing those works has been done by convicts. The prison works were first supplied with ore from the Skinner Mine, owned by the State; but more recently from the Averill Mine. A new mine has lately been discovered upon the State grounds. Besides the manufacture of iron, stave making, coopering, and shoemaking are carried on. The total earnings in 4 years, ending in 1857, were $120,537.56; and the total expenses, $212,901.22.

[51] Named in compliment to Ellen, daughter of John R. Murray, of N.Y., the principal proprietor of Township No. 5 of the Military Tract.

[52] Among the early settlers were Aaron Broadwell and Lewis Ransom, in 1823; and Benjamin Hine, W. Jennings, jr., Joseph Serey, Pardon Daily, Joseph Lawrence, and Samuel Hazleton, soon after. The first child born was Lloyd Rogers Hines. He was named after Lloyd Rogers, and received a farm of 50 acres for the name. The first marriage was that of Smith Delamater and PhĻbe Eastabrook. John R. Murray built the first saw and grist mill.

[53] M.E., Prot. E., Presb., and Union. The Union Church was built by J.R. Murray.

[54] Named from Maj. Gen. Benj. Mooers, an early settler and prominent citizen of the co.

[55] This gulf is 16 rods wide and 300 feet deep. At its bottom is a pond of water said to be 150 feet deep. The walls are of sandstone, and perpendicular. No existing agencies could have produced this chasm. - N.Y. Geol., 2d Dist., p. 309.

[56] Among the early settlers were Ichabod Bosworth, Geo. And Daniel Perry, /Andrew Blackman and sons, Daniel Southwick, John, Joseph, and Samuel Churchill, John Sheldon, and Robert Tripp. The first child born was Wm. Hallenbeck, in 1801; the first marriage, that of David Anderson and Rhoda Perry, Dec. 5, 1805; and the first death of an adult, that of Mrs. J.C. Bosworth, Sept. 26, 1802.

[57] The census reports 4 churches in town; Cong., M.E., Prot.E., and Presb.

[58] Name applied from its mountainous character.

[59] Hay lived opposite Valcour Island, and witnessed the naval engagement of Arnold. He soon after removed to Canada, but returned in 1785. Among the other early settlers were John Cochrane, John Howe, Isaac Finch, Abijah Ketchum, Lott and John Elmore, Ezekiel Lockwood, Samuel Jackson, Cyrenus Newcomb, Geo. Hayworth, Benj. Sherman, and Silas and Robert Cochrane. The first child born was Ira, son of John Howe, in 1784; the first marriage, that of Lott Elmore and Mary Hay, Dec. 17, 1788; and the first death, that of Wm. Hay, Feb. 28, 1779. M. Finch taught the first school, in 1790-91; John Cochrane built the first grist and saw mill; - Wood built the first forge, and Geo. Hayworth and John Hackstaff built the first factory. A large stone woolen factory built in 1836, by Richard Hayworth, was changed in 1851 to a starch factory.

[60] 2 M.E., Cong., and R.C.

[61] This island is memorable for the naval engagement which took place near it during the Revolution. The remains of the schooner Royal Savage, sunk at that time, may still be seen.

[62] The sailors and marines killed in the naval battle of Sept. 11, 1814, were buried upon this island.

[63] Extensive military works were begun here in 1814, but were abandoned upon the approach of the enemy. The state of Vt. presented Com. MacDonough with a farm on this point, which is still owned by his descendants.

[64] Built in 1856, at a cost of $3,000. It is a fireproof brick building, and contains a town hall, armory, and fire engine room.

[65] This is a fine fireproof brick building, built at a cost of $80,000, and contains rooms for the customhouse, postoffice, and U.S. Court.

[66] These buildings were commenced in 1838, and were originally designed to inclose a space of 600 feet square. Only a part of the design has been carried out. Troops were stationed here until 1846 when there were sent to join the army in Mexico. The buildings are now used by the Clinton Co. Agricultural Society for its annual fairs.

[67] This grant was made in accordance with the provisions of an act passed in 1781, which provided that when 61 rights, or 30,500 acres, should be jointly located, a tract 7 mi. square should be granted, including 860 acres for gospel and schools.

[68] Among the settlers who received lots under this offer were Kinner Newcomb, Jacob Ferris, Thos. Allen, John B. Hartwick, Derrick Webb, Jabez Pettit, Moses Soper, Lucius Reynolds, and Henry Ostrander. Among the other early settlers were Ichabod Truesdale, Peter Roberts, Wm. Campbell, Benj. Ketchum, and Benj. Graves, who settled at the village; Melanethon L. Woolsey, - Adams, Frederick Durant, Wm. Coe, Russell Ransom, Benj. Mooers, Wm. P. and Theodorus Platt, who settled on Cumberland Head; Lambert Joppin, John Stevenson, Gideon Ruger, Joshua Hillyard, and Abm. Webb, who located on South St.; Benj. Reynolds, Sam'l Norcross, John Roberts, and Benj. Hammond, on Center St.; Nath'l Platt, Sam'l Benson, Eliphalet Haskins, Jos. Ormsby, Benj. Vaughn, and John Wait, on North St.; and Melanethon Smith, Zephaniah Platt, Thos. Treadwell, Peter Sailly, and Wm. Bailey, in other parts of the town.

[69] The first child born was Ida Ostrander, Sept. 7, 1785; the first male child, Platt Newcomb, Nov. 1 1785; the first marriage was that of Peter Sailly and Marianne Adelaide Greille, June 8, 1789; and the first death, that of Mrs. Sailly, first wife of Peter Sailly, Dec. 23, 1786. Twelve of the original proprietors met at the house of Judge Platt, at Poughkeepsie, Dec. 30, 1784, and took measures for the immediate erection of a grist and saw mill and forge. These buildings were the first in town.

[70] 3 R.C., Bap., M.E., Wes. Meth., Presb., Prot. E., and Union.

[71] At the Saranac Falls the river flows through a narrow, tortuous channel, bounded by nearly perpendicular rocks, for the space of a mi. In its course its descent is very rapid, and at several places it is precipitated down precipices of 20 or 30 ft., and at last it plunges into a basin in a perpendicular fall of 60 feet. The ragged rocks upon the bottom and sides, and the abrupt angles in the channel, cause the water to boil and seethe and struggle in the wildest commotion. In high water, thousands of saw logs float down the river, and in their passage down the falls they are pitched and tossed upon the surges, or thrown into the air like play things.

[72] In 1831, John S. Foster, agent of a company, came to this place and erected a saw and grist mill, and, during the next season, a large manufactory of crown glass. The manufacture of glass was carried on with varying success until 1852 when it was finally abandoned. Mr. Foster went to Jefferson co. in 1832, and there commenced the manufacture of glass; Gershom Cook, Elias W. Corning, and Matthew Lane, of Troy, were proprietors of the establishment.

[73] Among the early settlers were Sylvanus Smith, Wright Spaulding, Lyman Manly, Nath;l Lyon, John Gregory and son Czar, Lewis Ferris and sons, Isaiah and John Lambert, John M. Hopper and John Chamberlain. Samuel Stone, first agent for Township No. 4 of the Old Military Tract, with another man, attempting to go to Malone, was caught in a snow storm, and his companion frozen to death, Oct. 8 1802. He was himself so injured that he died in 3 weeks. John D. Fiske, the second agent, was killed by a falling tree, June 21, 1805. The first birth was that of Isaac Smith, May 9, 1804; the first marriage, that of Cornelius Hopper and Sophia Case, in 1819; and the first death of a settler, that of John D. Flake, June 8, 1805. Royal Spaulding taught the first school, in 1805; and Isaiah Ferris built the first saw and grist mill, in 1806.

[74] There are 4 churches in town; 2 M.E., Presb., and R.C.

[75] Named from the proprietor of the present village site.

[76] Among the early settlers were Daniel and Roswell Jones, John P. Roberts, David Hare, Daniel Hillson, Henry Purdy, Jonathan Wickham, and Jas. Brand, all of whom located upon Salmon River.

[77] 2 churches (Bap. And Union) at Morrisonville are located N. of the river, in Plattsburgh.