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HISTORY OF LYCOMING COUNTY
PENNSYLVANIA

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By
Colonel Thomas W. Lloyd
Secretary of the Lycoming Historical Society

HISTORICAL PUBLISHING COMPANY
TOPEKA--INDIANAPOLIS
1929

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.
LOCATION, ABORIGINES, EARLY EXPLORATIONS.

LOCATION--TOPOGRAPHY--PRINCIPAL INDUSTRY-- ORIGINAL INHABITANTS--OTHER INDIAN TRIBES-- CONFLICTING CLAIMS--PENN'S PURCHASE--FIRST WHITE MAN HERE--OTHER WHITE SETTLERS--MORAVIAN MISSIONARIES--FRENCH MARGARET--INDIAN TROUBLES.

65-71
CHAPTER II.
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR--EARLY SETTLEMENTS.

BRITISH AND FRENCH RIVALRY--FORT AUGUSTA-- "CANNON HOLE"--EFFECT OF DEFEAT AT BUSHY RUN AND OCCUPATION OF FT. DUQUESNE--LAND GRANTS-- EARLY MANORS--PENN'S PLAN OF SELLING LAND--A NEW SYSTEM--OTHER METHODS OF ACQUIRING LANDS-- ABUSES OF LATER SYSTEMS

73-78

CHAPTER III.
MUNCY MANOR--PINE CREEK--FAIR PLAY MEN--PINE CREEK DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

FIRST SETTLEMENT--SAMUEL WALLIS--REDEMPTIONERS --RUSH OF SETTLERS--EARLY TOWNS--NORTHUMBER- LAND COUNTY ERECTED IN 1772--INCLUDED PRESENT LYCOMING COUNTY--REVOLUTIONARY WAR AND ITS EFFECT-TIADAGHTON CREEK-FAIRPLAY MEN--HOW CHOSEN--MEMBERS--METHOD OF PROCEDURE--PINE CREEK DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE--REV. FITHIAN

79-89

CHAPTER IV.
THE BIG RUNAWAY--FORT MUNCY.

NEWS OF THE WYOMING MASSACRE--SETTLERS ORDERED TO FLEE TO FORT AUGUSTA FOR SAFETY--GREAT EXODUS FROM THE VALLEY--CLOSELY FOLLOWED BY INDIANS WHO DEVASTATED THE ENTIRE VALLEY--SHORTAGE OF FOOD IN THE FORT--LOCAL EFFECT OF THE BATTLE OF MONMOUTH--TROOPS ARRIVE--BUILDING OF FORT MUNCY--ANOTHER INDIAN RAID--FORT MUNCY DESTROYED--CIVIL AFFAIRS DEMORALIZED--ENGLISH INFLUENCE AMONG INDIANS.

90-96

CHAPTER V.
COLONEL HARTLEY'S EXPEDITION--DEATH OF JAMES AND CAPTAIN JOHN BRADY.

SELECTED TO LEAD EXPEDITION AGAINST INDIANS--PLAN OF CAMPAIGN--OBJECTIVE--ENGAGEMENTS WITH INDIANS--SUCCESS OF EXPEDITION--JAMES BRADY AND OTHERS KILLED BY INDIANS--CAPT. JOHN BRADY KILLED--CANOTHER INDIAN AND TORY RAID--FORTS BRADY AND FREELAND DESTROYED--GENERAL SULLIVAN'S INVASION--CAPTAIN KEMPLEN KILLED--COLONEL HUNTER--MOSES VAN CAMP--ROBERT COVENHAVEN.

97-105

CHAPTER VI.
SETTLEMENT AT MUNCY--INDIAN DEPREDATIONS--CATHERINE SMITH.

MUNCY MANOR DIVIDED--JOHN BRADY BUILDS FORT--LOCAL EFFECT OF THE REVOLUTION--PRESENCE OF TORIES--FREQUENT MASSACRES--SETTLERS ORGANIZE DEFENSE--SHORTAGE OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION--CATHERINE SMITH--THE WYOMING MASSACRE.

106-112

CHAPTER VII.
LYCOMING COUNTY ERECTED.

AN ATTRACTIVE LOCATION--NECESSITY FOR A NEW COUNTY--FAILURE OF MEASURE IN 1786--EFFORT TO REMOVE COUNTY SEAT DEFEATED--BILL ERECTING COUNTY PASSED IN 1795--EXTENT OF NEW COUNTY--FIRST OFFICIALS--SELECTING A COUNTY SEAT--COURTS ORGANIZED--RIVAL CLAIMANTS FOR COUNTY SEAT--WILLIAMSPORT SELECTED--JAIL AND COURT HOUSE BUILT.

113-120
CHAPTER VIII.
OFFICERS OF LYCOMING COUNTY.

PROTHONOTARIES--SHERIFFS--REGISTERS AND RECORDERS--CORONERS--TREASURERS-- DISTRICT ATTORNEYS--COUNTY COMMISSIONERS.

121-127

CHAPTER IX.
EARLY ROADS--STAGE COACHES--CANALS --RAILROADS.

FIRST HIGHWAYS--THE GENESEE ROAD--COUDERSPORT PIKE--RIVER THE FIRST MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION-- CANAL BUILDING--FIRST RAILROAD COMPLETED--OTHER RAILROADS--TRANSPORTATION OF LUMBER--PENNSYLVANIA'S SYSTEM--PETER HERDIC--RESIDENT RAILROAD OFFICIALS--READING RAILROAD--RIVER TRANSPORTATION.

128-136
CHAPTER X.
EARLY INDUSTRIES.

AN EARLY SIGNBOARD--HESHBON--McKINLEYS FORGE-- EARLY FURNACES--SAWMILLS AND GRIST MILLS-- OTHER INDUSTRIES--HORTICULTURE--FIRST FOUNDRY-- EARLY MANUFACTURING--SALT WELLS--SALT MANUFACTURING--CEMENT ROCK.

137-143

CHAPTER XI.
GEOLOGY, TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES.

FORMATION--MOUNTAIN PLATEAU LANDS--AGRICULTURAL LAND--GEOLOGICAL MEASURES--MOUNTAIN PEAKS--FERTILE VALLEYS--OUTCROPPING OF VARIOUS FORMATIONS--GLACIER PERIOD--COAL--IRON ORE--STONE.

144-153

CHAPTER XII.
GROWTH OF THE COUNTY--LUMBER INDUSTRY.

A PICTURESQUE REGION--POPULATION IN 1800--PIONEER HOMES AND FARMS--THE LUMBER INDUSTRY APPEARS--FINEST LUMBER DISTRICT IN THE WORLD--SAW MILLS--ENORMOUS PRODUCTION OF LUMBER--PASSING OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY--MANUFACTURING--SCENERY, CLIMATE AND WATER.

154-158
CHAPTER XIII.
BOROUGHS.

JERSEY SHORE--SOUTH WILLIAMSPORT--MUNCY-- MONTOURSVILLE.

159-173

CHAPTER XIV.
BOROUGHS, CONTINUED.

MONTGOMERY--HUGHESVILLE--DUBOISTOWN--PICTURE ROCKS--SALLADASBURG--RALSTON.

174-186

CHAPTER XV.
TOWNSHIPS.

MUNCY TOWNSHIP--WASHINGTON TOWNSHIP--BRADY TOWNSHIP--CLINTON TOWNSHIP--FRANKLIN TOWN- SHIP--MORELAND TOWNSHIP.

187-203

CHAPTER XVI.
TOWNSHIPS, CONTINUED.

MUNCY CREEK TOWNSHIP--JORDAN TOWNSHIP--WOLF TOWNSHIP--MILL CREEK TOWNSHIP--PENN TOWN- SHIP--PLUNKETT'S CREEK TOWNSHIP--FAIRFIELD TOWN- SHIP--UPPER FAIRFIELD TOWNSHIP--SHREWSBURY TOWNSHIP-- McINTYRE TOWNSHIP--CASCADE TOWN- SHIP

204-218

CHAPTER XVII.
TOWNSHIPS, CONTINUED.

GAMBLE TOWNSHIP--McNETT TOWNSHIP--ARMSTRONG TOWNSHIP--LOYALSOCK TOWNSHIP--HEPBURN TOWN- SHIP--ELDRED TOWNSHIP----OLD LYCOMING TOWN- SHIP--LYCOMING TOWNSHIP----LEWIS TOWNSHIP-- LIMESTONE TOWNSHIP.

219-239

CHAPTER XVIII.
TOWNSHIPS, CONCLUDED.

NIPPENOSE TOWNSHIP--SUSQUEHANNA TOWNSHIP--BASTRESS TOWNSHIP--WOODWARD TOWNSHIP--ANTHONY TOWNSHIP--COGAN HOUSE TOWNSHIP--PORTER TOWNSHIP--MIFFLIN TOWNSHIP--PIATT TOWNSHIP--JACKSON TOWNSHIP--WATSON TOWNSHIP--BROWN TOWNSHIP--CUMMINGS TOWNSHIP--PINE TOWNSHIP--McHENRY TOWNSHIP.

240-256

CHAPTER XIX.
BENCH AND BAR.

FIRST COURTS HELD AT JAYSBURG--WILLIAM HEPBURN FIRST JUDGE--JUDGE COOPER--OTHER EARLY JUDGES-- LATER JUDGES--ASSOCIATE JUDGES--FIRST LAWYERS-- LATER DAY LAWYERS--PRESENT MEMBERS OF THE BAR

257-266

CHAPTER XX.
THE MEDICAL PROFESSION.

THE FIRST PHYSICIAN IN THE VALLEY--DR. LATHEY FIRST TO LOCATE IN WILLIAMSPORT--OTHER PIONEER DOCTORS--THE OLD TIME DOCTOR--PIONEER METHODS--PRESENT DAY PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS.

267-271

CHAPTER XXI.
RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

FIRST CHURCH SOCIETY--MISSIONARIES--REV. ISAAC GRIER--FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH ORGANIZED-- SECOND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH--FIRST METHODIST CHURCH--EPISCOPAL CHURCH-- LUTHERAN--BAPTIST-- HEBREW--CATHOLIC.

272-279

CHAPTER XXII.
MILITARY HISTORY.

PATRIOTISM BEFORE AND DURING REVOLUTION--CAPTAIN LOWDON ORGANIZED COMPANY WHICH JOINED WASHINGTON'S ARMY--OTHER COMPANIES FROM THIS SECTION--TWO COMPANIES ORGANIZED FOR WAR OF 1812--MEXICAN WAR--ORGANIZATIONS WHICH SERVED IN THE CIVIL WAR FROM LYCOMING COUNTY--EMERGENCY TROOPS--SAWDUST WAR--TWELFTH REGIMENT--RAILROAD RIOTS--SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR--MEXICAN BORDER--MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS.

280-295

CHAPTER XXIII.
THE WORLD WAR.

STATE OF WAR DECLARED--RECRUITING--FIRST IN SERVICE--BATTERY D AND COMPANY D--FIRST LIBERTY LOAN--RED CROSS--FIRST MEN TO LEAVE FOR SERVICE--HEAVY ENLISTMENTS--OVATION TO SOLDIERS--FOOD ADMINISTRATOR APPOINTED--BATTERY D IN FRANCE--OTHER LYCOMING COUNTY TROOPS IN ACTION--DECORATIONS FOR HEROISM--SIGNING OF THE ARMISTICE--DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS.

296-302

CHAPTER XXIV.
WILLIAMSPORT.

COUNTY SEAT RIVALRY--JAYSBURG AND OTHER ASPIRANTS--WILLIAMSPORT SELECTED--FIRST LOG BUILDING USED FOR COURT--LOG COURT HOUSE BUILT IN 1804--RUSSELL INN FIRST HOUSE ERECTED IN WILLIAMSPORT--LOT FOR COURTHOUSE DONATED BY MICHAEL ROSS--OTHER BUILDINGS ERECTED--EARLY DAY TAVERNS.

303-311

CHAPTER XXV.
WILLIAMSPORT, CONTINUED.

FIRST BRICK BUILDING STILL STANDING--SECOND BRICK HOUSE--PIONEER BUSINESS MEN--EARLY CHURCHES--FIRST GRIST MILL--DISTILLERY--TANNERY--IRON FOUNDRY--ORIGIN OF NAME IN DOUBT--WILLIAMSPORT INCORPORATED A BOROUGH IN 1806--BURGESSES--POPULATION IN 1850 AND 1860--CITY INCORPORATED IN 1866--MAYORS--ADDITIONS TO CITY--A LUMBER CENTER--"BIG WATER MILL."

312-319

CHAPTER XXVI.
WILLIAMSPORT, CONTINUED.

"BIG WATER MILL" PASSES TO PETER HERDIC--FIRST STEAM SAW MILL--OTHER SAW MILLS--THE SUSQUEHANNA BOOM--GREAT STRIDES OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY--PASSING OF THE GREAT INDUSTRY--NEW INDUSTRIES--RAILROADS--HOTELS--VALUATION--CEMETERIES--PARKS-- STREETS--DIVERSITIES OF INDSUTRIES--POST OFFICE--SCHOOLS--PRODUCTS.

320-327

CHAPTER XXVII.
WILLIAMSPORT, CONCLUDED.

WILLIAMSPORT PRODUCTS--ANNUAL VALUE OF PRODUCTION--NUMBER EMPLOYED--MANY LARGE EMPLOYERS--CITY GOVERNMENT--THE CLARK ACT--PRESENT OFFICERS.

328-336

CHAPTER XXVIII.
THE LUMBER INDUSTRY

PENNSYLVANIA AS A LUMBER STATE--WHITE PINE, HEMLOCK AND OTHER VARIETIES--BARK PEELING--YIELD TO THE ACRE--PRESENT DAY FOREST CONSERVATION--METHOD OF MANUFACTURING LUMBER--THE LUMBER CAMPS--LOGGING--TRANSPORTING LOGS TO STREAMS--THE DRIVE--LUMBERMEN.

337-343

CHAPTER XXIX.
THE LUMBER INDUSTRY, CONTINUED

CUTTING LOGS--HAULING TO LANDINGS--HAZARODOUS WORK--THE SNUB LINE--LIFE IN THE FOREST--MAJOR PERKINS ENTERS THE LUMBER INDUSTRY--BUILT THE FIRST BOOM--HARBOR FOR LOGS--SUSQUEHANNA BOOM COMPANY INCOPRORATED--LOYALSOCK BOOM COMPANY ORGANIZED--METHOD OF MARKING LOGS--CAPACITY OF BOOM--FEES.

344-356

CHAPTER XXX.
LUMBER INDUSTRY, CONCLUDED.

COST OF BOOM LOGS--PETER HERDIC ACQUIRED CONTROL--IMPETUS TO LUMBER BUSINESS--RIVER USED FOR TRANSPORTATION--DAMS CONSTRUCTED--DAMAGING FLOODS--GREAT LOSS OF LOGS--KINDS OF SAWS USED--IMPLEMENTS IN USE--TYPE OF MEN EMPLOYED.

357-363

CHAPTER XXXI.
NEWSPAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS.

WILLIAM F. BUYERS ESTABLISHES FIRST NEWSPAPER IN 1801--LYCOMING GAZETTE--THE CHRONICLE--EARLY DAY NEWSPAPER MEN--THE GAZETTE PUBLISHES A DAILY--THE WEST BRANCH BULLETIN--GAZETTE AND BULLETIN CONSOLIDATED--A MORNING AND EVENING NEWSPAPER--PURCHASED IN 1926 BY THE SUN AND NEWS PUBLISHING COMPANY--OTHER NEWSPAPERS--THE GRIT, "AMERICA'S GREATEST FAMILY NEWSPAPER," A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER OF NATIONAL CIRCULATION--OTHER PUBLICATIONS--PUBLISHERS ASSOCIATION.

364-379

CHAPTER XXXII.
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.

BOARD OF TRADE ORGANIZED--AFTERWARDS CHANGED TO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE--A SUCCESSFUL PROGRAM--IT'S RECORD OF ACHIEVEMENTS--COMBINED WITH MOTOR CLUB--OFFICE IN LYCOMING HOTEL--PUBLICITY BUREAU--AN ACTIVE ORGANIZATION.

380-388

CHAPTER XXXIII.
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS--THE W. J. BROWN LIBRARY.

FIRST TEACHER--OTHER EARLY TEACHERS--WILLIAMSPORT ACADEMY--A YOUNG LADIES SEMINARY--PUBLIC SCHOOL LAW OF 1834--SCHOOL LAW IN OPERATION--FIRST PUBLIC SCHOOL OPENED IN 1835--MODERN SCHOOLS--SCHOOL BOARD--DICKSON SEMINARY, SUCCESSFUL RECORD OF EIGHTY-ONE YEARS, COURSES--PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS--THE JAMES V. BROWN LIBRARY, OFFICERS--THE LYCOMING HISTORICAL SOCIETY.

389-397

CHAPTER XXXIV.
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS--SERVICE CLUBS.

WILLIAMSPORT HOSPITAL--HOME FOR THE FRIENDLESS--YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION--YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION.

398-409

CHAPTER XXXV.
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS--SERVICE CLUBS, CONTINUED.

CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY--AGED COLORED WOMEN'S HOME--FLORENCE CRITTENTON MISSION--AMERICAN RED CROSS--LYCOMING COUNTY TYBERCULOSIS SOCIETY--CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY--SALVATION ARMY--BOY SCOUTS--COMMUNITY WELFARE ASSOCIATION--ROTARY CLUB--KIWANIS CLUB--LIONS--EXCHANGE--MONARCHS.

410-420

CHAPTER XXXVI.
FRATERNAL SOCIETIES.

MASONS--ODD FELLOWS--KNIGHTS OF MALTA--KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS--KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN EAGLE--MACCABEES--ANCIENT ORDER OF HIBERNIANS--P. O. S. OF A.--RED MEN--ROYAL ARCANUM--WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN UNION--UNITED AMERICAN MECHANICS--ELKS--LOYAL ORDER OF MOOSE--LYCOMING MEDICAL SOCIETY--VARIOUS WAR VETERANS' ORGANIZATIONS--MISCELLANEOUS SOCIETIES--LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.

421-430

CHAPTER XXXVII.
FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

THE WEST BRANCH BANK ORGANIZED IN 1835--FIRST NATIONAL BANK--WILLIAMSPORT NATIONAL BANK--LYCOMING NATIONAL BANK--SAVINGS INSTITUTION OF THE CITY OF WILLIAMSPORT--THE SUSQUEHANNA TRUST COMPANY--LYCOMING TRUST COMPANY--BANK OF NEWBERRY--CITIZENS STATE BANK--OTHER FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS--COMMUNITY DISCOUNT COMPANY--WILLIAMSPORT CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION.

431-434

CHAPTER XXXVIII.
FIRE DEPARTMENT--GREAT LUMBER FIRES.

DIFFICULTY OF FIGHTING LUMBER FIRES--BUCKET BRIGADE--FIRST FIRE ENGINE--VOLUNTEER FIRE DEPARTMENT--FIRE BOARD--FIRE COMPANIES--PAID DEPARTMENT--FIRST MOTOR DRIVEN COMBINATION--FIRST CHIEF'S AUTOMOBILE--OTHER MODERN EQUIPMENT ADDED--CHIEFS--SOME DESTRUCTIVE LUMBER FIRES.

435-444

CHAPTER XXXIX.
MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS.

FIRST BRASS BAND--REPASZ BAND--NOTED MUSICIANS--THE OLDEST BAND IN THE UNITED STATES--SERVED IN THE CIVIL WAR--OTHER BANDS--THE IMPERIAL TETEQUES--ORCHESTRAS.

445-447

CHAPTER XL.
THE SILK INDUSTRY.

A LEADING INDUSTRY OF WILLIAMSPORT--VALUE OF PRODUCT--AN ARMY OF EMPLOYEES--JOHN N. STERNS AND COMPANY--HOLMES SILK COMPANY--DEMAREST SILK COMPANY--W. R. HAEHN COMPANY, INC.--KEYSTONE SILK COMPANY--LEONARD W. WOOD SILK COMPANY--NATIONAL SILK DYEING COMPANY.

448-453

CHAPTER XLI.
WILLIAMSPORT'S INDUSTRIES.

FURNITURE FACTORIES--W. D. CROOKS AND SONS--WILLIAMSPORT FURNITURE COMPANY--THE CROMAR COMPANY--THE J. K. RISHEL FURNITURE COMPANY--PLANING MILLS--CULLER FURNITURE COMPANY--THE LYCOMING MANUFACTURING COMPANY, EMPLOYS 2,500 MEN, PRODUCTION, ASSETS, OFFICERS--KEYSTONE RUBER COMPANY--OTHER MANUFACTURING COMPANIES--WILLIAMSPORT WIRE ROPE COMPANY.

454-468

CHAPTER XLII.
WILLIAMSPORT'S INDUSTRIES, CONTINUED.

ARMOUR LEATHER COMPANY--THE J. E. DAYTON COMPANY--U. S. SANDPAPER COMPANY--STANDARD WOOD PIPE COMPANY--C. A. REED COMPANY--L. M. CANSTER COMPANY--WINNER-FRANCK BAKING COMPANY--DARLING VALVE AND MANUFACTURING COMPANY--FLACK BREWING COMPANY--OTHER MANUFACTURING COMPANIES AND PLANTS.

469-476

CHAPTER XLIII.
PETER HERDIC

PETER HERDIC.

477-487

CHAPTER XLIV.
NOTABLE MEN OF EARLY DAYS

MICHAEL ROSS--WILLIAM F. PACKER--SAMUEL WALLIS--THE BRADY FAMILY--ROBERT COVENHOVEN.

488-503

CHAPTER XLV.
LYCOMING COUNTY IN ART AND LITERATURE

SEVERAL ATTAIN PROMINENCE--S. ROESEN--GEORGE BENJAMIN LUKS--S. WINNER--MARY PARKER CARTER DODGE--JULIET LEWIS--ROBERT HAWLEY--J. WESLEY LITTLE--OTHERS OF NOTE--THOMAS J. McELRATH.

504-507

CHAPTER XLVI.
RAFTING ON THE SUSQUEHANNA.

BEGAN IN 1796--RAFTSMEN--THREE KINDS OF RAFTS--MADE UP AT VARIOUS POINTS--DANGEROUS OCCUPATION--"RAFTING IN"--AN INDUSTRY OF THE PAST

508-512

CHAPTER XLVII.
"CANALING IN THE OLD DAYS."

PACKET BOATS--CARRIED MAIL AND EXPRESS--FURNISHINGS--CAPTAINS--TOWNS REACHED--CANAL SYSTEM--DEMONSTRATION AT OPENING OF NEW WATER WAY--DIFFICULTIES OF CANAL BUILDING--POLITICS AS NOW--WEST BRANCH AND OTHER CANALS--TOLLS--TWO FAMOUS PACKET BOATS--COMMANDERS--CAPTAIN FAGLES--FREIGHT BOATS--THE RETURN TO WATERWAYS.

513-525

CHAPTER XLVIII.
THE WILLIAMSON ROAD--THE SUSQUEHANNA TRAIL.

BUILDING OF THE WILLIAMSON ROAD--A PIONEER PROJECT--OPERATIONS BEGUN IN 1792--EXTENDED TO WHAT IS NOW BATH, N. Y.--STAGE ROUTE FOR SEVERAL YEARS--NOW A PART OF THE SUSQUEHANNA TRAIL-- GREAT SCENIC HIGHWAY--WASHINGTON TO BUFFALO --THROUGH HISTORIC AND PICTURESQUE COUNTRY.

526-530

CHAPTER XLIX.
EARLY RIVER AND LAND TRANSPORTATION--STREAMS--ISLANDS.

INDIANS METHOD OF TRANSPORTATION--THE CANOE--THE BATEAU--SKIFF--FLAT BOATS--KEEL BOATS--BARGES--ARKS--CANAL BOATS--PACK HORSES--SNOW SHOES--DRAG--SLEDGE--WAGONS AND STAGE COACH--STREAMS--BAILEY'S ISLAND.

531-542

CHAPTER L.
INDIAN TRAILS--FRONTIER FORTS.

THE FIRST TRAIL BUILDERS--SUNBURY THE CENTRAL POINT--NUMEROUS INDIAN TRAILS--INDIAN TRAILS FOLLOWED BY THE WHITE MAN IN BUILDING ROADS--NECESSITY OF FORTS--FORT AUGUSTA--FORT FREELAND--CAPTAIN JOHN BRADY'S STOCKADE--FORT MUNCY--FORT ANTES--FORT HARRIS AND FORT HALL

543-548

CHAPTER LI.
INDIAN MASSACRES.

FREQUENCY OF MASSACRES--INCITED BY THE BRITISH--MASSACRE ON PENN'S CREEK--AT FORT ANTES--ON LOYALSOCK CREEK--NUMEROUS KILLINGS IN 1777 AND 1778--HORSES AND CATTLE STOLEN BY INDIANS--"PLUM TREE MASSACRE"-- CHILDREN CARRIED AWAY BY INDIANS--KILLING OF JAMES BRADY AND OTHERS--SETTLERS FREQUENTLY WAYLAID--CAPTAIN JOHN BRADY KILLED BY INDIANS--CAPTURE OF SWEENEY AND KILLING OF COOL.

549-558

CHAPTER LII.
WILD ANIMALS AND BIRDS.

THE HABITAT OF MANY WILD ANIMALS AND BIRDS--NUMEROUS SMALL ANIMALS--COON--FOX--WILDCAT--CATAMOUNT-- PANTHER--BLACK BEAR--DEER--ELK--WOLVES--MANY BIRDS NOW EXTINCT--PIGEONS--GROUSE--OWLS--WILD TURKEYS-- QUAIL--HAWK--CROW--WOODCOCK--EAGLE--OTHER BIRDS .

559-571

CHAPTER LIII.
MISCELLANEOUS.

THE HEY COLONIZATION SCHEME--PASTIMES IN EARLY DAYS--LOCALISMS--UNDERGROUND RAILROAD--SAW DUST WAR.

572-600

 

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