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Life of Reverend Horatio Moule MA (1805 – 1886)

Chaplain of St Paul’s Cathedral Calcutta from 1845 - 1875

©2007 Compiled by Michael Russell OPC for Fordington (Last updated October 2012)

Horatio Moule was born in the town of Melksham in Wiltshire on  20th October 1805 the sixth son of George Moule by his wife Sarah Hayward. Melksham lies 12 miles south east of the city of Bath and Horatio was not baptised at St Michael & All Angels church until he was 23 months old on 21st August 1807(16). His father, a solicitor and banker, sent him to university at Queens College Oxford where he matriculated on 23 October 1824 at the age of 19; obtaining a BA degree in 1828 and an MA in 1840. (1)

From University, he followed in his elder brother Henry’s footsteps and decided on a career in the church. He was ordained a Deacon at Bristol Cathedral on 12th Jan 1829 and awarded a stipendiary Curacy at Sutton Waldron of £50pa.(2) His brother the Rev. Henry Moule became Vicar at St George’s in Fordington that year, carrying out his first baptisms on 28th June 1829. St George’s was a very active and prestigious church and Henry needed a curate so Horatio joined his brother there from the outset, reading the banns of marriage on the 5th, and officiating at his first baptism on 19th July. Horatio actually carried out eleven baptisms for Henry in 1829 and even stood in as officiating minister for another at Holy Trinity Church in Dorchester, although I can only locate his official appointment as curate at Fordington on 10th Jan 1830 when he appears to have taken a drop in income to £40pa. Church Records also record the 10th Jan 1830 as the date he was ordained a priest at Bristol Cathedral. In fact he only carried out 1 further baptism and 3 burials in Fordington in 1830, before he was temporarily appointed Vicar of the parish of Box in Wiltshire on the 14th April.(3)

Parish of Box in Wiltshire - 1830/1

The Vicar of Box since 1799 had been the Rev Isaac William Webb Horlock but he became ill and had died by April 1830. I think the family may have held the advowson of the parish as they decided that Isaac's replacement would be his third son who went by the equally impressive name of Holled Darrell Cave Smith Horlock. The problem was that he was still at university in Oxford at Magdalen Hall where he was awarded his BA that year (1830). He was quickly ordained into the church as a deacon and immediately appointed as assistant stipendiary curate to the parish on the 18th October 1830. He was given a generous stipend of £50pa and possession of his fathers vicarage, garden and offices. Horatio Moule was therefore appointed as Vicar in April(11) to hold the fort until Holled could take over which he did as soon as he was made a priest on 27th March 1831. Under the terms of the covenant Horatio was them obliged to resign which he did the following day.

On the 1st June 1831 Horatio was in Bath to conduct the wedding ceremony of his elder brother Charles Thomas Moule, who had also been born in Melksham and was about 5 years his senior. (Charles had followed their fathers profession and become a Solicitor and according to the Bridgewater & Somerset Herald newspaper he married an Anne Falkner, a native of Bath, who at the tender age of 18 would have been 13 years younger than her groom).

I am mindful of the fact that 1831 was the date of the Swing Riots when we know his brother Henry Moule was experiencing difficulties in Fordington as his wife wrote about:- (4)
    'the rick-burnings' describing 'the almost nightly alarms, the constant tidings of violence and disorder, and the energy and courage of Henry who organised patrols and served on them, and meanwhile retained the good word of the poor'.

St Georges Church Fordington in Dorset - 1832-1837

There is no doubt that difficulties continued for some time and Horatio is shown as carrying out two baptisms in Fordington in January 1832 (once again recorded as a curate). On 7th July 1832 Horatio was at St Georges Church for the baptism of his brother Henry’s 4th child, another son, and was honoured when they gave the boy his own name of Horatio. To avoid confusion the family referred to the child as Horace, a name that he went by for the rest of his life. This event seems to have marked Horatio's permanent return to Fordington as between August 1832 and February 1837 when he left the parish he was in almost constant attendance officiating at another 469 baptisms, marriages and burials in St George’s church. The sketch of the church to the left is thought to show the church as it stood around this time. In deed it had not changed very much over the centuries until the extensive renovation and extention started by the Rev RG Bartelot in 1907. For comparison follow link to postcards dated circa 1895 and 1905.

Official Records also seem to indicate that Horatio was licensed to officiate at Nether Cerne which is 5 miles North of Fordington on 29th May 1833 but it is clear that he continued to live and officiate at Fordington throughout this period.

The Church Pastoral Aid Society - 1838- 1844

Horatio's last official duty at Fordington was a burial on 29th Oct 1837(5) and he left to become one of the secretaries of the newly established 'Church Pastoral Aid Society or CPAS'. It was founded in 1836 by prominent Christians, including the pioneering social reformer Lord Shaftesbury with the aim of raising funds to establish a charity that would, through the giving of grants, increase the number of clergymen available to spread the word of the gospel. In November 1838 he gave a speech, reported in the press, stating that they had already been able to provide stipends in whole or in part for an additional 150 clergymen and 26 scripture readers who were now labouring in different parts of the Kingdom.(18)

Marriage 1841

It was during this period that he met and married on 9th March 1841 by licence to Elizabeth Mary Hughes in the Church of Holy Trinity in Clapham Surrey(6). Elizabeth was the 11th of 13 children of Thomas Hughes [1773-1831](15) and Mary Anna Stokes [1783-1852] and had been born on 17 Oct 1820 in Finsbury London(10). She was baptised on 21st December at St Luke’s Church in Finsbury so was 15 years his junior. They were married by Horatio's elder brother Rev Henry Moule [1801-1880] with Anna Stokes and her youngest brother Edmund Chauntell Hughes acting as witnesses. Immediately after marriage we find them living for a short period in London at temporary accommodation in Great Cern Street in Holborn.(14 ) Horatio's appointment to the See of Calcutta soon followed when he was made the Assistant Chaplain at Chittagong where he arrived later that year. (17)

Chaplain St Andrews - Singapore 1845-1851

He next turns up in the archives of the 'Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts' (the SPG) as being made a residency Chaplain at Singapore in 1845. This is confirmed in the publication 'A short history of St Andrews Cathedral in Singapore' compiled by Frank G Swindell and published in 1929. His tenure there seems to have stretched up to 1851 as he appears in 'The Straits Times & Singapore Journal of Commerce' as marrying couples there in 1846 and 1850 and there are references on rootsweb to his having signed the baptism registers for at least 1847 & 1851(13) . His time there does not appear to have been a happy one. It was not until 1834 that the foundation stone of the first Anglican Church had been laid on the site of the present building. This church was completed in 1837 but enjoyed a short and unfortunate history. In the year of his arrival (1845) the church steeple was dadly damaged by a lightning strike, severly disrupting the funcioning of the church. Having undertaken repairs it was struck again in 1849 this time striking the steeple and the main body of the church. Divine services had to be moved to the Mission Chapel at Bras Basah Road and in 1852 it was declared usafe and demolished. The rebuilding of the church took some time, not least of all raising the funds required, and the foundation stone of the new church was not therefore laid until 4th March 1856. It took nearly 5 years to build, consecration taking place on 25th Jan 1862.

Despite the chaos they found themselves in at Singapore, other work of the church still had to progress. On 25th Aug 1849 the Rajah gave an area of jungle covered hill behind the old town of Kuching in Sarawak to the church and the Bishop (within whose jurisdiction Kuching lay) authorised the laying of a new foundation stone to build the church of St Thomas. Early in his final year at Singapore Horatio travelled with Bishop Wilson (now aged 72) to Sarawak and was present when the Bishop consecrated the Church of St Thomas the Apostle on 22nd January 1851.

His wife Elizabeth together with his daughter Constance & grandson D’oyly took the opportunity to return to the UK residing in March 1851 at 40 Denbigh street St George Hanover Square. Horatio was then appointed Senior Chaplain at St Pauls Cathedral in Calcutta.

Chaplain of St Paul’s Cathedral - Calcutta India 1851-1875

From late 1851 to 1875 Horatio served as Senior Chaplain of St Paul’s Cathedral in Calcutta.

St Paul's Cathedral, Calcutta

#He & his family must have arrived at an interesting time. The Cathedral had a similar history of misfortune having been devastated by an earthquake. Construction of the new Cathedral however had commenced in 1839, and mainly due to the efforts of his Bishop (i.e. Bishop Wilson) already been completed in 1847. So it must have been uplifting to stand and admire its grandure when he arrived in 1851.

He was still at the Cathedral when the Indian Mutiny occurred. Fires first broke out in Calcutta on 24 January 1857 and the war officially started on March 29th at the Barrackpore (now Barrackpur) parade ground, near Calcutta. The picture opposite shows one of a number of memorial tablets erected inside St Paul's Cathedral in Calcutta. This one is to 16 of the officers who fell in the Indian Revolt in the years 1857 & 1858. Horatio returned to England a number of times, for example in 1871 (accompanied by his daughter Constance) he stayed with Samuel Butler in Somerset who was a magistrate, a landowner and East India Merchant.

Descendants (6 & 7)

Horatio and Elizabeth had a daughter and a son that I know of:-

    (1) Constance Moule born circa 1842 in Bombay India
    (2) Horatio (Horace) Frederick D’oyly Moule (1845-1925) who was made a companion of The Order of the Star of India for services to the Indian Empire and married Banna Horsford (1845(8)-1913), and raised their own family in India. They had five children:-
    1. Gwendoline Power Moule (Bap 18 Aug 1872 Mirzapore West Bengal);
    2. Gerard Bannatyne Moule (bap 1st Aug 1874 West Bengal);
    3. Hugh Elliot Moule (1875-1915) bap 22 Nov 1875 in West Bengal; He joined the army eventually attaining the rank of Major in the 1st battalion of the 4th Gurkha Rifles. According to probate records he was stationed at the barracks Bakloh Punjab in India. He was killed on 22nd May 1915 and is commemorated at the Neuve-Chapelle memorial leaving a widow Evelyn Douglas Moule with only £241.9s.3d
    4. Vera Banna Moule (bap 27 July 1879 - died 1949)
    5. Vera also seems to have stayed in India, marrying Kellow Chesney who reached the rank of Lieutenant Colonel with the 15th Lancers Indian Army and died in 1919. The 15th Lancers seem to have been posted to Mesopotamia at this time.
    6. Doris Isa Moule (bap 19 Nov 1883 at Moradabad Uttar Pradesh India).
    7. Both Kellow and Vera’s ashes are interred in the church wall beneath their memorial in Christ Church Mortlake

Horatio Moule (1805 – 1886) eventually returned to England and became the rector of Charmouth in Dorset where he served between 1875 and 1879. He then moved in 1880 to Road-cum-Woolverton in Somerset until his death at the age of 80 on 3rd June 1886.(9) His funeral is reported in the newspapers(12) to have been attended by a large number of relatives and friends which included his nephews the Bishop of Durham and Rev Frederick John Moule

His wife Elizabeth Mary died on 13 September 1906 in the district of Newton Abbott at the age of 86.

Genealogical notes:-

(1) Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 1715-1886 and Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 1500-1714. Oxford: Parker and Co., 1888-1892.

(2) CCED - The Clergy of the Church of England database (CCEd) is an online database of clergy of the Church of England between 1540 and 1835. This database is still being compiled Feb 2009 and may therefore contain only some of a persons appointments etc.

(3) A2A website National Archives Ref D/1/20/2/6 1830 Covenants and bonds to resign. Horatio Moule to K. W. & H.D.C.S. Horlock, esqs: Box. These bonds were made between the incoming incumbent and the patron, the object being to institute someone who would resign when it suited the patron, usually to allow for a relation's or protégé's institution.

(4) 'Memories of a Vicarage' by Rev Handley C.G. Moule D.D published by the Religious Tract Society 1914

(5) I have not so far been able to locate Horatio in the 1841 Census & his official church records for this period have not been transcribed (Dec 2010). There is a speech recorded inThe Bradford Observer (Bradford, England), Thursday, May 16, 1839; Issue 276. 19th Century British Library Newspapers: Part II. which he gave on behalf of the Church Pastoral Society but this reveals little about his role.

(6) Marriage Certificate 1841 by Licence Parish of Clapham Surrey Entry 149: 9th March; Horatio MOULE of full age a bachelor a Clerk; resident Clapham; father George MOULE a Solicitor; married Elizabeth Mary HUGHES a minor a spinster resident at the Grove father thomas HUGHES a Merchant were married by Rev Henry Moule (his brother) both their signatures witnessed Hanna? Stokes & Edmund Channtsel? Hughes

(7) Mortlake parish church memorial I am grateful to Adrian Hedges for bringing this information to my attention.

(8) Her birth is recorded on the IGI from an entry in the India Office of Ecclesiastical returns Bengal Presidency as Banna Horsford Born 4th Nov 1845 daughter of Richard & Bannatyna Horsford.

(9) The National Probate Registry records that probate was granted on "15th Nov The Will of the Reverend Horatio MOULE late of Road in the County of Somerset Clerk Rector of Road cum Wolverton who died 3rd June 1886 at Road was proved at Wells by the Rev Henry Bannerman Burney of Norton St Philip in the said County Clerk and the Rev Robert Duckworth of St Peters School Weston Super Mare in the County Clerk the Executors. personal estate £2,566.10s.7d

(10) St Luke's Middlesex Parish baptism Register Page 96 Entry 766 December 21st (born October 17th) Elizabeth Mary daughter of Thomas & Mary Anna HUGHES, of Bunhill Row, occupation a dyer,

(11) I have since located a number of newspaper announcements suggesting that he was appointed in February eg The Morning Chronicle (London, England), Thursday, February 18, 1830; Issue 1886

(12) Example The Bristol Mercury and Daily Post (Bristol, England), Wednesday, June 9, 1886; Issue 11878:

(13) 'The Straits Times & Singapore Journal of Commerce' Examples include (1) 1st March 1846 : "At Singapore on the 12th Inst by the Reverend Horatio Moule MA Robert Mc Ewen Esq to Anne eldest daughter of the late WM Little Esq of Edinburgh" (2) 5th Nov 1850 page 4 - At Singapore Nov 4th by the Rev. Horatio Moule AM [should be MA ] Mr George Castle Franklyn to Jessie third daughter of Captain WC Leisk Marine Surveyor at Singapore

(14) 1841 Census taken on 6th June Class: HO107; Piece: 671; Book: 1; Civil Parish: St George The Martyr; County: Middlesex; Enumeration District: 1; Folio: 17; Page: 26; Line: 16; GSU roll: 438786

(15) Thomas Hughes [1773-1831] a bachelor from St Luke's Parish in Finsbury married Mary Anna Stokes [1783-1852] a spinster at her parish of St Vedast Foster Lane on 17th Oct 1803. Thomas and Mary Anna had all their children baptised at St Luke's Church in Finsbury where the parish register gives both birth and baptism dates :-

    (1)  Hannah born 7th July 1804, bap 6th Aug 1804
    (2)  Thomas born 18th Dec 1805, bap 20th Jan 1806
    (3)  Edward born 20 Sep 1807, bap 13th Oct 1807
    (4)  John Stokes born 1st June 1809, bap 28th June 1809. He became a merchant of New Orleans but died in Oct 1856 in Messina Sicily, his will making his sister & Horatio's wife Elizabeth Mary Moule his surviving executrix.
    (5)  Marianne born 21 Jan 1811 bap 22nd March 1811
    (6)  Charlotte Chauntrell born 10th Nov 1812 bap 17th Nov 1812
    (7)  Henry Kent bap 16th sep 1814
    (8)  Margaret Stokes born 11th June 1816 bap 10th July 1816
    (9)  David Stokes born 27 May 1818, bap 24th June 1818 buried 25th July 1818
    (10)  Elizabeth Stokes born 20th July 1819, bap 4th Aug 1819, buried 11th Aug 1819
    (11)  Elizabeth Mary born 17th Oct 1820 bap 21 Dec 1820 married Horatio Moule
    (12)  Charles William born 12 Nov 1823 bap 17 Dec 1823
    (13)  Edmund Chauntell born 3rd Nov 1825 bap 26th Jan 1826.

    Many of these baptisms were carried out by Rev. Watts Wilkinson who appears to have been brought in specifically by the family just to perform their baptism on that day as Officiating Minister. Watts Wilkinson BA [1756-1840] was the son of Robert Wilkinson of London a Gentleman and had been educated at Worcester College Oxford where he matriculated on 19th Oct 1776 aged 20 being awarded his BA in 1780. For 61 years he was the Sunday afternoon lecturer at St Mary's Aldermary in Bow Lane London and this is how he was recorded on most of the baptisms. For 37 years he was also a Tuesday morning lecturer at St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange just off Threadneedle St in London and two of his baptisms record this title. He died on 14th Dec 1840. Its clear from a newspaper report entitled THE LECTURESHIP IN THE GIFT OF THE HABERDASHERS' COMPANY (The Standard (London, England), Monday, December 21, 1840; Issue 5150. 19th Century British Library Newspapers: Part II.) That he retained a remarkable position in the City 'The Golden Lecturship' as it was known got its name from the estate with which it was endowed of a remakable £400 pa and when he died there was much debate about trying to find a suitable candidate to replace him and keep together 'the most remarkable week-day congregation that he had over the years acquired. He had married the youngest daughter of the late Rev. Michael Marlow MA Rector of Frestow and Luckford suffolk and sister of the late Rev.Michael Marlow DD President of St John's College Oxford and Prebendary of Canterbury. he left 9 children by her the eldest son also called Watts wilkinson was for 33 years Officiating Minister of St Gregory and St peters in Sudbury [Source The Essex Standard, and General Advertiser for the Eastern Counties (Colchester, England), Friday, December 25, 1840; Issue 521. 19th Century British Library Newspapers: Part II]
Thomas Hughes was buried in the family vault at St Luke's Church Finsbury on 5th July 1831, residence given as Finsbury Square, aged 59. There are 7 burials in the vault (coffins recorded as 305;306;307;308;342,343,344) 3 of these were Martha Hughes recorded as of St Clements; Charles Stoke died 1853; David Stokes Hughes of Bunhill Row.

(16). Parish Registers for Melksham Wiltshire baptisms 1813-1850 CLDS Film 1279376.

(17). East-India Register & Army List (1845) - Bengal Ecclesiastical Establishments Page 41.

(18). The Newcastle Courant etc (Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England), Friday, November 16, 1838; Issue 8557 page 3 Clerical & religious section

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