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Robert, 1st Duke of Normandy

Roger fitz Richard | John fitz Richard | Aubrey de Vere | Richard fitz Gilbert | Robert of Normandy | Charlemagne
Alfred the Great | Halfdan Olafsson | Yngvi Alriksson | Ranulf de Presles | Roger Bigod | Geoffrey de Mandeville
Isaac Conarroe | Johann Staag | Albert Hirscher | Herman Haase
Robert of Normandy and Poppa of Brittana
HUSBANDWIFE
Robert I (Rollo or Hrolf) b. abt. 860 Poppa of Brittana b. unk.
1st Duke of Normandy Duchess of Normandy
FATHERFATHER
Unknown b. unk.Unknown b. unk.
  
MOTHERMOTHER
Unknown b. unk.Unknown b. unk.
  
PATERNAL GRANDFATHERPATERNAL GRANDFATHER
Unknown b. unk.Unknown b. unk.
  
PATERNAL GRANDMOTHERPATERNAL GRANDMOTHER
Unknown b. unk.Unknown b. unk.
  
MATERNAL GRANDFATHERMATERNAL GRANDFATHER
Unknown b. unk.Unknown b. unk.
  
MATERNAL GRANDMOTHERMATERNAL GRANDMOTHER
Unknown b. unk.Unknown b. unk.
  
CHILDREN
1. William I Longsword b. abt. 900 
2nd Duke of Normandy 

The meaning of Norseman is "people from the North" and was applied primarily to Nordic people originating from southern and central Scandinavia. The term "Normans" was later associated with the people of Norse origin in Normandy, which assimilated French culture and language.1 The French characterized the Norman invaders as "Dranchiers", meaning they were consumers of barley, i.e., beer-drinkers.2 The Irish characterized the Scandinavian Vikings as either "dark heathens" (Danes) or "fair heathens" (Norwegians). The Danes were fair-haired with light complexions, and so portraying Danes as "dark heathens" might be explained by the swarthy appearance of some Danish offspring resulting from the intermarriage between Danes with the physically darker Saxons situated on the Danish-German borderlands.3

Rollo (later baptized Robert) was a Viking leader of contested origin. Dudo de St. Quentin in his De moribus et actis primorum Normannorum ducum tells of a powerful Danish nobleman, whose sons were Rollo and Gurim (Gorm), who was quarreling with the king of Denmark. Upon the Danish nobleman's death, Rollo was expelled from Denmark and Gurim killed by the king. William of Jumičges also mentions Rollo's prehistory in his Gesta Normannorum Ducum (Deeds of the Norman Dukes), and states Rollo was from the Danish town of Fakse. Norwegian historians identified Rollo or Hrolf with a son of Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Jarl of Mřre, based on an Icelandic saga, which mentions Ganger-Hrolf (Hrolf, the Walker). The oldest source of this version is the Historia Norvegiae, written by an anonymous monk in Norway in the late 14th century. When Hrolf fell out of favor with Harald Fairhair, the Norwegian king, he became an Earl in Normandy.4

The Norwegian origin of Rollo, or rather Hrolf, has him descended from Halfdan Olafsson, Jarl of Vestfold, who married Asa Eysteinsdottir. They had a son, Eystein Halfdansson, who married Hild Ericsdottir. They had a son, Halfdan Eysteinsson, who married Hlif Dagsdottir. They had a son, Ivar (Oplaendinge) Halfdansson, who married Solveig Eysteinsdottir. They had a son, Eystein (Glumra) Ivarsson, who married Aseda Ragnvaldsdottir. They had a son, Ragnvald Eysteinsson, who married Ragnhild Hrolfsdottir, whose son was Hrolf Ragnvaldsson, aka, Rollo of Normandy.3,5 However, B.G. Montgomery in his Origin and History of the Montgomerys claims, as does the Danes, that Ingvar Ragnarsson was Rollo's father.6

According to Michael Stanhope, Ragnvald Eysteinsson was mistakenly named the father of Rollo of Normandy. Stanhope developed the following pedigree for Rollo: Rollo's father was Osketil (Ketil) Ivarsson, a Danish Viking commander, who was the brother of Godfrey (Guthred or Guthfrith) Ivarsson, Duke of Frisia and Jarl of Dublin, though they didn't necessarily share the same mother, since they were described as belonging to a "sodalitas", a military brotherhood whose leaders shared close family ties.3 Ivar Ragnarsson was father to both Osketil and Godfrey, and Ragnar Lodbrok was the father of Ivar and grandfather to both Osketil and Godfrey.3 Therefore, Rollo's Danish pedigree was; Ragnar Lodbrok (great grandfather), Ivar Ragnarsson (grandfather), Osketil Ivarsson (father). Thus, Stanhope claims that Ivar Ragnarsson (= Ingvar Ragnarsson) was Rollo's grandfather rather than his father, but, in any case, he believes Rollo was a Dane, and not a Norwegian. However, Rollo's Norwegian pedigree, based on the Icelandic Orkneyinga saga,7,8 has his father as Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Jarl of Mřre, grandfather as Eystein Ivarsson, Jarl of the Opplands, and great grandfather as Ivar Halfdansson, Jarl of the Opplands, with Rollo's brother as Hrollager Ragnvaldsson,6 or, most likely, half-brother.7

Nevertheless, Dudo de St. Quentin wrote that Rollo of Normandy was a Norseman who raided Scotland, England, Flanders, and France on pirating expeditions. In about 911, he established himself in an area along the Seine River. King Charles III of France stayed his siege of Paris, battled him near Chartres, and negotiated the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, giving him a region called Neustria. In return, Rollo agreed to end his pillaging.9 The duchy of Normandy essentially evolved from the pirate principality of Rouen, France into what was a feudal state.10 However, Dudo de St. Quentin was commissioned to write the history of Rollo by Richard I, the Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy,11 and so he may have embellished or put certain details in a more favorable light. Stanhope believes Dudo de St. Quentin actually based much of Rollo's history on his uncle Godfrey Ivarsson's exploits, attributing them to Rollo in order to make him seem more heroic.3 Stanhope writes that Rollo married a Christian woman,3 perhaps named Poppa,12 while in Scotland, perhaps the Orkney Islands,7,8 and that the "concubina Brittana" was the mother of Rollo's son, William Longsword, and a daughter, named Cađlín (Kathleen).3

Another genealogist, Stewart Baldwin, believes neither Osketil (Catillus) nor Ragnvald (Rognvaldr) Eysteinsson were the father of Rollo (Hrolf), and that Catillus and Hrolf were fabrications molded to fit other Icelandic sagas or stories. Baldwin also claims Catillus (Ketil in Norse) was a legendary or mythical character with no contemporary sources which named him as an actual person.13 Baldwin theorizes that Hrolf was based on Flodoard's Annals in which Flodoard writes of Rollo, the leader of a group of Vikings situated on the river Seine near Rouen, and Ragenold, the leader of a different group of Vikings situated on the river Loire in France. Without directly connecting Ragenold with Rollo, Flodoard writes about each of them in nearby passages, but Flodoard does call them both princeps Nortmannorum. An Icelandic saga writer, who either had a copy of Flodoard's Annals or something else based on it, may have made an erroneous association between the names Ragenold and Rollo with those of Ragnvald (Rognvald) Eysteinsson and his son, Hrollager (Hrollaugr) Ragnvaldsson, a founder of Iceland as portrayed in the Heimskringla saga. Since it was historically impossible to link Rollo with Hrollager, the saga writer concocted an unknown brother for Hrollager, named "Hrolf" (Hrolfr), based on Göngu-Hrólfr (Ganger-Hrolf), who became king of Russia as portrayed in the Göngu-Hrólfr saga,13 just as Stanhope speculated Dudo de St. Quentin had done by attributing the exploits of Rollo's uncle to Rollo, thereby making him seem more heroic than he was in reality.3 It seems saga writers knew a good tale when they heard it and didn't mind lifting entire storylines. Furthermore, Baldwin writes that Dudo de St. Quentin may have confused a Viking raider, called Haigrold, who Dudo claimed was related to Richard I the Fearless, with Harald "Bluetooth", the king of Denmark, and that even if Rollo had a brother named Gurim (Gorm), he couldn’t be the famous Gorm "the Old" of Denmark, who survived Rollo by many years. Finally, Stewart Baldwin concludes that Rollo of Normandy's Viking ancestry is unknown.

Whether Ivar Ragnarsson's sons, Osketil Ivarsson and Godfrey Ivarsson, were Danish brothers or half-brothers, whose sons were, respectively, Rollo of Normandy and Hrolf Turstin le Goz,3 or whether Ragnvald Eysteinsson's sons, Hrolf (Rollo) Ragnvaldsson and Hrollager Ragnvaldsson, were Norwegian brothers or half-brothers, whose sons were, respectively, William Longsword and Hrolf Turstin le Goz,5,6,7,14 the Dukes of Normandy and the Goz family were related to each other in some way. Other scenarios exist, such as Rollo's father and mother were Norwegian, and Rollo had either a half-brother or half-uncle, whose mother was of Danish descent, or Rollo had a Danish brother-in-law or uncle by marriage, one of whom founded the Goz family lineage. For example, if Dudo de St. Quentin did base Rollo's exploits on those of his uncle Godfrey, as Stanhope speculates, then Godfrey could have been a Danish half-uncle or uncle by marriage, while Rollo might have been of Norwegian descent; and so, Dudo de St. Quentin may have attributed more than just Godfrey's exploits to Rollo by also attributing his Danish ethnicity to Rollo as well.

Michael Stanhope writes that the Goz family carried the appellation "le Goz" not only because it reflected the name of one of their fiefs, but also because the name pertained to their "dark" appearance, which indicated Dane-Saxon ancestry; and, in fact, Hrolf Turstin le Goz's son was called Ansfrid the Dane.3 On the other hand, the chronicler, William of Malmesbury, described William the Conqueror's son, William Rufus, King William II of England, as wearing "his blond hair long",15 "blond" perhaps indicating the Dukes of Normandy have a Norwegian origin and not Danish; unless they were the fair-featured Danes from the north of Denmark and not the darker appearing Danes of mixed Saxon descent from along the Danish-German borderlands.

Stanhope also writes, "that some Norse war-bands that attacked Ireland were of mixed Dano-Norwegian composition, paralleling those that would later establish themselves in Normandy".3 Therefore, perhaps the Dukes of Normandy were of Norwegian descent and the Goz family were of Dane-Saxon descent, and they clashed when both factions were sacking the coast of Ireland and formed a sodalitas, a Viking brotherhood, to ease conflict between them, then later a mixed crew of Scandinavian pirates, which included Rollo, sailed together to raid Normandy. Alternatively, perhaps the ancestors of the Dukes of Normandy and the Goz family were both Norwegian and related to each other, but the Goz family intermarried with the Dane-Saxons, forming a sodalitas while pillaged the coast of Ireland, then later they jointly raided Normandy. Later, Dudo de St. Quentin may have attributed the exploits and ethnicity of Godfrey Ivarsson, perhaps a Danish uncle by marriage, to Rollo in order to make Rollo seem a more heroic figure.

Nevertheless, Richard Goz, Viscount d'Avranches, and his sons, Hugh "Lupus," 1st Earl of Chester, and Turstin II Goz of Creuly, 1st Lord of Presles; and Robert Goz (Richard Goz's brother) and his son Roger (Goz) Bigod, 1st Earl of East Anglia, probably shared some sort of kinship with William II, 7th Duke of Normandy, aka, William the Conqueror, through their common Viking heritage, which explains why the Goz family were granted hundreds of lordships in England following the 1066 Norman Conquest.16,17,18 On the other hand, the relationship between the Dukes of Normandy and the Goz family might be based on loyality. Stanhope writes that Anslech Turstin de Briquebec (aka, Oslac de Briquebec), a son of Hrolf Turstin le Goz, was one of only three barons who remained faithful to William Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, during the seige of Rouen, Normandy by rendering him military support.3

Rollo's son, William I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, married Sprota of Breton19 and had a son, Richard I, the Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, who was both William the Conqueror's and Richard fitz Gilbert's great grandfather.20 Richard fitz Gilbert was Alice de Vere's great grandfather, and so she shares his genealogy with Rollo.9 Like his father, William Longsword is often given the anachronistic title, Duke of Normandy, which was the title given to his son, Richard the Fearless,4,13 though the title, Count of Rouen, more accurately reflects both Rollo's and William Longsword's status and area of authority at the time.13 In 912, Rollo was baptized with the Christian name "Robert", but was said to have died a pagan. Robert of Normandy gave his son, William Longsword, governance of the region before his death around 933.9,10,13

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1 Norsemen en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norsemen
2 Planché, J.R. The Conqueror and His Companions, Volume 2 (London: Tinsley Brothers, 1874)
3 The History of the Stanhope Family stanhopefamilyhistory.webs.com
4 Rollo en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rollo
5 Rollo or Hrolf Rognvaldsson www.penrose.org
6 Rognwald I Eysteinsson www.penrose.org
7 The Orkneyingers' Saga www.sacred-texts.com/neu/ice/is3/is302.htm
8 Orkneyinga saga en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orkneyinga_saga
9 Dukes of Normandy www.robertsewell.ca/normandy.html
10 The Henry Project, Richard I "Sans Peur" sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/richa000.htm
11 Norman History: Tales oaks.nvg.org/an6ra10.html
12 The Henry Project, "Poppa" sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/poppa000.htm
13 The Henry Project, Rollo "of Normandy" sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/rollo000.htm
14 Hrolf Turstain Bigod www.penrose.org
15 William the Conqueror www.gaskellfamily.com/williiam.1028.htm
16 Keats-Rohan, K.S.B. Domesday People: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166 I: Domesday Book (Woodbridge, Suffolk ; Rochester, NY : Boydell Press, 1999)
17 Keats-Rohan, K.S.B. Domesday Descendants: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166: II. Pipe Rolls to 'Cartae Baronum' (Woodbridge, Suffolk ; Rochester, NY : Boydell Press, 2002)
18 Keats-Rohan, K.S.B. 'Prosopography of post-Conquest England' in Medieval Prosopography 14.1 (Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, Spring, 1993) pp. 23-30
19 The Henry Project, "Sprota" sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/sprot000.htm
20 De Clare Genealogy www.robertsewell.ca/declare1.html
34th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Robert I (Rollo or Hrolf) b. abt. 860 Poppa of Brittana b. unk.
1st Duke of Normandy Duchess of Normandy
33rd GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
William I Longsword b. abt. 900 Sprota of Breton b. unk.
2nd Duke of Normandy Duchess of Normandy
32nd GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Richard I the Fearless b. abt. 933 Unknown b. unk.
3rd Duke of Normandy  
31st GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Godfrey de Brionne b. abt. 962 Hawise de Guines b. abt. 958
Count of Brionne and Eu Countess of Brionne and Eu
30th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Gilbert de Brionne b. abt. 992 Constance de Eu b. abt. 1012
Count of Brionne Countess of Brionne
29th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Richard fitz Gilbert b. abt. 1030 Rohese Giffard b. abt. 1034
1st Earl of Clare Countess de Clare
28th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Gilbert fitz Richard b. abt. 1065 Adelaide de Clermont b. abt. 1070
2nd Earl of Clare Countess de Clare
GREAT GRANDFATHER27th GREAT GRANDMOTHER
Aubrey II de Vere b. abt. 1082Aleliza (Alice) de Clare b. abt. 1092
2nd Baron VereBaroness Vere
GREAT GRANDFATHER26th GREAT GRANDMOTHER
Roger fitz Richard b. abt. 1130Alice de Vere b. abt. 1124
1st Baron of WarkworthBaroness of Warkworth
25th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Robert fitz Roger b. abt. 1162Margaret de Chesney b. abt. 1162
2nd Baron of WarkworthBaroness Warkworth
24th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
John fitz Robert b. abt. 1181Ada de Baliol b. abt. 1182
3rd Baron of WarkworthBaroness of Warkworth
23rd GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Robert fitz John b. abt. 1203Unknown de Praers b. abt. 1207
Custodian of NewCastle MntDaughter of Richard de Praers; Gosfield, Essex
22nd GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Richard de Stokes b. abt. 1231Unknown b. abt. 1240
Burgess of ColchesterColchester, Essex
21st GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Edmund de Stokes b. abt. 1268Unknown b. abt. 1275
Colchester, EssexColchester, Essex
20th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Robert de Stokes b. abt. 1303Margret Unknown b. abt. 1306
Theydon Garnon, EssexTheydon Garnon, Essex
19th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
John de Stokes b. abt. 1329Lucy Unknown b. abt. 1331
Theydon Garnon, EssexTheydon Garnon, Essex
18th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Thomas Stokes b. abt. 1357Unknown b. abt. 1361
Theydon Garnon, EssexTheydon Garnon, Essex
17th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Robert Stokes b. abt. 1387Unknown b. abt. 1391
Westminster Palace, London, MiddlesexWestminster Palace, London, Middlesex
16th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Thomas Stokes, Esq. b. abt. 1413Unknown b. abt. 1417
Westminster Palace, London, MiddlesexWestminster Palace, London, Middlesex
15th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Thomas Stokes b. abt. 1438Unknown b. abt. unk.
EnglandEngland
14th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
George Stokes b. abt. 1466Unknown b. abt. 1475
EnglandFyfield, Essex
13th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Thomas Stokes b. abt. 1498Joan Trappes b. abt. 1500
EssexDaughter of Robert Trappes
12th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
John Stokes b. abt. 1535Joan Stokes b. abt. 1533
Aythorpe Roding, EssexAythorpe Roding, Essex
11th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Henry Stokes b. abt. 1566Amy Burles (or Burl) b. abt. 1570
Aythorpe Roding, EssexGood Easter, Essex
10th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Henry Stokes b. abt. 1624Sarah Casse b. abt. 1607
Saint Dunstan, Stepney, LondonDaughter of Richard Casse; Aythorpe Roding, Essex
9th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Thomas Stokes, Sr. b. 1643Mary Bernard (or Barnard) b. abt. 1645
Lower Shadwell, LondonDaughter of John Bernard and Frances Hunt
8th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Thomas Stokes b. 1682Deliverance Horner b. unk.
New JerseyDaughter of Isaac Horner and Lydia Wright
GREAT GRANDFATHER7th GREAT GRANDMOTHER
Darling Conrow b. abt. 1710Deliverance Stokes b. 9/18/1713
Son of Isaac Conarroe and Sarah DarlingNew Jersey
6th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Joseph Conrow b. abt. 1737 Valeria Moore b. unk.
New JerseyDaughter of Samuel Moore and Abigail Eves
5th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Isaac Conrow b. unk.Mary Lenick (or Levick) b. unk.
New JerseyNew Jersey
4th GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Isaac Conrow b. unk.Abigail Burr b. unk.
New JerseyNew Jersey
3rd GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
John Conrow b. abt. 1798Lydia Moore b. unk.
New JerseyDaughter of Hosea Moore and Mary Bishop
2nd GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Mark Conrow b. 1821Keziah Hilliard (or Kesiah Hilyard) b. 1825
New JerseyDaughter of Samuel Hilliard
GREAT GRANDFATHERGREAT GRANDMOTHER
Samuel Hilliard Conrow b. 3/14/1847Anna Caroline Gaskill b. 1852
Burlington, NJDaughter of Francis Gaskill and Tomson Poinsett
GRANDFATHERGRANDMOTHER
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FATHERMOTHER
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HUSBANDWIFE
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CHILDREN
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GRANDCHILDREN
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1 Descendants of Ranulphus De Praers www.wirrelwind.net/SFR/randestokesindex.htm
2 Descendend from Thomas and Mary Stokes home.comcast.net/~jameslstokes/stogen.htm
3 The Domesday Book Online - William the Conqueror www.domesdaybook.co.uk/william.html
4 The Henry Project, Rollo "of Normandy" sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/rollo000.htm
5 De Clare Genealogy www.robertsewell.ca/declare1.html
6 Dukes of Normandy www.robertsewell.ca/normandy.html
7 Progressive Men of the State of Montana (Chicago: A.W. Bowen & Co., 1902) Samuel H Conrow, pgs. 104 and 105; archive.org/stream/progressivemenof01bowe#page/104/mode/1up
8 Progressive Men of the State of Montana (Chicago: A.W. Bowen & Co., 1902) John M Conrow, pgs. 581 and 582; archive.org/stream/progressivemenof01bowe#page/581/mode/1up
9 Anderson Family Tree www.andersonconnection.org

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