"The Plantation Owner"
By Eric D. Ausmus
In 1653 Lord Cromwell was proclaimed leader and protector of England. In an effort to improve the trade and the wealth of England, the island of Jamaica was settled. In 1656 approximately 1,600 immigrants arrived and settled around Port Morant. Several years later and as plantations began to produce and word of mouth spread, Jamaica began to prosper. Great wealth was brought to the island by the buccaneers, who operated mainly from Port Royal, by plundering Spanish ships which transported gold and silver from South America .
With the Hapsburg dynasty waning with King Philip of Spain spending himself into poverty, the Spanish Main slowly lost its grasp on the West Indies. Making matters worse, English and French privateers and pirates continued to plunder the Spanish ships and trading posts throughout the islands putting a strangle hold on the inflow of silver and gold from Mexico and the West Indies.
Jamaica became Oliver Cromwell's beacon of trade and colonization. His hopes of the Puritan movement and the conversion of non-protestants became dashed as the Jamaica turned into the first "Wild West". Port Royal, the largest port in Jamaica became infested by pirates and became to be known at the most wickedest city in the world. Drunkards, debtors, slaves, indentured servants, prisoners and dissenters were all shipped to the colony in order to rid the Mainland of the downtrodden. However, Jamaica was also made up of hard working, risk taking privateers, merchants and plantation owners. After Cromwell's death he was embalmed. King Charles II dragged his body through the streets amongst parading onlookers then hung his corpse before quartering him.
During the early English emigration to the New England colonies of Virginia, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts between 1637 and 1640, William Frogg ventured between the ports of England and the colonies. His obscure appearance can be seen in in mutilated letter preserved and recorded and the annals of Accomack County, Virginia
The depo of Robt...age 27 yrs. Says "..he carried calfes [calves] to wean...and as Mr. Dodgworth (Dodsworth) [probably Phillipp Dodsworth] appointed h..Mr Throgmorton [Robert Throckmorton] bid Mrs...and a calfe which she attempited[sic]...but could not at the time by ...escape then the said Mr. Frog ...Cuglie [probably Daniel Cugley (? -1641) husband of Hanna Savage (? -1641) "aged about 35 yeeres or ther abouts"; pg 21] bid this deponent take...which she elected which beast was...thence by Mr. Dodsworth ap..." .
Prior to 1670, William Frogg purchased a 90 acre plantation in Clarendon Parish, Jamaica 
In order to purchase 90 acres in Jamaica, William Frogg would have been a semi-wealthy and an extreme risk taker . William would have been a sugar plantation owner and been involved in the trade between the New World, Great Britain and the West Indies. Typical commodities traded between the colonies included: sugar, cowhide, pimento, dyes, cinnamon, ginger, tortoise shells, slaves and indentured servants.
William's plantation in Jamaica during would have been powered by slaves and white indentured servants shipped from other colonies and the French and British Isles. These slaves would lived on the plantation, not in homes but in tiny shacks or huts. Some would have been made to live in small wooden structures as small as dog houses. Every two hours free to roam in the neighboring ports would have cost them 1 month of extra work in the fields. The plantation required the soil to be hoed, grubbed, de-weeded, de-wormed, sowed, tended and shipped. 
The planters of Jamaica did not like the pirates and privateers of the island and they did not like the planters. The slaves were constantly escaping in the middle of the night as runaways and joining the pirates ships. Booty from plundering was a far better risk to reward ratio than toiling in the fields for poor subsidence.
Clarendon Parish, Jamaica
|The widow Allwinckle||600|
|John Butcher and Mates||297.5|
|John Bankes and Street||60|
|Lieut.-Col. Robert Bindlos||250|
|Major Anthony Collier||1261|
|Capt. Edward Collier||1020|
|Edward Garrett and Mate||30|
|Capt. Christopher Horner||1083|
|Richard Hooton and Gunter||100|
|Capt. Joachim Hane||1500|
|Lt.-Col. William Ivy||1075|
|Capt. Samuel Long||2200|
|John Loyd and Franklins||379|
|Richard Mugg and Mates||770|
|John Magill and Mate||60|
|Edward Ray and Mate||109|
|Edmund Rule and Mate||330|
|Roger Ramsy and Mate||41.25|
|Thos. Robinson and Mate||50|
|Nathaniell Shin and Mate||84|
|Robert Varney, Esq.||701|
|Robert Warner and Mate||350|
|In this parish are 143 families|
|And by estimate 1430 people|
1668-72. English. Ships: Satisfaction [Captain Morgan's Flagship]. Although nothing is known about his earlier career, Collier was an experienced captain when he took part in Sir Henry Morgan's expeditions. Many witnesses, both English and Spanish, claimed he tortured prisoners even more cruelly then Morgan and the other buccaneer captains.
Collier commanded a pirate vessel during Morgan's 1668 raid on Portobelo. At the end of 1668, the 34-gun Oxford was sent to defend Jamaica and to put down piracy. The island's governor gave Collier command, when her previous captain killed the ship's master during a quarrel. Collier captured Captain La Veven, a French pirate, whose ship was seized and renamed the Satisfaction.
Soon after, Collier joined Morgan, who was gathering the buccaneers for his raid on Maracaibo and Gibraltar, Venezuela. The drunken pirates blew up the Oxford in January 1669, but Morgan and Collier were among the lucky survivors. Following this disaster, Collier went off on his own, taking the Satisfaction on an 18-month independent cruise to Mexico and possibly to Cuba.
In September 1670, Collier enlisted in Morgan's Panama expedition and was named "vice-admiral." While the pirates were gathering off southwestern Haiti, Collier took six ships to Venezuela to gather food and information. At Rio De La Hacha, he captured the fort and garrison and ferociously tortured his prisoners. He enjoyed his victims' agonies too much for efficient interrogation, for he missed 2000,000 pesos hidden by the fort's commander. After extorting a ransom in salt, corn, and meat, he rejoined Morgan's main fleet early in December. When Morgan routed Panama's defenders in January 1671, Collier commanded the buccaneers' left wing. He and his men chased after and slaughtered the fleeing enemy. After the Spaniards surrendered, Collier killed one of their chaplains, a Franciscan friar.
Collier took ample plunder during his voyages. In 1668, Jamaica's governor gave him a 1,000-acre plantation next to one of Morgan's estates. Plantations of this size were granted only to men with substantial funds to purchase slaves and tools. Collier did not share Morgan's disgrace after the assault on Panama. Although a new governor arrested Morgan, Collier remained in Jamaica and led preparations to defend the island against a possible foreign invasion.
Additional Abstracts and References
|Extracted marriage record for locality listed in the record. The source records are usually arranged chronologically by the marriage date.|
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