Lisburn Standard - Friday, 3 January, 1919
SMART--COLVIN -- Dec. 26 (by special license), at the residence of the bride, 6 Queen's Parade, Bangor, by the Rev. J. Currie -- Arthur (late of the S. Staff, D.L.I. and K.O.Y.L.I. Regts.), youngest son of Joseph Smart, Hinckley, Leicestershire, to Jessie, youngest daughter of the late Henry Colvin, of Lisburn.
GILLESPIE -- Dec. 31, att Ballymullon House, Lisburn, Anna, relict of the late William Gillespie. The remains of my beloved mother were interred in the family burying-ground, Hillhall, on Thursday, 2nd January. ALBERT A. GILLESPIE.
SOME EXTRACTS FROM THE
RECORDS OF OLD LISBURN
AND THE MANOR OF KILLULTAGH.
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Edited by JAMES CARSON.
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THE MAKING OF THE ULSTERMAN.
By Rev. Dr. J. S. Macintosh.
From "The Scottish-Irish in America," 1892.
THE USTERMAN WAS A STRANGER AMONG STRANGERS.
This is the second of the forces working on the transplanted Scot. Though he had come again to the home of one of his ancestors, the Dalriadan Scot who gave to Scotland her abiding name, still was in very sooth a stranger among strangers; and he was the stranger brought in by the ever hated Englishman. He was an alien to the alien Celt. Who, what, whence were the resistless Scots of Dalriada coming so early into the Strathclyde, no ethnologist has yet shown; but we know enough to affirm they were not of the South-Irish Celts. The indubitable strain of Celtic blood in the Ulsterman of the Plantation was brought to, not taken from Ireland.
This fact, that the Ulster colonist was a stranger, and the favourite, for the time, of England and her government, wrought in a two-fold way; in the Ulsterman and against him. It wrought in him at once the sense of ownership, the belief in his agrarian rights, the firm faith of heritage, the idea of coparceny as existent between the undertaker and the colonist; and out of these faiths grew the thought that the land was the settler's own on fulfilled conditions; that tenure was a fixity; that a home had been pledged if that were made and held against all comers and accruant profits were shared with his chief. The roots of Ulster tenant-right run far back and go deep.
Again, the fact that he was the royal colonist wrought in him the pride, the contempt, the hauteur and swaggering daring of a victorious race planted among despised savages. What at a later day was seen here may be seen down all the stretch of Ulster history. I have myself seen it, and heard time and again he would "lord it" over the mere Eerish. And the rulers of that hour both cultivated that feeling and enforced it. The Celt of that day had nothing to make him winsome or worthy of imitation. Romance and sentiment may as well be dropped. We have the hard facts about the clansmen of the O'Neill. The glory and the honour were with England. The times were big with the fresh British life. The men and women of that age and the age just closed are mighty by their witching force of greatness in good and evil. It is the era of Britain's bursting life and greatening soul. Song and statemanship, the chiefs of the drama, and the captains of daring are telling mightily on our forefathers in England and in Ulster. The new "Plantation" itself is full of enchantment when contrasted with the old state of internecine war. Let the historian wave his magic wand, and let the dead live, and the yesterday be our own to-day. We are in the Down-lands, fair lands of the circling sea, and rolling hills and silvery streams; and right before us are hoary ruins. It is the Grey Abbey. It is a genial day of early July, 1605, and four men and three women drink from the old well. They are worth more than we can give a swift glance, for they are the fathers and mothers of history. There is the Con O'Neale, wild, wicked, funny Con O'Neale, MacBryan Feartagh O'Neal, and round him gathers the very richest romance -- that wild dash on the easy English garrison in the clachan at Laganford, now known as Belfast -- that all adroit whisking off from the sleepy soldiers of every winebutt -- the arrest of the raider and his imprisonment in Carrick Castle -- the arts and wiles of the Jailer's daughter under the tutelage of Tom Montgomery -- the flight to London -- the amusing meeting with royal Jamie. Beside Con stands his friend in need, the bluff, half-smuggler captain Tom Montgomery, who made love to the jailer's daughter, Annie Dobbin, and carried off both Con and Annie as his own wife. Beside Tom rests on his strong staff Hugh Montgomery, of the noblest house of Eglinton, that soldier of fiery soul but rarest forethought, whom Prince Maurice, of Orange, had trusted as a very right arm. And the fourth man is the ancestor of the great Dufferin; he is one James Hamilton, the brainiest of them all, who came from a Scotch Manse and from the side of a great souled Presbyterian minister to be one of the world-makers in his deep-stamping of Ulster life and Ulster men.
And their wives; yes, they too are worthy; that jolly, mischievous Annie Dobbin, without whom there would have been no freed Con O'Neal in London making compact before King James with both Montgomery and Hamilton for the earliest settlement of Down. With her is Mistress Hamilton, that gentle mother to her loved folks. And noblest perhaps of the three is the mother of Ulster industry, the "clever and capable" Lady Montgomery, who built the water-mills to do away with "quairn stanes"; who overlooked her own model farms; who encouraged and guided the growing of flax and potatoes; who went around teaching spinning and weaving, both of flax and wool; who began the weaving of "the Ulster breakin;" and who lent money to the struggling till they were able to stand alone -- let her live forever -- "the mother of Ulster manufacture."
But these proud and haughty strangers with high heads and their new ways, were hated as aliens and harried from the beginning by "the wild Irish."
The Scorn of the Scot was met by the Curse of the Celt.
The native chiefs and their clansmen did not distinguish between the government and the colonists; nor had they right, nor did the colonists give them any cause. The hate and the harrying of the Irish were returned, and with compound interest, by the proud Ulsterman. To him the "redshanks'* of the "wild Earl" of Tyrone were exactly as the redskins of our forests to the men of New England and the Susquehanna and the Ohio. The natives were always "thae Eerish!" and the scorn is as sharp to-day on the tongue of a Belfast Orangeman as two centuries ago. It has been said that the Ulster settlers mingled and married with the Irish Celt. The Ulsterman did not mingle with the Celt. I speak, remember chiefly of the period running from 1695 to 1741. There had been in Ireland before the "Plantation" some wild Islanders from the West of Scotland, whose descendants may be found in the Antrim "Glynnes;" they did marry and intermarry with the natives; but King James expressly forbade any more of these Islanders being taken to Ulster; anil he and his government took measures that the later settlers of the "Plantation" should be "taken from the inward parts of Scotland," and that they should be so settled that they "may not mix nor inter-marry" with "the mere Irish." The Ulster settlers mingled freely with the English Puritans and with the refugee Huguenots; but so far as my search of state papers, old manuscripts, examination of old parish registers, and years of personal talk with and study of Ulster folk -- the Scots did not mingle to any appreciable extent with the natives. With all its dark sides, as well as all light sides, the fact remains that Ulsterman and Celt were aliens and foes.
III. Hence Came Constant and Bitter Strife
This feud made race fights, and they were bitter and bloody. And it was that kind of man-making war where everyman must be scout, and picket, and keeper of the pass -- general and private all at once. Our own story makes us too familiar with that sad, but man-making state of things. There is one sweetly fair spot in New England, where a very special training gave us very special men -- we know them as the Green Mountain Boys: there is a range where Sevier wrought that made the King's Mountain men; Ulster made at once Green Mountain and King's Mountain men out of the peaceful Lowlander, transplanted to Ulster. For years Scotland had been at peace. That peaceful Scot would not have done for our opening struggles; so the transplantation comes, and the Scot must, in Ulster, keep watch and ward. They must keep the pass. It is useless for Prendergast, Gilbert, and others to deny the massacres of 1641. Reid and Hickson and Fronde, the evidence sworn to before the Long Parliament and the memories of the people, prove the dark facts. The sword and the sickle went together in Ulster. Soon the hardy settlers had their trained bands; and we have documentary evidence that, fifty years after their landing, December 3, 1656, they could put into the field forty thousand fighting men -- many clad already in the distinctive garb of Ulster the "breakin," which was a kind of a shepherd plaid made of homespun. Already you see the peaceful Lowlander is falling behind the armed and aggressive Ulsterman. The old warriors are revived in their sons, and the forerunners of the revolutionary soldiers appear in Down and Antrim.
The fourth force changing the transplanted Scot was
The Necessity for Self-Adaptation.
There gradually arose in Ulster stronger reasons for finding out or making some modus vivendi with the native Irish. If they could not be quite warred out or worn out or worked out, then the colonists must discover some way by which they could fully hold their own with the Celt and yet be relieved from the necessity of perpetual battle. They began to try to adapt themselves to wholly other conditions from those known in Scotland. Their shrewdness was now exercised in a new direction -- the power of so far changing their fixed habits as to live alongside an alien and largely hostile race, make them serviceable, and gain from them the largest amount of help possible. The very causes that were at work on the Puritan to change him from the stolid and uncompromising John Bull into the pliant Yankee, full of his smart notions, are found in Ulster changing the overstiff Scotchman into the Ulsterman, who joins the bull-dog tenacity of the Briton to the quick-wittedness of the Celt. Under this force the Ulsterman is gaining what soon will mark him very strongly -- plasticity, versatility, nimbleness, and above all, staying power.
These four changing forces work for a time together on the settlers of the plantation, and then they are joined by another force of a somewhat different nature, but a force of the utmost value to the Ulsterman.
(To be continued.)
DEATH OF MR. W. JOHN PEEL.
The death of this old resident, locally known as "Billy" Peel, took place at his residence, Drumnaduff, on last Sunday, 29th inst, at the advanced age of 88 years. The deceased, although of humble circumstances, had poetic gifts of rare qualities and originality, in fact any event occurring in the neighbourhood of passing interest he translated into poetic form. I am informed that about his first attempt was the occasion of members of Killultagh Orange lodge going out in procession against the laws of the land at that time, on 12th July, to Aghalee headed by a man named George Higginson. His poem on this occasion showed great wit and poetic genius.
Mr. Peel was born, lived, and died in the same townland. He was a most ardent and enthusiastic member and supporter of the Orange Institution for more than 70 years, the latter 60 years thereof as a member of Brookhill L.O.L. His initial entry was into Killultagh Lodge, and he was never absent from the annual anniversary. Even last Twelfth, feeling himself unable to get to the place of meeting, he struggled to meet the Brethren at the hall at Brookhill. For a number of years past, he invited the brethren of the two lodges named to an annual social evening at his residence. His kind and generous hospitalities on these occasions will ever be remembered by them. As a last mark of respect and honour he was laid to rest by the brethren, the large and representative cortege at his funeral being a signal testimony to the esteem in which he was held by all. Although latterly in feeble health. Mr. Peel expressed a great desire to record his vote for Captain Craig at the recent election, and would have done so at great risk had he been allowed. It is rather a pity he did not get his desire granted, but he had the satisfaction in learning before he died that Captain Craig had been returned by a large majority. -- "Juvenal."
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Lisburn Standard - Friday, 10 January, 1919
ROSS -- January 6 (suddenly), at his father-in-law's residence, Oakvale, Dublin Road, Lisburn, Samuel Ross, cycle and motor agent, Castle Street, Lisburn, and was interred in Blaris on Wednesday afternoon, 8th inst. Deeply regretted.
SOME EXTRACTS FROM THE
RECORDS OF OLD LISBURN
AND THE MANOR OF KILLULTAGH.
-- -- --
Edited by JAMES CARSON.
-- -- --
-- -- --
THE MAKING OF THE ULSTERMAN
By Rev. Dr. J. S. Macintosh.
from "The Scotch-Irish in America." 1892.
Fresh fusions. There come to Ulster two sets of colonists belonging to allied and yet distinct races. The transplanted Scot is joined in Ulster by the Puritan and the Huguenot. While along the shores of Down and Antrim, and by the banks of the Six Mile Water and the Main, the colonists are almost wholly from the Lowlands of Scotland; upon the shores of Derry and Donegal, and by the banks of the Foyle and the Bann, were planted by the action of the same farseeing James Stuart, bands of English colonists. Large grants of land in the escheated counties of Ulster were bestowed upon the great London companies, and on their vast estates by the Foyle and the Bann were settled considerable numbers of fine old English families. The Englishman may be easily traced to this very day in Derry, and Coleraine and Armagh and Enniskillen. Groups of these Puritans dotted the whole expanse of Ulster, and in a later hour, when the magnificent Cromwell took hold of Ireland, these English colonists were reinforced by not a few of the very bravest and strongest of the Ironsides. To this very hour I know where to lay my hands on the direct lineal descendants of some of Cromwell's most trusted officers, who brought to Ireland blood that flowed in the purest English veins. The defiant city of Derry was the fruit of the English settlement, the royal borough of Coleraine, the Cathedral city of Armagh, the battle-swept Enniskillen, the district between Lisburn and Lough Neagh, and several towns and hamlets along the winding Bann. Among these English settlers were not a few who were ardent followers of George Fox, that man who in many respects was Cromwell's equal and in some his master; these Friends came with a man of great force of character. Thomas Edmundson, who bore arms for the Parliament, and has left behind him a singularly interesting diary. The Friends came to Antrim in 1652, and settled in Antrim and Down; hence come the Pims, the Barclays, the Grubbs, and Richardsons, with many another goodly name of Ulster.
The name of this Irish province was spreading over Europe by the second decade of the 17th century as the "shelter of the hunted;" and soon the Puritan and the Quaker are joined in Ulster by another nobleman of God's making -- the Huguenot from France. Headed by Louis Crommellin they came a little later and settled in and around Lisburn, founding many of the finest industries of Ulster, and giving mighty impulse to those already started. And still later, following the "Immortal William" came some brave burghers from the Holland and the Netherlands. Thus Ulster became a gathering ground for the very finest, most formative, impulsive and aggressive of the free, enlightened, God-fearing peoples of Europe.
Under the influences of the Puritan, the Huguenot, and the Hollander, the Ulsterman began to show a new side to his activity; he grew a busy trader, a man of business, a man of commerce. Ulster became a very hive of busy industries and activities. The coast-traffic with Scotland was weekly increasing, large trade sprang up with England, and soon the Ulster products and the Ulster merchants and skippers were known in the ports and towns of France and Holland. The men of thought and strong convictions are becoming the pushing men of affairs.
These five forces, his chartered rights, his strangerhood, his fierce feuds, his call to self-adaptation, and his marrying and mixing with Puritan, Quaker and Huguenot -- were all willingly accepted and gladly yielded to as either beneficial or unavoidable in his new situation. They left the Ulsterman largely modified inside the sweep of the three-quarter century from his planting, but they left him still the favoured and on the whole well-contented colonist.
But the sky now begins to darken. To those natural or desirable forces, modifying and transforming were now, alas, to be introduced unnatural and repulsive and iniquitous influences, and forces as unjust, unwise and unexpected, as they were irritating and ultimately infuriating.
The dark and wicked forces change the Ulsterman from the contented colonist to the exasperated emigrant.
The Ulsterman an exasperated Emigrant.
There had been known in Ulster what has bean called beautifully and with a sad lingering regret at its too early vanishing -- "The Golden Peaceable Age." It was the age of Usher and Echlin as bishops, and Chichester as deputy. But the clouds rose on the horizon; and the master of the coming tempest is one of those greatest and smallest of men ever being thrown up out of the deeps of English lite. He is Thomas Wentworth, that strange, strong, weak man, friend and foe at once, of England's best.
Wentworth started the Ulsterman's grievance; it was a black day for Ireland, and blacker still for England. The world is hearing a vast deal of the "Irish Question." That political porcupine, in its later form, came forth to the light in Ulster; and it was selfish English statesmen and most despotic churchmen started it. Though the Ulstermen, as a body, refuse to join with the Nationalists of to-day, Ulster and its wrongs and fierce revolt are the beginning of the later land and folk fights. The Ulsterman was the brewer of the storm. He became the "Volunteer" for freedom.
But he was right to let the fiercest hurly-burly play; the air was made foul and stifling; he was a stifling, and the tempest only could give him life breath.
From 1633, when Wentworth opened his star chamber of despots and his high commission courts of persecuting prelates, till 1704, when the sacramental test grew unbearable, Ulster was distracted by English tyrants and Laudian prelates. Cavalier and churchman sowed the wind; and at Marston and Yorktown they reaped the whirlwind.
The wrongs of the once-contented colonist were five-fold: 1. He was wronged by the State. 2. He was wronged by the Church. 3. He was wronged in his home. 4. He was wronged in his trade. 5 He was wronged in his very grave.
By The State.
As Limerick is the city of the violated treaty, so is Ireland the land of broken compacts and dishonoured promises. England wonders at the restlessness of the Green Isle. Nations have long memories. And disbelief that has grown for generations into settled no-faith cannot change into smiling and contented assurance of hope in a decade. Of all parts of Ireland Ulster for a half century has the longest tale of lies and deceptions to present, and the dark catalogue belongs to English parties and politicians. From 1633 to 1714 you have nothing but promises and falsifications; the promise made when England was afraid, or her plotting parties had something to gain; and the falsification, with scoffing laugh and galling sneer, when the fright was gone or the greed was gutted. No wonder the exasperated emigrant said at Carlisle, "I believe England least when she swears deepest." He was the son of a Derry Presbyterian, and he knew how England rewarded her saviours.
By The Church.
Working with Wentworth in the state was Laud in the Church. There had been an Usher and an Echlin, and there was the "golden age of peace," when there seemed the nearest approach of presbyter and prelate in generous trust and respect known since or before; but these great souls of sweetness and truth passed and after came Bramhall and King, and Taylor, who kept all his charity for books and great-sounding periods. The Jacobite bishops of distracted Ulster divided their time pretty equally between cowardly plotting against the Whig rule and the pitiless robbing of the non-conformists of all religious freedom. No one him put this sad tale into plainer nor more honest words than the Rev. Dr. M'Connell, the eloquent rector of St. Stephen's, Philadelphia, who said: "In the early years of the last century there were living here Scotch Presbyterians whose ears had been cut off by Kirk's lambs, whose fathers had been hanged before their eyes, who had worn the hoot and thumbkins while Leslies stood by and jeered, who had been hunted from their burning homes by that polished gentleman and staunch Episcopalian, Graham, Earl of Claverhouse, who had been brow-beaten by Irish bishops and denied even the sympath of the gentle Jeremy Taylor, who had been driven from their livings, fined, imprisoned, their ministerial office derided, the children of the marriages which they had celebrated pronounced bastards.
He Was Wronged in His Home.
Here State and Church joined together. Landlords and bishops made common cause to spoil the Ulster yeomanry. As the thrifty and toiling farmer improved his funds he was taxed on his invested capital by the ever-swelling rent till he was rackrented; and then if he would not pay the legalised robbery he was mercilessly evicted. His father and he had made a waste a garden while the proprietor idled. Then by law the idler claimed the fruits of hard toil; and English law wrung the "pound of flesh" forth; and suffered no Portia to plead for the defrauded. Added to these agrarian wrongs, were the denial of education, the shutting of schools, the barring of college by sacramental tests, and the legalized filching of great endowments for common education.
The right of free and independent voting was refused, and a gag law of the worst kind maintained.
The baptism of his children was made a laughing-stock, and the legality of marriage by non-episcopal clergy officially denied. I have seen calm men, not many years back, grind their teeth as they spoke of this bastardising of the non-conformists' children. Do you wonder at this intense, burning exasperation?
He was Wronged in His Trade.
Ulster was on the very high road to the finding of one chief cure for Ireland's troubles; that is, the diversion from too prevalent farming life of part of her population to trade, business, and manufactures. One reads with wonder of the rapid growth of Ulster industries and trade inside some thirty years, but the admiration changes to hot anger as you see the young life strangled by selfish and jealous interference on the part of English traders and statesmen. The Letters of Lord Fitzwilliam, and Dobbs's History of Irish Trade, tell one of the saddest tales. Act after Act was passed forbidding the exportation of wool, of horses, of cattle, of butter and cheese, and dead meats. Ireland was excluded from the Navigation Act, shipping was ruined, and business failed.
As if all these wrongs in life were not enough to heap on a man singularly high-minded, brave, loving right and hating a lie, he was wronged in death.
He was Wronged of a Grave.
For him no sacred "God's Acre," if his own beloved minister was to read simple words of Holy Writ and utter from the heart the spirit-born, free prayer. Why, even in my own late hour, I have seen the passage of a coffin through the gates of a church-yard that belonged to a common parish, and that had been originally donated by Presbyterian owner, barred, in the name of God and true religion, against a Presbyterian minister, by a self-styled guardian of hallowed ground.
And the Ulsterman who endured all this shame and wrong and open robbery, was the very man who had made and who had kept the land. He had made it. When he came 'twas a war-wasted desert; when he was driven to our shores from it, he left behind him homesteads and fertile fields.
He had kept it, and Derry is the proof.
Derry, whose salvation belongs not to Walker, but to the Rev. James Gordon and his Presbyterian "boys;" for Gordon led to the closing of the gates, and Gordon led the ships to the breaking of "the boom" and the relief of the garrison.
Yet, after that very siege and that very defence, guarding and saving Saxon freedom for the world, the men and the party that were the real saviours of the country and the keepers of the pass, were wronged and wronged, till their hearts blazed with fierce anger.
(To be Continued.)
LISBURN PETTY SESSIONS.
"NOTHING LIKE THE TRUTH."
This court was held yesterday before Messrs. Thomas Sinclair, J.P. (presiding) Alan Bell, R.M.; Robert Griffith, J.P.; and John M'Gonnell, J.P.
Antrim Street Assault Case.
June Gordon, Antrim Place, Lisburn, summoned Agnes Moore, for, as alleged, assaulting her on the 28th ult. Agnes Moore brought a cross case for assault against June Gordon, and also summoned the latter's brother, W. J. Gordon, and her mother, Mary Gordon, for assault.
Mr. W. G. Maginness, solicitor, appeared for the Gordons, and Mr. Wellington Young for Moore.
It appeared that the trouble arose over the delivery of a bag of coal Moore, who had a room rented from Mrs. Gordon, had ordered a bag of coal and she shouted down when a coalman arrived, and asked were the coals for her. The coals were for Gordon, and W. J. Gordon went up the stairs to explain. Some hot words ensued and Gordon's sister went up. Agnes Moore threw a baking howl and hit Jane Gordon on the head, giving her a very bad knock.
Jane Gordon declared that she gave Moore no provocation, and that the bowl was aimed at her, and her brother corroborated this evidence.
On the other hand, Moore alleged that Wm. Gordon caught her and assaulted her and that his sister came and helped in the assault. She threw the bowl at William Gordon.
Mary Anne Ferguson (mother of Mrs. Moore) said that Jane Gordon ran up the stairs and said she would not allow Agnes to hit her brother. Witness continuing said -- Jane Gordon said to my daughter, "I will give you an errand to the Infirmary," instead of that Agnes gave her one. (Laughter.) I will tell the truth. There is nothing like the truth. The bowl was thrown at William Gordon.
Agnes Moore, further stated that Mary Gordon assaulted her three days later on the street. Gordon took off her shawl and called witness out of her name.
The cases brought by Moore against Mary Gordon and William Gordon were dismissed, Jane Gordon was fined 2s 6d and costs, and with regard to the case brought by Jane Gordon against Agnes Moore. Moore was fined 5s and 10s costs.
Milk Vendor Fined.
Sergeant Rourke summoned Hugh Cunningham for selling, on 29th November, at Lisburn, buttermilk below standard quality.
Defendant was not professionally represented.
Sergeant Rourke said he took samples of milk on the date in question, when defendant was delivering it to a shop in Bow Street. The public analyist certified that the milk contained 37.6 of added water, or 12.6 in excess of quantity allowed.
Mr. Bell, R.M. (to defendant) -- Have you any questions to ask? No, sir.
Have you anything to say? No, sir.
Mr. Bell (to the Sergeant) -- Does the man buy the milk or does he churn it himself?
Sergeant Rourke -- He churns it himself. I know for a fact that he delivers it weekly to this retailer.
Defendant was fined £1 and 12s 6d costs and cautioned that if he came before the court again he would be fined £5.
Constable Kerr summoned Thomas Sterling for drunkenness and disorderly conduct on 24th December. The constable said that defendant wanted to fight with another carman named Thompson, and they had trouble getting him away. That was Sterling's first offence.
Defendant said that it was Xmas Eve and he took a little drink. He was most sorry.
A fine of 5s and costs was imposed.
Sergeant Duffy summoned Robert Watson for drunkenness in Bow Street, Lisburn, on the 28th December. Defendant was wrestling with another man, and complaints had been made about his conduct. His mouth was bleeding, somebody evidently having hit him.
Defendant said somebody lifted his bicycle, and when he went to look for it a man knocked his cap off. That was the first time he was ever in court, and it would be the last.
A nominal fine of 2s 6d. and costs was imposed.
A number of cases were adjourned.
INTERESTING COMMISSION CLAIM CASE
HEARD AT LISBURN QUARTER SESSIONS.
The matter of Lewis v. Greer was decided by His Honour Judge J. Walker Craig, K.C., at Lisburn Quarter Sessions on Friday. This was a suit brought by Thomas Lewis, of Lisburn, auctioneer, against George Greer, of same place, coal manager, to recover certain monies alleged to be due to the plaintiff for the sale of defendant's house property.
From the evidence it appeared that the defendant had instructed the plaintiff to advertise and sell some house property situate at Lisburn, but before plaintiff was able to effect a sale another auctioneer had induced the defendant to sign an agreement for the sale of the house to a woman named Graham for £380. Plaintiff thereupon claimed commission on the purchase money; this the defendant refused to pay, hence these proceedings.
The case had been partially argued at a previous court and adjourned to these present sittings for decision.
After hearing the evidence which was of a conflicting nature, his Honour gave a verdict for the plaintiff with costs against the defendant.
Mr. William Beattie, B.L. (instructed by Mr. James C. M'Gifford, solicitor, Lisburn) was counsel for the plaintiff, while Mr. E. J. M'Kean (instructed by Messrs. J. Allen and W. G. Maginess, solicitors, Lisburn) appeared for the defence.
MALICIOUS INJURY APPLICATIONS.
Lagan Navagation Company Awarded Damages.
Sitting at Antrim Quarter Sessions, in Belfast, yesterday, His Honour Judge Craig gave his decision in the matter of Bright's Patent Pulley Co., Ltd., Portadown; Inland Navagation Co., Belfast; and the Lagan Navagation Co., v. the County Council of Antrim and the Aghalee Rural District Council. These claims as mentioned on page 6, were heard at Lisburn, and adjourned to Belfast. Yesterday was the third hearing of the cases, which had been adjourned for further evidence each time they had previously come before the court. On the present occasion District-Inspector Gregory was called.
His Honour said he had been greatly helped by this witness, who was able to explain matters in a way that threw light on some things that were not clear to him at the other hearings. He (the Judge) had given a great deal of consideration to those cases, and he had come to the conclusion on all the evidence presented to him that the fire was maliciously caused. He awarded in the first case £130 in the second £150, and in the third in respect of buildings £80, and made the total amount a charge on the county at large. It was not necessary for him to decide whether the County Council of Antrim had power to bring in the County Council of Down as a contributory part or not; but he considered the notice given by the County Council of Antrim in regard to that too short, and would not allow it to be put in now.
In addition to the professional men mentioned on page 6, Mr. Joseph Lockhart (for Mr. R. J. Dickson) now watched the cases on behalf of the Down County Council.
PLANS FOR REBELLION.
Accused Sentenced to Five Year's Imprisonment.
Charles Hurley, civilian, of Castletownbere, County Cork, tried by general court-martial at Cork on 17th December, 1918, for carrying ammunition and for having in his possession a document of such a nature as might be useful to the enemy, in contravention of D.O.R. Regulations, was found guilty of both charges and sentenced to five years' penal servitude. The finding and sentence have been duly confirmed.
LISBURN QUARTER SESSIONS.
The above sessions were held on Friday last, the 3rd inst., before His Honour Judge Craig.
William Crowe, Ballyclough, Farmer, v. Robert Morrow, Whitemountain, Farmer.
There was a process for £12 10s 0d, grazing of cattle. There was a cross process by Robert Morrow against William Crowe for £11 5s, grazing of cattle.
Mr. W. G. Maginess, solicitor, appeared for the plaintiff, and Mr. Beattie, B.L. (instructed by Mr. D. B. Simpson, solicitor), appeared for the defendant.
William Crowe proved that he had taken portion of the mountain for the year's grazing, and had arranged with the defendant to take on four head of cattle and a horse, for which he was to pay £2 10s 0d per head, and this was the amount claimed.
Cross-examined by Mr. Beattie, he admitted that he and Morrow had neighboured ploughs, and because Morrow had in 3 acres of potatoes, and he had in less than an acre, Morrow gave some graing for his two cows, otherwise he would have to have sold one, but nothing was to be charged for this.
Mrs. Morrow stated the cattle were hers, and there was no arrangement as to what, should be paid, but she admitted she lived with her husband, and they each had a farm, and both were worked as one.
Robert Morrow on the cross case, said that the cattle were his wife's, and it was on his graing that the plaintiff's two cows had been for a few weeks. On cross-examination by Mr. Maginess, he admitted that the horse which was on Crowe's grass was bred from his own mare, but he said his wife claimed it.
The Judge gave a Decree for the full amount claimed by Crowe, and dismissed the cross process.
Robertson and Thompson, Ltd., Belfast v. James Morrow, Crossan.
This was a claim for work done, and the return of the body of a sidecar of a Motor Bicycle.
Mr. Turnbull, solicitor, Belfast, appeared for the plaintiffs, and Mr. W. G. Maginess appeared for the defendant.
The plaintiffs' case was that the defendant purchased a bicycle and side-car from them, but refused to accept the side-car, and they had lent him one partially finished until he (Morrow) could get "one made according to his own specification and for damage caused through wear and tear, they claimed £2 5s 3d.
On cross-examination, the witness for the plaintiffs admitted the original price was £111 13s 0d, and that defendant, when he saw the side-car stated it was not the make he ordered and refused to take it, and a new contract for £103 13s 0d was entered into for the bicycle and chassis, and the plaintiffs lent defendant a body to put on the chassis, which he was to return in good order. He admitted the defendant returned this but it had to be re-painted, and they claimed for sending back the original side-car to the makers.
The defendant proved that he ordered a Harley-Davidson motor cycle and sidecar, the price to be £111 13s 0d; that he paid £80 before the car was received and went down to take it over, when he found the side-car was not a Harley-Davidson and refused to take it. A new contract was then entered into that he should take the bicycle, and get a Harley-Davidson chassis, he to provide a body, and in the meantime, the plaintiffs offered to lend him an unfinished body until such time as he (defendant) would get one made. He there and then paid the balance due on the new contract for the bicycle and chassis, and later took back the body which had been lent him in the same order in which he received it.
The Judge dismissed the case on the merits.
Workmen's Compensation Act.
Ward v. Woods.
This was an application to have the amount agreed upon as compensation, which had been lodged in court, paid out.
Mr. W. G. Maginess, solicitor, appeared for the applicant.
The amount was ordered to he paid out.
Price v. Wm. Barbour & Sons, Ltd,
This was a similar application to have the amount paid out of court, Mr. Maginness appearing for the applicant. The Order was made.
Malicious Injury Applications.
Inland Navigation Co. v. Co. Council of Antrim and Aghalee Rural District Council.
Lagan Navigation Co. v. Same.
Bright's Patent Pulley Co., Ltd. v. Same.
These claims arose out of the burning of a shed on the Lagan Canal at Aghagallon, and were adjourned from last court. After a protracted hearing, the cases were again adjourned to Belfast, when the Judge stated he would give his decision.
Mr. Beattie, B.L. (instructed by Messrs. C. and H. Jefferson, solicitors, Belfast) appeared for the applicants; Mr. Thompson, B.L. (instructed by Messrs. Greer and Hamilton, solicitors, Ballymoney) appeared for the County Council; and Mr. W. C. Hume, B.L. (instructed by Mr. W. G. Maginess) appeared for the Aghalee Rural District Council.
DEATH OF MR. SAMUEL ROSS.
The death took place suddenly on Monday morning of Mr. Samuel Ross, motor and cycle agent, Castle Street, Lisburn. Mr. Ross had influenza at the time his wife died from that malady a few weeks ago, and he never seemed able to shake off the effects of the disease. He was under the care of Dr. Munce, and he went to reside with his father-in-law, Mr. M'Cann Oakvale, Dublin Road, in an endeavour to regain health and strength, but he fretted a great deal about his wife, to whom he was greatly attached, and heart trouble setting in he passed away on Monday morning. He leaves one child, a little girl about twelve years of age, to mourn his loss, and the greatest sympathy is felt for her in her double bereavement.
The funeral took place to Blaris burying-ground on Wednesday afternoon, and was largely attended. Rev. E. W. Young Seymour Street Methodist Church, to which church Mr. Ross belonged, conducted an impressive service in the house, and, again, officiated at the graveside.
The funeral arrangements were carried out by Messrs. Jellie and Fullerton, under the personal supervision of Mr. Fullerton.
LISBURN LARCENY CASES
HEARD AT COUNTY QUARTER SESSIONS.
The quarter sessions for the County of Antrim were opened by His Honour Judge Walker Craig in the County Courthouse, Belfast, on Tuesday. Mr. J. Bristow, Under-Sheriff, accompanied his Honour on the bench, Mr. James M'Keown, Lisburn, was foreman of the Grand Jury.
A Lost Overcoat.
William Robert Ringland, Low Road, Lisburn, was indicted for the larceny of an overcoat belonging to Frederick Menary, draper, Lisburn.
Mr. J. R. Moorhead, Crown Solicitor, prosecuted, and prisoner was represented by Mr. W. G. Maginness.
It was stated that Mr. Menary was at a social gathering in the Seymour Street School on the 12th December, and on entering he hung up his coat in the vestibule. He could not find the coat when he went to look for it just before leaving the premises. On the morning of the 16th December Sergeant Rourke went to prisoner's house to make inquiries, and later in the day Ringland took the coat to the police barracks, remarking: "This is the coat that your man was down seeing my brother Tommy about." On being arrested the accused said: "I was not in the hall that night, nor inside the gate. Two or three boys ran down from the hall door, and dropped this coat in the gutter, and seeing what it was I lifted it and took it home."
The defence was that prisoner found the coat, and that he took it to the barracks as soon as he heard that the police had been inquiring about it.
The jury returned a verdict of not guilty, and the accused was acquitted.
In the Fowl House.
William Curran, Lisburn, was indicted for the larceny of a duck, the property of Isaac Dalton, Knockmore, on the 20th December.
For the prosecution it was stated that Dalton heard a noise in the fowlhouse during the night, and on going there he saw a man, whom he subsequently identified as the prisoner. The man made his escape, and when arrested subsequently denied the larceny.
The defence was an alibi.
Prisoner was convicted and was put back. The following morning he was sentenced to two calendar months with hard labour.
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Lisburn Standard - Friday, 17 January, 1919
SOME EXTRACTS FROM THE
RECORDS OF OLD LISBURN
AND THE MANOR OF KILLULTAGH.
-- -- --
Edited by JAMES CARSON.
-- -- --
-- -- --
THE MAKING OF THE ULSTER MAN
By Rev. Dr. J. S. Macintosh.
From "The Scotch-Irish in America." 1892.
The Ulsterman's sense of uttermost wrong grew month by month more strong and fiery, until the old, long-surviving loyalty to England died out, and was replaced by the calm, settled, and fearful hatred felt toward the oppressor by the robbed and outraged man whose active, educated conscience told him that he had "his quarrel just."
When his righteous anger was, in the opening years of the eighteenth century reaching its whitest heat, Holland began to call upon him, but more movingly still the stirring American colonies. The transplanted Scot is now ready to become afresh a colonist as the transplanted Scotch-Irishman. What a changed man is he, however. Before, he leaves the shores of Antrim, and the hills of Down, and the shadow of Derry walls, for the Forks of the Delaware, the woods of the Susquehanna, and the hills and dales of Virginia and Tennessee, let us plant him over against the Lowlander that still was the untransplanted Scot.
How like, yet how much unlike! How like; in both Lowlander and Ulsterman is the same strong racial pride, the same hauteur and self-assertion, the same self-reliance, the same close mouth, and the same firm will -- "the stiff heart for the steek brae." They are both of the very Scotch, Scotch. To this very hour, in the remoter and more unchanged parts of Antrim and Down, the country-folks will tell you: "We're no Eerish, bOt Scoatch." All their folk-lore, all their tales, their traditions, their songs, their poetry, their heroes and heroines, and their homespeech, is of the oldest Lowland types and times.
In both Lowlander and Ulsterman there is the same shrewd hard-headedness, the same practical sagacity in affairs, the same tough purpose, the same loyalty to friends, the same moral firmness, the same stiffness in religion. In both there is the same grim caustic humour, reflective and suggestive, rather than explosive or broadly told; the same cool self-measurement and self-trust -- each clearly and honestly knowing just what he can do and going quietly to the doing, neither asking nor wanting help. But the dour Scot and the sturdy Northern have grown to be two distinct men. Yes! the Ulsterman is best called by our own phrase, the Scotch-Irishman; he lays his hands on both, yet stands on his feet apart from the Scot and the Celt. He has the toughness of the one and the dash of the other; but while the Scot has the toughness of the oak -- breaking, not bending -- the Ulsterman has the toughness of the yew; he has the dash of the Celt, but while the dash of the Celt is the leap of the wild horse, the dash of the Ulsterman is the rush of the locomotive -- there's a hand on the lever.
Than the Transplanted Scot --
The Ulsterman has larger versatility. He is more plastic. He adapts himself more quickly to strange places and folks. There is in him more "come and go." The Scot is dour; he is sturdy. He has gained through his exportation and his enforced fight for existence in an alien mass strangely large powers of self-adaptation. He is more thoroughly and speedily responsive to outside influences; the environment tells more rapidly, and completely on him. In a few years the Ulsterman will become the Londoner, New Yorker, or Philadelphian; but the Lowlander is Scot often for life.
The Ulsterman is less insular; he is less the man of a land -- he is the man of a nation; he is less traditional, less provincial; he is not an islander, but an imperialist -- not Scotch nor Irish, but rather British; he is cosmopolitan rather than countrified.
He is more human, less clannish: more genial, less reserved; more accessible, less suspicious of strangers; more neighbourly, less recluse. He has more "manners" than his Scotch cousin, though he makes no pretensions to the polish and suavity and fascination of his Celtic neighbour, whom the dogged Northern thinks "too sweet to be wholesome." He has more fun than the Lowlander, but he dislikes the frolics of the Celt. While the Scot is stern, he is sedate; while the Irishman is poetical, he is practical. The Scot is plain; the Celt is pleasing; the Ulsterman is piquant.
He is more fertile in resource; his colonist life taught him to be ready for any thing; he is handy at many things; he is the typical borderer, pioneer, and scout. He will pass easily from one work or trade or business to another; to-day farmer, to-morrow shop-keeper, and third day something else. But with all his readiness to change, he is ever firm, "locked and bolted to results," with a singularly large gift and power for organization and association.
He is more the man of common sense than a metaphysical subtlety, practical rather than severely logical; he studies use rather than reasons, faces common things more than philosophies, deals with business more than books.
He is democratic rather than monarchical, loyal to principal rather than to persons, attached to institutions rather than families or houses; he sees through the Stuarts quickly, and follows the new house of Orange because it will serve him in his political struggle.
His pugnacity is defensive rather than offensive; his heraldic device is rather "the closed gates" of the threatened town than the old Scot's "spurs and bared blade."
And as he was found at Derry, Enniskillen and the Boyne, and as he is to be found still in the broad lands of Ulster, so to-day and forever when his country, wherever that may be, calls, he will be found, the first to start and the last to quit.
-- -- -- -- -- -- --
AN OLD HILLSBOROUGH MURDER. 1828.
(From the "Northern Whig.")
About the year 1828 there was committed at Hillsborough a murder whose mystery was never cleared up. This was the murder of Miss Nancy Stott, a member of the Society of Friends, and her maidservant, a tragedy which has passed into the ballad poetry of the province. They lived alone in a house in Moira Street, but the old lady -- she was about fifty -- was in the habit of going away on her business -- a curious occupation for a woman -- as a leather merchant, taking her servant with her. On Monday evening 5th December, the man who usually attended to Miss Stott's cows left her house at about six o'clock. He was not to return until Wednesday. On Tuesday morning Miss Stott's window shutters and doors were observed to be closed. Her neighbours believed that she had gone to a meeting of Friends, which was holding that day in Lurgan. It was Miss Stott's custom to take her maidservant with her on all journeys. Everything appeared correct about the house, and therefore, no suspicions were entertained of anything being wrong. On Wednesday forenoon the man came, according to agreement, to look after the cows. He found the concern closed up, and the cows were lowing for food. A boy was put upon the yard wall, and he observed something resembling a bloody cap lying at the kitchen door.
An alarm was raised, and Mr. Moore, of Eglantine, with the police, broke into the house, where both women were lying dead, the heads battered by some blunt weapon. In the eloquent words of the reporter of the time:-- "The alarm ran through Hillsborough with the speed and the effect of a terrible hurricane. The people rushed from their homes and looked at each other with a bewilderment in their gaze and a horror in their countenance which can better be conceived than described. They ran to the scene of blood, from that back to their homes, and from thence grouped themselves in the streets, not knowing what to say or do. A well-designed murder had been committed in the heart of a civilised town, in the bosom of a peaceful country, unattended by robbery, for nothing appeared disturbed in the house -- silver spoons were lying about, bank-notes in a counter drawer, and the front and back doors all locked and the keys removed." A large reward was offered, a hue-and-cry was raised, a former servant girl (who benefitted by Miss Stott's will) was arrested, but there was not a tittle of evidence against her, and the tragedy of the murder remains a mystery to this day.
There used to be recited in the country a ballad containing ten verses, by one Patrick Reynolds, of Kilwarlin, who seemed to produce a poem in celebration of everything that happened. Of course the murder was drawn in, and duly portrayed in poetic language:--
"Poetic bards and sages, why silent in these ages,
To see malign outrages and base sorrocide strike Christiandum with terror and fill each mind with horror.
My mentals grieve with sorrow the subject to describe?
'Tis of a brutal action which some of Cain's extraction
In Hillsborough committed upon two females dear.
Who savagely were battered and barbarously slaughtered,
And hurried for to face their God without remorse or fear."
"Each heart with grief was panting, some tender Christians fainting,
The scene was so lamenting to see them in their gore;
Their clothes as if it rained with human blood were stained,
That from their wounds had teemed was frozen to the floor!
The maid was dreadful handled, was fractured, tore, and mangled;
'Twas thought she had wrangled her precious life to save,
But forced for to give over, never more to recover,
All by the deadly blows that her vile assassin gave.
Next Week -- Lisburn Linen Industry.
DEATH OF MR. JAMES GILLEN. J.P., GLENAVY.
We regret much to record the death of this old and honoured resident of Glenavy, which took place at his residence, Belfast Road, on Tuesday evening. About two years ago, Mr. Gillen underwent a serious operation which did not prove the success which his medical advisers anticipated, and had he not had an almost iron constitution he would have succumbed long ago. Naturally his death did not come as a surprise to his immediate friends.
Mr. Gillen came of an old and respected stock, whose forbears owned a farm at the Mount, near Crumlin, where deceased was born. His three elder brothers emigrated at an early age to Australia, where they became noted magnates in the business and financial life of Queensland. Their young brother remained at home to care for his parents, a self-imposed task which he faithfully and dutifully performed. He had had rough enough times in the early days, and he often alluded with pride to his early struggles with adverse circumstances, and later on with abounding prosperity, yet he was always the same plain, homely James Gillen; in fact the whole countryside feel that an old landmark has been removed and the type of an old country gentleman has passed away rarely to be found in the present day.
The late Mr. Gillen was a shrewd, capable farmer; a man of sound judgment governed by practical ideas and common sense; his advise and counsel was reliable and much sought for, and above all, he hated shams and dishonour in any way. His promotion to be a Justice of the Peace for Co Antrim a few years ago gave universal satisfaction to all creeds and classes, and he was just in the zenith of great popularity in this capacity when failing health set in. He never took any interest in politics, always exercising his duties as citizen in this respect in a quiet unobtrusive manner, tolerant and respectful to all who differed from him. He was a devoted adherent of St. Joseph's Chapel, Glenavy, blow cold or hot he was there. He could recall the noted Parish priests he sat under, such as Father M'Mullan and Father Pye.
He was married twice, his first wife being Miss Hamill, of which his two surviving sons are issue. His last marriage was to Mrs. M'Garrell. We extend to the sons our sympathy in the loss of a kind and loving father. The funeral takes place, to-day at 1 o'clock to St. Joseph's Chapelyard, Glenavy.
LISBURN SOLDIER'S SUDDEN DEATH.
On Saturday Dr. Mussen, J.P., Coroner, held an inquest in the Courthouse, Lisburn, touching the death of Gunner William John Rogan, R.F.A., who that morning was found dead in bed at his brother's residence, Canal Street.
It appeared that Rogan returned home on furlough on 8th inst.
After hearing the evidence, the jury returned a verdict to the effect that death was caused by heart failure, accelerated probably by the result of a wound and the hardships he experienced in the trenches, where on one occasion he was buried by a shell explosion.
FIRE AT LISBURN CONVENT.
Shortly after seven o'clock on Sunday morning, the Fire Brigade was summoned to the Convent of the Sacred Heart of Mary, Castle Street, where it was seen a fire had broken out in the wash-house and coal store, which form part of a lower range of buildings connected with the main institution, and includes the chapel. The nuns first made an attempt to extinguish the flames, but finding the task beyond their power an alarm was raised, which was promptly answered by the firemen and police, who set to work energetically, and there being an ample water supply available, in a short time the danger was over and the valuable property saved.
FURTHER MILITARY HONOURS.
POSTHUMOUS AWARD FOR MAJOR M'CORMACK.
The following awards for gallant deeds have (been gazetted:--
SECOND BAR TO MILITARY CROSS.
Major Campbell-M'Neil M'Cormack, M.C., 15th Field Ambulance, R.A.M.C. (youngest son of Mr. William M'Cormack, Hillhall House, Lisburn):--
For conspicuous gallantry and devotion, to duty. During various attacks this officer supervised the collecting of wounded over a large part of the divisional front. He closely followed the advancing troops with his stretcher-bearers, evacuating the wounded skilfully and speedily. On one occasion during a retirement he personally, under heavy fire, reconnoitred the ground where the wounded lay, and by his dispositions of the stretcher-bearers undoubtedly saved their lives and the lives of many of the wounded.
This gallant officer was killed in action on 22nd September, 1918. The award of the Military Cross was gazetted on 22nd Sept., 1916, and of the first bar on 15th October, 1918. His widow is a daughter of the late Rev. James Warnock, Drumbo.
Captain William James Lyness, 12th Battalion Royal Irish Rifles (son of Mr. W. J. Lyness, Tullyard House, Moira):--
When the right flank of the brigade was held up he went forward to reconnoitre and unexpectedly met with a nest of machine-guns and about fifty of the enemy, who opened very heavy fire. With great difficulty he made his way back, got a Lewis gun and a man with a supply of magazines and went forward again, engaged the strong point, firing eleven magazines, killing the majority of the enemy, and capturing a machine-gun. He then led the flank forward about 600 yards and straightened out the line. The man with him was killed, and he was wounded. He showed great gallantry and determination.
Captain Lyness won the Military Cross at the capture of the Messines-Wytschaete Ridge on 7th June, 1917, and gained the first bar to that decoration in the autumn of that Mar.
Major Robert Hanbury Brudenell-Bruce, Norfolk Regiment:--
During severe fighting for two days he rendered very valuable service by reconnoitring under difficult and dangerous conditions, when situations arose requiring personal reports, as communications were broken. He displayed great coolness and complete disregard of danger in carrying out his dangerous mission, and throughout the operations his conduct was marked by great gallantry and presence of mind.
Major Bruce is married to a daughter of Mr. C. H. Richardson J.P., of Cedarhurst, Newtownbreda. He is the third son of the late Lord Robert Thomas Brudenell-Bruce and grandson of third Marquis of Ailesbury.
Temporary Second-Lieutenant Samuel Parker Beggs, 219th Field Company R.E., son of Mr. S. Beggs, Dunmurry:--
This officer with his section bridged a canal and river by night, and in spite of machine-gun and rifle fire succeeded in getting the infantry across. The success of the undertaking was entirely due to his courage and initiative.
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Lisburn Standard - Friday, 24 January, 1919
BARBOUR -- January 21st, at The Manse, Cloughmills, Elizabeth Barbour, elder sister of the Rev. Charles H. Barbour.
SOME EXTRACTS FROM THE
RECORDS OF OLD LISBURN
AND THE MANOR OF KILLULTAGH.
-- -- --
Edited by JAMES CARSON.
-- -- --
-- -- --
THE LINEN INDUSTRY IN ULSTER.
by WM. LARMOR.
As Lisburn has been closely associated with the linen industry from its earliest stages of development in Ireland down to the present time, the history of our staple trade will always provide much interest for the people of the town and neighbourhood. The subject has been rather neglected in the past, and as it affords great scope for research work, it is to be hoped that at some future time an historian worthy of the task will trace with unerring hand the history of the growth and development of the industry in Ireland.
In order to show intelligibly the importance of the part played in this locality during the development of the industry under the domestic system it will be necessary to make a short survey of its history in general in Ireland.
First of all one must examine briefly the commercial policy of England, and the commercial relations existing between England and Ireland during the early stages of the industry. Next, it will be necessary to trace its growth and development under the domestic system, and which have substituted instead the factory system of manufacture.
It is not known when linen was first manufactured in Ireland, but it is assumed that linen making was practised from the earliest times. It is known to have existed during the thirteenth century, and in the fifteenth linen cloth was exported to England and to Antwerp. In the sixteenth century there are more evidences of the industry, but it was during the seventeenth century that the manufacture of linen first came into prominence.
Suppression of Irish Trade.
At that time England was under the sway of the Mercantalist Policy. Under the Mercantile system, in order to have a stock of gold and silver in the country, the immediate object aimed at was to have a favourable balance of trade. To accomplish this and every encouragement was given to the importation of raw materials, but the purchase of foreign manufactures was for the most part prohibited. Unfortunately, this policy was extended to the colonies, and the Mercantalist attitude of mind towards them was that they were to be treated as sources of raw materials which must be manufactured in England and then resold to the colonies. They were not allowed to compete in foreign markets against the mother country and any industries that showed signs of developing were suppressed. It was intended that the colonies should remain in this condition, and that England should reap all the benefits in return for their defence, etc.
Unfortunately the policy towards Ireland was the same as the colonial policy. In the 17th century at the time of the plantation the natives were regarded in the same way as the Indian natives were regarded, and the idea was to plant colonies and civilize the Irish. Ireland was not allowed to develop and compete with English industries. A series of navigation acts were passed which were aimed primarily against the Dutch, who a- that time were a great carrying power. The principal act passed, in the year 1651 stated that "no goods of the growth or manufacture of Asia, Africa, or America were to be imported into England, Ireland or the Plantations, except in ships belonging to English subjects, and manned by an English captain and by a crew, three-fourths of whom were English; while no goods of any country in Europe were to be imported except in English ships, or ships belonging to the country from which the goods came." This measure was ultimately successful in excluding the Dutch from the carrying trade, but rather unfortunately for Ireland it crippled her shipping, and was hurtful to the linen industry, as we shall see later.
The effect of the English Mercantile Policy on Irish industries will now be noticed, and will see why the linen industry was partially encouraged whilst other industries were crushed.
After the Restoration in 1660 Irish cattle farmers, breeding live stock and shipping them to England to be fattened, for a short time carried on a thriving trade. Soon afterwards English breeders raised a great outcry against the increasing importation of Irish cattle. As England was governed at this period by the land owning classes whose interests were bound up with English farmers, the Cattle Act of 1663 was passed prohibiting the import of Irish cattle. The Irish farmers then turned their attention to sheep farming. Large tracts of land were turned into sheep walks, with the result that wool became very plentiful. The manufacture of woollen goods then became considerable, as the raw material was so cheap, and as the cost of living was so much below that of England wages were low. English clothiers began to feel the competition, so a great outcry was raised against the importation of woollen goods into England, which was said to he ruining their trade. The argument was that as the cost of manufacture was much cheaper in Ireland countervailing duties should be placed on Irish cloth to equalise the prices. As a result of the agitation, and in accordance with the English policy then existing, the famous Act of 1699 was passed placing import duties on Irish cloth, but they were fixed so high as to make the Irish trade impossible; and the result was the ruin of the Irish woollen industry.
This restriction had a most important bearing on the Irish linen industry. It was realised by the English statesmen that in crushing the woollen industry an injustice was being done to the Irish, and that if the manufacture of linen could be encouraged it would in some measure recompense the Irish, and at the same time serve the interest of both countries, for at this time England was importing linen goods from the Low countries and the idea was that the Irish linens would take their place. Accordingly, in 1698 we find that when the English Parliament petitioned William III for the suppression of the Irish woollen trade, his reply contained the following:-- "I will do all that in me lies to discourage the woollen manufacture of Ireland, and to encourage the linen manufacture there."
This clearly marks a very important period in the history of the linen industry, and we shall now consider its effect under the domestic system of manufacture.
Hand Loom Weaving.
Earlier in the century Chief-Governor Stafford had tried to promote the manufacture of linen in Ireland. The extent of this trade at that time can be measured from the fact that in a letter to the King he mentions that he has sent to Holland for £100 worth of flax-seed as he considered the soil good for growing flax, that he had brought some skilled workmen from the Low countries, and that he had already established six or seven looms.
After the Restoration under the administration of the Duke of Ormonde, another attempt was made to establish the linen trade. Messengers were sent to see how the Flemish manufacture was carried out. Some progress was made and when Ormonde returned to England in 1669 two flourishing linen manufacturing centres were in existence, one near Dublin and another at Carrick.
The result of these efforts was swept away during the revolutionary war that followed. In 1698 when the country had slightly recovered, the amount of manufactured linen for export was practically negligible.
The kind of linen manufactured before this period was what is called bandle linen. It was coarse cloth, of narrow width, manufactured without any system of regularity of texture, and only according to the imperfect knowledge and crude ideas of the weaver.
Another very important event happened about this period (1698) which had a very powerful and beneficent influence on the development of linen weaving.
Owing to the revocation of the tolerating Edict of Nantes, a number of Protestant linen weavers fled from France and established themselves, some at Waterford, and some, who preferred to live with their co-religionists, at Lisburn. Amongst those who established themselves in our town was the famous Louis Crommelin. It appears that he came at the invitation of William III, to superintend the linen manufacture.
Crommelin's family had carried on the industry in France for more than four hundred years, and he himself had been head of an extensive linen manufacture in Picardy. The King had appointed him "Overseer of the Royal Linen Manufactory of Ireland," and granted him a patent. He was also given £800 a year for ten years as interest on £10,000 advanced by him for starting the business, an annuity of £200 for life, and also £120 a year for his assistants who were to help him to Superintend the cultivation of flax, and instruct in the latest methods of bleaching. Crommelin on his side agreed to advance sums of money without interest to workmen and their families coming from abroad to enable them to embark on the industry, and also to local workmen destitute of means and anxious to work at the trade. Once Crommelin had started his linen industry at Lisburn he invited over Protestant artisans from France and the Low countries. As a result, a great settlement of weavers was made in Lisburn. Although it had been burnt in the civil wins, the establishment of Crommelin and the other Huguenot refugees soon made Lisburn one of the most flourishing towns in Ireland.
Crommelin faithfully carried out his part of the bargain and did marvels to improve the industry. Under his direction a thousand looms and spinning wheels were imported from Holland, and he gave a premium of £5 on every loom at work. He introduced improvements of his own and was the means of finer linen being made in our neighbourhood than had ever been made in the King's dominions.
(To be continued.)
LISBURN PETTY SESSIONS
This court was held yesterday before Messrs. Wm. Davis, J.P.; Alan Bell, R.M.; W. J. M'Murray, J.P.; and Robert Griffith, J.P.
Important Gas Meter Case.
Lisburn Urban District Council prosecuted Andrew Maguire, 15 Leamington Place, Lisburn, for, as alleged, tampering with a penny-in-the-slot gas meter, the property of the Urban Council, and obtaining there from gas without paying for it.
Mr. Wellington Young appeared for the Council, and Maguire was not professionally represented.
Mr. Young said the case was a very important one. It was brought under the Gas Works Clauses Act, 1847, and the penalty was £5. Mr. Young, proceeding, gave a short history of the acquiring of the gas works by the Urban Council "at very considerable expense," and described the putting in of the penny-in-the-slot meters for the convenience of the poorer people of the town. The meters were double sealed. The man had apparently discovered a way of obtaining gas without putting in a penny at all. When the magistrates should have heard the evidence he would ask them to inflict the highest possible penalty in the case.
Walter Morrow gasfttter in the employment of the Urban Council, said it was his duty to put meters into houses. He put a meter into defendant's house. When he put it in it was intact and complete in every way. He knew nothing about the case, except putting the meter in and, later on, taking it out. When he took the meter put, the seal was off it. He simply disconnected the meter, and brought it back to the gas works.
Replying to questions put to him by the defendant, Morrow denied that it was he broke the seal, and said he did not use a turnscrew, that he borrowed from defendant, on it.
To Mr. Bell, R.M. -- The seal was not there.
By the Chairman -- The seal was off the meter before he started to disconnect it.
Robert Anderson, meter inspector, said it was his duty to take indexes. He took the index on the meter in question on 16th December. It showed that gas consumed to the value of 8/4, and all the money he found in it was 1/9. He made a note in his inspection book at the time, and reported the matter to the Gas Manager. He looked at the seal and found it was broken. That was three or four days before the fitter was there at all.
Mr. Young (to defendant,) -- Have you any questions to ask?
Defendant -- No, your Worship; I never saw the man in my life.
A. S. Brook, gas manager, produced the original agreement signed by Maguire before the meter was put in, and went on to describe (with the meter on the Solicitors' table,) the construction of the meter, and the effect the removal of the seal would have. If the seal were removed it would be quite possible for anyone to secure gas without putting in the pennies. The meter (produced) was in his charge since its removal from Maguire's house.
By Mr. Bell -- The seal had been removed
Continuing to reply to Mr. Young's questions, Mr. Brook said the deficit was 7/2. There was a second check on the meter showing the amount of gas consumed without any regard to the money put into the meter.
Defendant- -- Whenever I sent word to this man that the meter was leaking, he said it would be all right. I have no one in the house but five orphan children from morning to night, and I cannot stay at home to mind this man's meter, (laughter).
Mr. Bell, R.M. -- Did this man make any complaint about the meter?
Mr. Brook -- No, I dont think so.
The Defendant -- Yes, I did complain, and the man (pointing to Morrow,) broke the seal of the meter on my own table, for I sat and watched him.
The Gas Manager on being farther interrogated by Mr. Young, said that on the 23rd December he wrote Maguire drawing his attention to the deficiency in the meter, mentioning that the meter appeared to have been tampered with, and asking him to call at the Gas Office to give an explanation. The defendant never called, and he (witness) never saw him until that day.
Mr. Young (to defendant) -- Where do you work?
Defendant -- At Hilden.
The Chairman -- What wages do you earn? -- I am on piecework -- £2 5s a week.
The magistrates consulted after which the Chairman said -- The decision of the magistrates is that you be convicted and fined £4 and 20s costs.
Defendant -- I couldn't pay that fine and keep five orphan children. I cannot see them starving. Will you allow me time to pay?
Defendant was allowed one month to pay the fine.
Interesting Rates Prosecution.
Robert M'Creight, rate collector for the Lisburn Urban Council, summoned Mrs. Sarah Mary Carlisle, Railway Street, Lisburn, to recover £3 4s 9d for rates.
Mr. R. C. Bannister appeared for the defendant.
Mr. M'Creight said he wanted a decree for £3 4s 9d rates for a dwelling-house situate at Railway Street, Lisburn. He had returned the premises as "vacant and uncollected," but the Urban Council had come to the conclusion that the premises, in their opinion, were occupied. It was now for the court to decide whether the premises were occupied within the meaning of the Act or not.
Mr. Bell, R.M. -- Does defendant appear on the backs as the rated occupier?
Mr. Bannister -- There is no name on the books.
Mr. Bannister (to the rate collector) -- You have inspected these premises very often within the last number of years? -- Very often.
Did you find any change from the date these premises were passed by the Council as vacant last year? -- None whatever.
Did the valuator examine the premises about two years ago for the purpose of revaluation? -- Yes. He returned this part of the premises as vacant, and I returned it also as vacant in my book.
Mr. Bell, R.M. -- Does defendant's name appear as the rated occupier.
The Rate Collector -- No.
Mr. Bannister (to the collector) -- For the last sixteen years these premises have been returned as vacant. Is that so? -- They have, sir.
And there has been no change since, although you have inspected them? -- No change whatever.
Mr. Bell, R.M. -- How do you arrive at the figure £3 4s 9d -- The premises are valued whether they are occupied or not.
Who served the six days' notice? -- I, sir.
Who is the tenant of this house? -- Mrs. Carlisle, of the upper part.
Who is the tenant of the lower part? -- William Martin, and the second part no person at all; and the second part has been returned vacant for sixteen years. I think it right to state in court now --
Mr. Bannister (to their Worships) -- The premises have been returned as vacant for the past sixteen years, and you cannot get over that.
The Rate Collector said he thought it only right to state in court that he had examined the premises and found in a disused room a mangle, a table, and a gas meter. The gas meter had been placed there for the Council's own use.
The articles were covered with dust, and were not being used. The Council's Sanitary Inspector also examined the premises, and corroborated the statement he (witness) made to the Council. It was for the court now to decide whether the articles mentioned constituted occupancy within the meaning of the Act.
Mr. Bell, R.M. -- Who is the owner of this furniture? -- Mrs. Carlisle.
Mr. Bannister -- These tables have been there for the past twenty years. They were part of the stock of the late David Carlisle, who used to carry on a warehouse. The condition of the premises is exactly the same, and the Council have returned them as vacant during the past nineteen years. Mrs. Carlisle is an old lady of ninety years, and she is utterly unable to pay any attention to the premises at all or come to court.
Mr. M'Creight (to their Worships) -- For your opinion I will read the Act of Parliament bearing on the matter.
Their Worships proceeded to consult one another, whereupon
Mr. Bannister remarked -- Of course, the evidence produced here is the only evidence your Worships can go on.
Mr. Bell, R.M. -- Certainly!
Mr. M'Creight -- I will read the Act of Parliament bearing on the matter.
Mr. Bell, R.M. -- You need not trouble.
After further consultation among the magistrates
The Chairman said that the case would be dismissed without prejudice by the majority of the magistrates.
Sent Forward To Assizes.
Patrick Burns and Patrick Maguire, two ex-soldiers, were charged on remand with stealing on the 14th January, a sum of £20, a cheque for £10, and a leather purse from the licensed premises of Miss Elizabeth Hanna, Dublin Road, Lisburn. The money belonged to Miss Hanna, and was taken from the till.
The defendants had been brought before a special court, presided over by Mr. M'Murray, at which the depositions of Miss Hanna and Sergeant Regan were taken. These were published last week.
Fresh depositions were now made by Robert Hanna, monumental sculptor, R. Briggs, carried (both of whom had cashed cheques in Miss Hanna's) and Robert Lilburn, assistant pawnbroker.
The last mentioned proved that Burns had pawned several articles with him between the 4th and 14 January.
On being put on his plea the defendant Burns said -- I know nothing about it.
Maguire declared -- I don't know anything about Miss Hanna's money.
Both defendants were returned in custody to the Assizes in March.
John Connor, jun., Knocknadona, summoned William Robinson for assaulting him on the 30th December last. There was a cross-case of a like nature.
Mr. W. G. Maginess, solicitor, appeared for Connor; and Mr. W. Young (acting for Mr. Allen) for Robinson.
After hearing the evidence their Worships fined Robinson 2s 6d and costs, which the chairman said was a nominal penalty, as the magistrates believed he had received some provocation. They dismissed the cross-case.
Larceny of a Cat.
Thomas Magee, summoned Samuel Redmond (who did not appear) for stealing his half-Persian cat, which was of an orange colour, on 10th December.
Mr. D. B. Simpson, solicitor, appeared for the complainant.
Thomas Magee said he had advertised the loss of the cat in the papers, and later was informed that the defendant had it. He spoke to defendant about it, and told him to bring the cat back before there was any further trouble. Defendant said he had had the cat, but it was lost. Subsequently he said he knew where it was and would bring it up. When the cat was brought home it only lived four hours. That was the day on which the summons was served on him. He then promised to pay all expenses in Mr. Simpson's office. Defendant admitted lifting the cat and said he was sorry for doing it. He (complainant) claimed £3 as the value of the cat, though he would not have sold it, as he got it as a present from the late Mr. Waring.
Defendant was fined 2s 6d, 20s compensation, and 10s extra costs.
Controlled Price of Eggs.
Mary Magee, at the prosecution of District-Inspector Gregory, was fined 10s and costs for offering in Lisburn Market, on 7th inst., a quantity of eggs for sale at 6s a dozen, when the controlled price was 5s 6d per dozen.
Defendant said she could have sold the eggs for more outside the market.
Sergeant Duffy, who proved the charge, said the defendant took the eggs away and did not sell them in his presence.
Assault and Counter Assault.
Sarah Ellen Brown, Magheraleave, summoned Norman Buckley, for, as alleged, assaulting her on 10th inst. Buckley cross summoned Brown for assault.
Mr. W. G. Maginess, solicitor, appeared for Brown; and Mr. Hugh Mulholland, solicitor, for Buckley.
After short evidence both cases were dismissed.
Father and Son Case.
Jacob Morrison, Hillsborough Road, summoned his son, John, for assaulting him on 27th December. John Morrison brought a similar charge against his father.
Mr. Joseph Lockhart appeared for the father, and Mr. Maginess for the son.
Their Worships bound John Morrison over to keep the peace -- himself in £10 and two sureties of £5 each; or in default one month's imprisonment. The cross-summons was dismissed.
LISBURN TOWN COURT.
Constable Hamilton v. Mary Maginess, jun.; indecent behaviour on 18th inst. -- 10s and costs.
Sergeant Regan v. Catherin Burn,, drunk on 14th inst. -- 2s 6d and costs.
Sergeant Regan v. Mary Maginess, jun. indecent behaviour on 21st inst. -- 10s and costs.
Sergeant Edgar v. Catherin O'Brien, drunk and disorderly, on 22nd inst. -- 10s and costs or 14 days' imprisonment.
DROWNED IN LAGAN CANAL.
Sad Lisburn Tragedy.
On Tuesday evening Dr. Wallace, coroner, held an inquest at Lisnatrunk on the body of a man named James Martin, which was found floating in the Lagan Canal.
From the evidence it appeared that the deceased, who was about 51 years of age, was formerly in the employment of of Mr. Henry Bell, Hilden, but for the last two years worked at Rossyth, Scotland, and since his return a short time ago had no fixed place of residence.
The jury returned a verdict of Found Drowned.
Soldier charged With Shooting Comrade.
At Newport, Mon., Sergt. Michael A. Sullivan, Defence Corps, was committed for trial, charged with the murder of Sergeant John M'Donald by shooting him.
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Lisburn Standard - Friday, 31 January, 1919
SOME EXTRACTS FROM THE
RECORDS OF OLD LISBURN
AND THE MANOR OF KILLULTAGH.
-- -- --
Edited by JAMES CARSON.
-- -- --
-- -- --
THE LINEN INDUSTRY IN ULSTER.
By WILLIAM LARMOR.
Many Huguenot refugees settled in Waterford in the south of Ireland. At this point it would be interesting to examine briefly why the linen trade made little or no headway in the south of Ireland, and why it became gradually localised in the North, although by the settlement of skilled artisans in Waterford a splendid opportunity was offered for developing the linen manufacture in the south.
The manufacturers of linen during its earlier stages of development were chiefly subsistence farmers, who had small holdings on which they grew a small patch of flax. This flax was spun and manufactured into cloth by the different members of the family for their own use, or to be sold at the best price it would fetch. The growth of Ulster tenant right and the friendly relations existing between landlord and tenant gave a sense of undisturbed possession. The Ulster tenant felt more or less secure so long as he paid his rent. This sense of security, long leases, and fair rents, encouraged the farmer to accumulate a little capital. This was the basis of prosperity in the north. Gradually the farmer was able to buy imported seed which gave a better crop of flax: As his capital increased, and as trade expanded he could buy another loom or two, and perhaps employ a journeyman weaver.
In the south, on the other hand, owing to the operation of the Penal laws, leases were very short, so that there was no encouragement to accumulate capital for to try to improve the land. Rack-rents and tithes kept the farmers in poverty. Attempts were made at several times to establish the moderate modus, which was in operation in Ulster, instead of the tithe on flax. This proposed change invariably met with relentless opposition from the ecclesiastical authorities and could not be established in the South, to the disadvantage of the flax grower. The crop was unprofitable and was only grown in small patches.
The farmers in the North were in a position to make use of all the improvements that were introduced in linen weaving by Crommelin and his countrymen. The farmers in the South were not so fortunately fixed. Consequently the North drew ahead of the South, and linen weaving found its chief centre in Lisburn and neighbourhood. The knowledge of the markets abroad and the quality of cloth suitable for these markets, together with the technical skill of manufacture and the new capital that was introduced by the Huguenot settlers, were all powerful stimulants to the extension of enterprise. In a short time linen weaving extended so that Armagh and Lurgan became important centres of manufacture. The export of linen in the year 1727 amounted in value to £338,444, having increased by £,332 since 1701. This is sufficient evidence to prove the economic importance of the Lisburn settlement at a critical period in the history of the trade.
The English policy in accordance with the promise made by William III helped to stimulate the manufacture of linen. An Act was passed by the English Parliament to allow the export of coarse white and brown linens to the colonies, but this benefit was hampered by the working of the Navigation Laws. No colonial products could be imported direct into Ireland on the return voyage without being first landed in England. The system of bounties granted by the British Parliament on the export of linens operated in favour of English and Scottish manufacturers, because the Irish manufacturers who exported their linens to British ports with the idea of re-exporting them to obtain the bounty, had to undergo an expense amounting to 7 per cent, for freight, factorage, and loss of time incurred. In spite of all these disadvantages, the Irish linen manufacturers increased enormously during the eighteenth century. Between 1745 and 1771 the exportation from Great Britain of Irish linens entitled to bounty increased from 101,928 yards to 3,450,224 yards. This increase, however, was partly caused by the import duties which were levied on the importation of foreign linens. The Irish trade was certainly stimulated by these measures. In 1773 the total quantity of Irish linens imported into Great Britain amounted in value to £1,787,617.
The Linen Board.
The Irish Parliament also did much to stimulate the industry. Early in the 18th century premiums were granted to farmers for the cultivation of flax. In 1711 the Linen Board was set up to encourage and supervise the manufacture. The Board met every year in the White Linen Hall in Dublin, and was entrusted with the disposal of the Parliamentary grants, which varied from £10,000 to £33,000 a year, for the purpose of keeping the manufacture abreast of modern technical improvements, securing the best flax-seed providing the best markets and otherwise encouraging the industry. In 1710 an effort seems to have been made by them for the standardisation of cloth. Particular titles were to be given to each description of goods. These were arranged according to the length and width of the webs. "Ulsters" was the name applied to linens of forty-three inches wide and twenty yards long. Linens twenty-eight inches wide and twenty-eight yards long were to be called "Dungannons"; those of the same' length and thirty-one inches wide "Coleraines"; thirty-six inches wide "Lisburns;" thirty-six inches wide and twenty yards long were to be sold as "Lurgans."
It is interesting to note here that the first piece of fine cambric produced in Lurgan was woven by a weaver named Brown in the year 1714. Although it was only a "sixteen hundred" all who saw the wondrous fabric were astonished at the fineness of its texture. Immense curiosity was stirred up about this web all over the country, and many bleachers and drapers travelled long distances to see it. The weaver of this web was presented with a prize of £10 by the Grand Jury of the County, and had the dignity of "Master Weaver" conferred on him. It is stated that he made a tin case for it and carried it about for exhibition in several towns in the North.
Under the Mercantile system there were minute and manifold regulations of industry which in some cases gradually became unworkable and were allowed to lapse. The inspection of linen previous to sale had been established by law for nearly a century before the existence of the Linen Board. This law, like others, was carelessly carried out, and consequently in nearly every market the evil effect of badly-made reeds, short measure, and deficiency in breadth of goods was in evidence. An effort was made by an Act passed in 1719, authorising the trustees of the Board to appoint fit and proper persons in all the market towns to examine linens which were offered for sale. When the goods were found correct in make, length, and breadth, they were to be stamped by persons appointed, called lappers, with their official seal.
These lappers had permission to charge the manufacturer the sum of twopence for each web they examined and stamped. Where goods were disposed of without being examined the seller was liable to a heavy fine. Stringent as this law was, it did not prevent lappers, from accepting bribes to certify as correct, webs which were imperfectly woven and of false measure. In 1723 a new Act was passed for the better protection of buyers but it was also a failure. In 1734 a more penal code received the Royal assent, and like the other it was systematically evaded. In 1757 the seventh Act was passed for stamping and regulating the sale of linens in public markets which also shared the fate of the others.
The matter now appeared hopeless. A great deal of fraud was going on, and in consequence a serious reaction took place in the home and foreign markets against Irish linens. Another effort was made in the year 1762. Mr. John Williamson, who is described as a very energetic and intelligent bleacher, then carrying on a business at Lambeg, had been taking considerable interest in linen manufacture for some years. A meeting of merchants was held in Lisburn, and a committee, with Mr. Williamson at its head, was appointed to proceed to Dublin to lay their case before the Duke of Bedford, then Chief Governor of Ireland. The idea was that lappers should be abolished and inspectors should be chosen from the ranks of manufacturers. As a result a new bye-law was to come into operation on 11th August, 1762, and previous to that date, the trustees were to appoint "fit and proper persons, manufacturers and others" to inspect linens about to be sold in public markets. These officers were to be called "Sealmasters," and they had to produce good securities that they would faithfully discharge their duties.
The first seal was issued under the new law was granted to Mr. W. Dawson, a manufacturer of Hillsborough.
A great outcry was raised all over the country by the weavers. Meetings were held and the following proclamation was issued:--
"This is to give nation to all gentlemen, manufacturers and weavers to meet in a body, like valiant and honest men, at Lisburn, on Tuesday next, that we may oppose the imprudent and oppressive means which are to be used against us by the merchants, and to bring them to reason by fair means, and if that will not do other means will be used, and let us like Demetrius and his craftsmen, stand valiantly up for our Diana, for our craft is in danger."
On the following Tuesday, and for many weeks after on market days, hundreds of weavers paraded the streets of Lisburn armed with blackthorn sticks, obstructed the market, made business impossible, and all the drapers or merchants they could lay their hands on were made to swear that they would not recognise the use of seals for stamping linen webs. No business could be done until Lord Hillsborough took the initiative, and in October in his own town he set the example of personally inspecting and sealing the webs offered for sale, general spirit of conciliation followed, and in a short time the duties of the Sealmaster were found to be of equal advantage to the weaver, the draper, and the bleacher.
This settlement was only shortlived, however. In a short time the same old difficulties cropped up. Weavers evaded the regulation, and the Sealmasters were also accused of accepting bribes. Eventually the whole system became a nuisance and was finally abolished in 1823.
The prosperity of the linen trade in Ireland towards the end of the 18th century is particularly noticeable. This can in some measure be accounted for owing to the modification of the English Commercial olicy. After the American colonies had secured their independence it was evident that the Colonial Policy must undergo a change, and Ireland shared in the benefits of that change. In 1779 some of the principal commercial restrictions were removed, with the result that a thriving trade was opened up with the American States and British Plantations, and exports of linen cloth increased from 18,764,242 yards in 1780 to 53,616,908 yards in 1796, which was enormous.
Although the industry made immense progress during the century it did not increase as rapidly as in England and Scotland, and although some encouragement was given for its development, it was fostered far less than the linen manufacture in England and Scotland. It was a great achievement, therefore, that it should have prospered to such an extent in spite of difficulties and hindrances.
The Irish Parliament had given large premiums for the cultivation of flax, but in spite of all the encouragement given to the growth of flax and the raising of flaxseed, a large sum had annually to be paid away for imported seed, which became a serious drain on the resources of the industry at a time when the accumulation of capital was essential for its development. In 1779 it was calculated that nearly all the seed sown was imported and that it cost the country between £70,000 and £80,000 yearly. Later on flax farming gradually, and imperceptibly became a losing trade owing to competition, caused by the importation of foreign flax from abroad. This gradually became accentuated until at a later date the industry had to be carried on mainly by the importation of raw material from abroad.
(To be continued)
DEATH OF MISS SARAH C. BLACKBURN.
On Thursday (23rd) last there passed away a member of a very old Lisburn family in the person of Miss Sarah Caroline Blackburn, Knockmore. This family was founded by Colonel Blackburn, who crossed from Lancashire under the leadership of Prince William of Orange, when he crossed to Ireland in the year 1690, and who eventually settled in the neighbourhood of Lisburn.
Deceased is survived by her brother, Mr. Robert Blackburn, of New York, where he has been resident for many years. It may be interesting to recall that deceased's mother's uncle, Mr. Jas. Macnamara, J.P., was one of the leading promoters of the G.N.R., or the old Ulster railway, the name it was then known by.
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