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Researching Strong(e) & Strang(e) in Britain and Ireland; 2nd Edition (Rootsweb)

Researching Strong(e)s and Strang(e)s in Britain and Ireland; 2nd Edition (Rootsweb)

BORDER REIVERS DNA STUDY:



This web page is divided into several sections. Click on the section to which you wish to jump:
Background of Border Reivers "DYS393=12" Y-DNA Study:
DNA Study Note re Blood Group B
Border Families DNA Results Chart
Join the Border Reiver Families DNA Study



DNA Study Note re Blood Group B

A person’s personal  Blood Group is determined by which allele of the ABO gene found on Chromosome 9 they are born with.   Their personal genetic haplotype, if male, is determined by a pattern of alleles on Chromosome Y.   There is apparently no direct link between the two genetic characteristics… however, there are circumstances in which a correlation may appear.  

 

In mid-May, 2003, the following message came to my attention:

-----Original Message-----
From: Reborn
Sent:
Wednesday, May 14, 2003 11:11 AM
To: GENEALOGY-DNA-L@rootsweb.com
Subject: [DNA] Check out Excerpt from "The Complete Blood Type Diet
Encyclopedia"

Interesting article love to hear what yall think …..
http://www.dadamo.com/napharm/store3/template2/encyclopedia.html

 

The web address above is that of an article  entitled   "Blood Groups and the history of peoples". According to the article, Blood Group B is compatible with a diet which is  characterized as "cultured dairy products and blood"... the diet of the nomadic peoples of East Asia. It seems the bearers of Blood Group B may be descendants of the Mongols or similar peoples of East Asia.    Anecdotal evidence indicates that at least some of the Donegal Bay Strong participants in the Strong surname DNA study and some other members of the Donegal Bay Strong lineages who have not yet been tested are members of Blood Group B, raising the question “How did the Donegal Bay lineages come to bear the Blood Group B genetic characteristic?”  (Note, the Donegal Bay Strong lineages come from a largely protestant, endogamous community "planted" around Donegal Bay in County Donegal, Ireland, during the 17th century. Most of it's members could be characterized as "Scots-Irish".)

 

Subsequently, the following message appeared on the Genealogy – DNA – List in response to an inquiry from Erica Stewart:

----- Original Message -----

From: Nikki Behre

To: <GENEALOGY-DNA-L@rootsweb.com>

Sent: Sunday, June 01, 2003 6:02 AM

Subject: Re: [DNA] Blood types by continent?

 

 Erica,
  Here's a site you may be interested in viewing: 
 Racial Ethnic Distribution of ABO Blood Types
 
 There are many sites that discuss blood types via continent, etc., but this
 one provides additional interesting information.  …

 

Racial Ethnic Distribution of ABO Blood Types includes discusion of, and sorts the four main blood groups into percentages for various population groups.   An included chart “reveals that the frequency and purity of the four main ABO Blood groups varies in populations throughout the world. A great variation may even occur in different groups within a given country; even a small country, as one ethnic group mixes, or not, with another.

As an example, the early European races are characterized by a very low type B frequency, and a relatively high type A frequency while the Asiatic races are characterized by a high frequency of types A and B.

According to the article, Blood Group B occurs in approximately 8% of the overall population of the United Kingdom.   Interestingly, it occurs in 12 % of Scots.

Following certain links from the above website, I found several interesting webpages:

 

Re the Distribution of Blood Types found at http://anthro.palomar.edu/vary_3.htm

 I found the following, accompanied by an excellent map:

“… It is quite clear that the distribution patterns are complex…. This can be seen with the global frequency patterns of the type B blood allele (shown in the map…) it is highest in central Asia and lowest in the Americas and Australia.   …. there are relatively high frequency pockets in Africa as well.   Overall in the world, B  is the rarest ABO blood Allele.”

 

Re ABO Blood Types, http://anthro.palomar.edu/blood/ABO_system.htm

ABO blood types are inherited through genes on chromosome 9, and they do not change as a result of environmental influences during life.  An individual's ABO type is determined by the inheritance of 1 of 3 alleles (A, B, or O) from each parent… possible outcomes are shown … (in a chart at the referenced webpage) 

 

Both A and B alleles are dominant over O.  As a result, individuals who have an AO genotype will have an A phenotype.  People who are type O have OO genotypes.  In other words, they inherited a recessive O allele from both parents. The A and B alleles are codominant.  Therefore, if an A is inherited from one parent and a B from the other, the phenotype will be AB.   Agglutination tests will show that these individuals have the characteristics of both type A and type B blood.

Unfortunately, the inheritance of ABO blood types does not always follow such straightforward rules of inheritance.  If you wish to explore one of the exceptions, select the Bombay Phenotype button below. 

   Bombay Phenotype  

 

There you will find that It is important to be cautious in predicting the ABO blood type of children based on the phenotypes of their parents.   This is due to the fact that a third antigen (H) on the surface of red cells can prevent the expected ABO blood type from occurring.”

 

From the foregoing it is instructive to go to the

“Blood Types Tutorial: http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/problem_sets/blood_types/inherited.html  ( And see the Blood Type Calculator

http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/problem_sets/blood_types/inherited.html#calculator  )

 

A number of possible blood group outcomes for children of parents with various blood groups  will be seen from experimenting with the Blood Type Calculator

 

As noted above, at least some of the participants in our surname DNA study and some other members of the Donegal Bay Strong lineages who have not yet been tested are members of Blood Group B, raising the question “How did the Donegal Bay lineages come to bear this genetic characteristic?” 

 

One speculation is that the Donegal Bay Strong lineages may reach in antiquity to certain Norman families whose heritage may have included  East Asian roots possibly imported to France and subsequently to Scotland from members of Roman legions.   While not a conclusive marker for inclusion in the Donegal Bay lineages, Blood Group B does have heritable characteristics which can be transmitted through many generations within a lineage.     I am interested to find whether there is a distinctive DNA haplogroup associated with the Mongols... and refer again to the significant differences between the Donegal Bay Strong Haplotype patterns and those of the other participants in the Strong DNA study on the one hand, and the rather distinctive similarities between our Donegal Bay Strongs and Blair Group One, on the other hand.    See: DNA Note #7, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~donegalstrongs/dnanote07.htm. 

 

It appears that in an endogamous community it would be quite possible for Blood Group B to be handed down through many generations, with little variation away from B as a norm. The conditions in the Donegal Bay Community in rural western Ulster during the period from mid -1600’s to mid-1850’s seem to comport with such a possibility… a relatively small population with little ad-mixture from outside populations, and relatively little out-migration.  In the period since then, it is not surprising that Blood Group B, as a dominant blood group, continues to occur in the lineage  in proportions which appear to be larger than might be expected from a random sample of the British population.   It will have been noted that the average rate of occurance of Group B in the United Kingdom is about 8%...   In the few persons who have responded to an informal survey of the Donegal Bay Strong lineage, 4 of 5 reported either being in Blood Group B, or that a parent was in Blood Group B.

 

We are left with some questions: FTDNA categorizes our Donegal Bay Strongs as R1b, tenatively, subject to confirmatory testing.  My understanding is that R1b is characteristic of PALEOLITHIC origins.  David Roper’s website, “Y-Chromosome Markers Families Comparisons” and the related pages at http://www.roperld.com/ycomparison.htm

 has nothing re the DYS 393=12, etc markers as being Neolithic vs Paleolithic.   As noted above, in the website, "Blood Groups and the history of peoples" at:
http://www.dadamo.com/napharm/store3/template2/encyclopedia.html , the
discussion seems to indicate  the Donegal Bay Strongs may be descendants of the Mongols  .... Blood Type B is compatible with a diet which is  characterized as "cultured dairy products and blood"... the diet of the nomadic peoples of East Asia. Elsewhere in the website, it suggests Blood Group B is characteristic of NEOLITHIC peoples.

Are there any insights which might clarify the apparent inconsistency between the FTDNA suggestion (R1b, & consequently paleolithic) and the suggestion in "Blood Groups"... (Blood Group B and neolithic)?  (Note, I am not totally confident about the reliability of the assertions made there about Blood Group B being Neolithic)

IF Blood Group B IS consistent with a Neolithic origin, and IF it can be shown that there is a correlation between Blood Group B and our DYS 393=12, etc. groups of participants, does that mean there is a distinctive  Haplogroup designation to which we belong?

 

What DYS markers beside DYS 393=12 and DYS 459a=10 are characteristic of such a haplogroup?

[Editor's Note: The foregoing DNA Study Note was first written in June, 2003. During February, 2004 additional information came to my attention concerning a split in YCC Haplogroup R1b3 which has been observed by Genetic Researchers Cinnioglu, et.al., wherein DYS393=12 and DYS461=10 are markers for Haplotype 35, and attributed to a Paleolithic origin. See further discussion at Y Haplogroup R1b3: in "Background of Border Reivers "DYS393=12" Y-DNA Study".]
Dave Strong ...
DNA Study Coordinator
Border Reivers "DYS393=12" Y-DNA Study



This web page is divided into several sections. Click on the section to which you wish to jump:
Background of Border Reivers "DYS393=12" Y-DNA Study:
DNA Study Note re Blood Group B
Border Families DNA Results Chart
Join the Border Reiver Families DNA Study