Late Magistrate of the Colony’
will not, perhaps, be thought impertinent to the object of this work, to point out to the intending Colonist of what preparations he stands in need. It has not been uncommon
for persons to engage in colonization who were totally devoid of the slightest knowledge, not only of the country to which they were going, but of what it was necessary to take
with them, and of what they would have to do on their arrival. For instance, among the early Wellington Colonists, there were some who took their skates with them, and others who
imagined they had discovered marble, on seeing a vein of quartz. This is only to be equalled by the ignorance of that British Government, which, during the war of 1812 with the
United States, sent out water-tanks from England for the use of the frigates which were to sail on the fresh-water lakes of Canada.
has been too common a mistake to suppose that any one may fairly expect to succeed in colonization without as careful an education for that purpose as he would require for any
other pursuit. Young men receive a special education for the army, the navy, the Church, the bar, physic, or commerce: perhaps it is still more required in order to be well
prepared for the duties of a good Colonist. If, indeed, systematic colonization from this country should ever be promoted on a large scale, it will be found most important to
establish schools and colleges in which such an education shall be given.
WHAT TO LEARN
It will not be attempted here to lay down all that this education should comprise: but in alluding to the peculiar advantages of certain kinds of knowledge, the simplest and most efficacious means of acquiring them will be pointed out; and every intending Colonist of New Zealand is strongly urged to devote as much time, labour, and expense, as may be suitable to his particular means, in thus becoming ready for his future life.
—There are many French whaling-ships and men-of-war in the South Seas, French
settlements at Tahiti and at the Marquesas Islands, and one in New Zealand itself.
.—Many Germans emigrate every year to the Australian colonies, and there are some in New Zealand. A few South Sea whalers are fitted out from Bremen and Hamburgh.
.—The trade and communication between New Zealand and the Spanish colonies, both in the Philippine Islands and in South
America, is constantly increasing.
MATHEMATICS.—It seems almost needless to say how important is a good knowledge of Mathematics. It is absolutely essential, as a mere step to the acquisition of several arts and sciences which are among the most useful to a Colonist: among these are LAND-SURVEYING, CIVIL ENGINEERING, MECHANICS and a knowledge of MACHINERY, ARCHITECTURE, and NAVIGATION.
BOTANY should be. acquired, in order to be able to furnish accounts of indigenous plants, to understand how those from other countries can best be introduced and acclimatized, and to be aware of the useful qualities possessed by each plant of whichever kind.
CHEMISTRY.—The Colonist will never regret having learned how to test and analyse various substances, such as Metallic Ores of various kinds, Building-stone, Coal, Limestone, Soils and Manures of all sorts, Plants suitable to the production of drugs, colouring matter, or dye-stuffs, &c., &c.
SURGERY.—The colonist should learn how to bleed, set a broken or dislocated limb, and bind wounds. If he can even learn how to amputate a limb, so much the better. A comparatively short attendance on the Demonstrations at Bartholomew or Guy’s Hospital will impart this knowledge. An excellent Hand—book on the subject is, Household Surgery, by John F. South, Published by C. Cox, 1847. A more scientific book of reference is Druitt’s Surgeon’s Vade Mecum. Churchill. 1841.
AGRICULTURE in general, including the knowledge of Horses, Sheep, and Cattle of all kinds, and a thorough acquaintance with the different systems of Drainage and modes of Constructing Fences, is only to be acquired by some experience. The best way is to be apprenticed for some year or two to a good farmer on a large scale. There is, indeed, an Agricultural College at Cirencester.
VETERINARY SURGERY should also be acquired as fully as possible: and generally all that relates to the Breeding of Cattle, Sheep, and Horses; the latter especially, as New Zealand will soon vie with Australia, which already supplies many horses to the cavalry ofthe East Indies. By all means learn how to shoe a horse.
MUSIC is an accomplishment of infinite value to the possessor and his or her friends, as recreation in the intervals of a Colonist’s labour, and as a relief to the solitude of a distant location. It should be learned before starting on the voyage. Nothing is so disagreeable as a fellow—passenger who is learning to sing or to play some instrument.
COOKERY.—Ladies intending to colonize will of course learn it. There is in New Zealand such variety and abundance of the best materials for food, that even Soyer’s Book may be studied and packed up for the colonial library. To men, some knowledge of cookery, such as making bread, &c., comes not amiss in exploring expeditions; and the ability to kill and clean a hog or a sheep is far from useless.
CARPENTERING and Turning, and the use of the Axe in felling or splitting timber, should be acquired.
The following Arts are also recommended for study; though as to most of them it is needless to point out how they can be acquired:
Drawing and Painting.
Ship Building and Rigging.—This is very important. The abundance of timber, and .the number of havens on the long line of coast, ensure the building of many vessels in the colony.
Curing and Smoking Beef and Pork, Hams, Bacon, Fish, &c.
Tanning is likely to be a great trade in New Zealand, as hides will soon abound, and there are plenty of excellent tan-barks. At Bermondsey there are extensive tanneries, well worthy of observation and study.
The Art of Defence in all its branches, including Fencing and the Broadsword, Exercise, Boxing, Wrestling, Shooting (with Fowling-piece, Rifle, and Pistol,) &c.
Sailing, in boats or small vessels.
Rowing, with sailors' oars, in rough water.
Steering a vessel, either rowing or sailing. Especially the use of the steer-oar in whale-boats, as this is commonly met with in New Zealand.
Swimming is indispensable; and Riding and Driving constantly requisite.
Political Economy, as far as it relates to colonization. On this subject a few works are recommended to the student, for careful and attentive perusal.........
WHAT TO BUY AND TAKE WITH YOU
CLOTHES.- As to those required for the voyage, the outfitters can always give good information; but a few hints may be acceptable.
The length of the voyage is on an average 120 days; and as no water is allowed for washing clothes, it is necessary to provide a sufficient stock of linen for this time. By stowing away in canvas bags that which has been used, and occasionally airing it on deck in fine weather, much of it may be preserved for washing on arrival, and subsequent use in the bush.
Take rough, strong clothing for the voyage, and much of it will serve afterwards in the colony. Thin clothing is required for about one month of the passage passed within the tropics; and thick warm clothing for rather more than a month of cold damp weather passed in the latitude of about 410 S., between the Cape of Good Hope and the end of the voyage. Both kinds are available in New Zealand afterwards. Have no fear of taking too much strong useful clothing: it will always fetch its value: finery only is superfluous. A suit or two of dress clothes lasts a long while in a colony.
A good Scotch maud, or plaid, and a Mackintosh sheet to spread under your blankets, prove useful on exploring parties. A Mackintosh air-bed, too, has been found useful. The Bishop of New Zealand once used one as a canoe, while on an expedition through the interior.
Take plenty of broad-brimmed straw hats, cloth forage-caps, with oilskin covers, and sailor's tarpaulin hats. You are sure to lose two or three on the voyage.
Shoes.-Thick shoes, with cork soles, are requisite for walking on the wet deck. Take a good stock of boots and shoes of all kinds, especially stout shooting boots, with plenty of nails in the soles, riding-boots, and fishing-boots, for use in the colony. Such as are not wanted during the voyage should be packed in cases lined with tin and soldered down. On arrival they should be greased and kept in a dry place. They are always the better for a long seasoning before use.
Take a good stock of SADDLERY, Harness, Whips, Spurs, &c., as they can always be sold at a profit, if not wanted for use. The saddle should be fitted with holsters, saddle-bags, and rings before and behind, with straps to fit the fastening on blankets or a valise. A pack-saddle or two, and a set of colt-breaking apparatus, will be found of use. Take both cart harness and gig harness.
CARRIAGE.-A strong modern dog cart, or taxed cart, will be most serviceable. You can make a packing-case of the body, and pack the shafts, wheels, and springs separately, so as to cost little in freight. At any rate, take wheels and springs; the rest can be made in the colony.
CATTLE.-Those imported into New Zealand from Australia are chiefly of the short-horned breed. By all means, if you can afford it, take a thoroughbred bull or cow, of the best kinds, from England. It is of the utmost importance, if you intend to be an owner of flocks and herds, to begin with stock which you know possess genuine blood.
SHEEP.-Take thorough-bred rams and ewes, of sorts famous for their fleece. Remember always, that, excepting the insurance, it costs no more to take out a valuable than a comparatively worthless ram.
HORSES.-Although a good stock is imported from Australia, the Colonist should take well-bred horses, if within his means. Horses fit for draught purposes are rare in the Australian colonies: and the importer of really good Clydesdale mares would probably do well. It is of course waste of money to ship any horses not offirst-rate qualifications and undoubted pureness. They require the greatest vigilance and care, whether during embarkation, on the voyage, or on landing.
DOGs.-The most useful kinds are the following: Terrier, for killing rats; Newfoundland, or Water-spaniel, for shooting wild-fowl, and crossing rivers; Boar-hound; the same, by crossing with the Bloodhound, for a watch-dog, and with the Scotch Deer-hound, to breed boar-hounds; Pointer, for quail-shooting; Scotch colly, and other Shepherd's dogs. The best way to carry dogs, is to have a kennel fitted for them in, or under, the long-boat. The freight charge is usually from 31 to 51. You must take oatmeal, or spoilt navy biscuit, as food. You will be able to obtain straw enough for bedding from the casks of bottled liquors, &c., opened during the passage. Let your dog have plenty of exercise about the decks, but have his kennel fastened so that you alone can open it, and never let him out when he will be in the way ofeither passengers or crew.
HOUSE.-When the first Colonists went to the settlements in Cook's Strait, they took with them many wooden houses which had been constructed in England, so as to take to pieces, pack, and be put together again on landing. This was a very necessary precaution on arriving in a land where there was sure to be no sawn timber ready for them. At the present time, however, there are numerous saw-mills at all the existing settlements, which supply excellent building timber at lower prices than it can be carried out from England; and the cost of labour in erecting the house is very little more in one case than the other. It is well to take out all kinds offixtures required for fitting a house, a small stock of fire-bricks, fire-grates, dogs for wood-fires, kitchen-ranges, stoves, boilers, &c., and some corrugated iron or zinc will be found very handy for roofing houses or verandahs quickly. Remember generally, that the timber, and shingles for roofing, are in abundance in the colony; and take with you all other materials. It is even wise to take doors and window frames , with a good stock of glass for them. The ready-made wooden houses which have been mentioned are made chiefly by Manning, of 251, High Holborn. It is also worth the Colonist's while to look at the iron houses made for exportation by Cottam and Hallam, Oxford-street.
The iron Venetian shutters, made to wind up and down,
would be useful. Edgington's Square Double Tents, of moderate size, (say eight to ten feet square inside,) are of great use during the first operations.
The Colonist who is anxious to carry with him the memorials of the Fine Arts of the old world, may do so at comparatively little cost by purchasing at the British Museum casts in plaster of the antiques contained in that institution. In a publication entitled 'A Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum', is a list of these casts and of their prices. Some of them, especially the bas-reliefs, could be conveyed to the colony in packing-cases at little cost, affording very tasteful ornaments, whether for the public buildings or for the larger rooms of private residences.
FURNITURE.-AS a general rule, take that which fills the least space in proportion to its usefulness. Iron bedsteads, for instance, should have the preference over cumbrous wooden ones, which can be made in the colony. Iron rocking-chairs, too, pack within a very small space, and are made so as to be very comfortable. Ladies should take their pianos by all means. Ornamental furniture can be made from the beautiful indigenous woods.
IRONMONGERY.-Generally very useful. Take especially iron fencing, gates, and guards for young trees. A few boat anchors and chains will be ofuse. Also, two or three distinctive brands, with your initials, for marking horses and cattle, with letters four inches long; as well as a smaller one for marking cases and other goods.
FIRE-ARMS AND OTHER WEAPONS.-Take a good double-barrelled
fowlingpiece, holster and pocket pistols, and a good rifle. The colonist is recommended to make himself acquainted with the recent invention of the cycloid ball
(7½ to the lb.), which is thrown by the ordinary Ordnance rifle to the distance of600 yards with great accuracy, and, with less certainty, as far as 800, and even 1200 yards. Mr
Lancaster, of Bond Street, has recommended this invention for adoption in England, and will explain it to any person seeking information on the subject. It is almost needless to
mention shot, lead, bullet-moulds, wadding, &c. Whatever powder you take should be at once handed over to the chiefofficer ofthe ship, for deposit in the magazine. Mark the
parcels with your name. Take asabre and an infantry sword, both of the last regulation. A very useful kind of sheath-knife, with belt attached, is made for exportation to the
Spanish West Indies, by W. & S. Butcher, of Sheffield. It costs about 17s, and serves many purposes, from that of a small bill-hook downwards. The colonist need hardly be told
to provide himself with bill-hooks, pruning-knives, &c., of the best quality, fitted into belts for the waist.
Excellent boar-spears are made at Paget's, Piccadilly. A few of these will be useful. Take also eel-spears and grains.
AGRICULTURAL INSTRUMENTS .-As a general rule, unless you
are going to a perfectly new settlement, do not burden yourself with any that are bulky, as well as easy of construction, or with such, recently brought into use in England, as are
from the delicacy or complexity oftheir formation difficult of repair. Take the wheels and iron-work of carts and drays, the bodies of which can be made in the colony. Take ploughs
complete in the first instance: hereafter the wood-work will be done in the colony. Do not omit to take spare iron-work, such as coulters, plough-shares, chains, &c.: these are
constantly destroyed in the rough work of breaking-up new land.
Bullocks are generally used in agricultural operations in the Australian colonies and in New Zealand. They are harnessed with iron hames, and a wooden yoke over the neck. The bullock-dray, used instead of a waggon, has a pole, to the end of which the yoke is fastened.
The Colonist's attention should be directed to the
following articles, with which he must provide himself according to his means and his intentions.
For clearing and cultivating timbered land:
American axes, of various sizes.
Common English axes. (The natives can use these best.)
Wedges, of various sizes, mallets, and spare rings for them, cross cut saws, and pit-saws.
Waggons, bullock-drays, and timber-drags.
Wheelbarrows, spades, shovels, and hoes, rakes, and pitchforks.
Augers (half-inch and inch), chisels, and other tools, hammers, spikes, screws, and nails.
Pickaxes, and crowbars.
For cultivating and cropping either timbered or open land, you will require,- Breaking-up and other ploughs.
Harrows, sickles, and reaping-hooks.
Scythes, cradles, and snaths.
Padlocks and other locks, staples, and hinges for gates and barn-doors.
New Zealand promises to be a great turnip country: so the Colonist should provide himself with one of the recently invented turnip-cutting machines most
to his mind. Do not forget churns, pans, pails, and other articles required for the Dairy. Among others, perforated zinc for windows.
Inspect Ainslie's or Clayton's Drain-Tile Machines, and procure a good stock of draining tools of all kinds.
A Horse-drill will prove useful on open land, and in a few years' time, when the stumps shall have been eradicated, on land reclaimed from the forest.
A Farm Engine for distributing liquid manure will be taken by good farmers. And generally, indeed, with the above-mentioned precaution of taking nothing which is too difficult of repair, it is well to carry with you machines which tend to economise hand labour, always dear in new countries. If you can afford it, by all means take a Thrashing-machine, adapted for horse-power, but so arranged that either wind or water power may be easily applied to it, in case of need. Procure from Messrs. Ransome and May, of Ipswich, a Catalogue of the Agricultural Implements manufactured by them, and select therefrom. A Treatise on the Implements of Agriculture, price 9s, has been written by Mr J. A. Ransome, and published by Ridgway.
BOATS, &c.-In large ships there is always room for a
good-sized open boat to be turned bottom upwards over the long-boat. This becomes of the greatest use in landing goods, and is always valuable in so maritime a country...
Twine suitable for nets, and netting needles, may be of service in the same way during the voyage.. A good sean, ready for use on arrival, is almost invaluable on the sea-coast of New Zealand, which abounds with fish.
MATHEMATICAL INSTRUMENTS.-The Colonist will best acquire a
knowledge of those required for surveying by reading Simms's 'Treatise on the Principal Mathematical Instruments'. This book will also instruct him in the use of them. Every one
should learn the use of the pocket-sextant, and provide himself with that and a good pocket-compass. Good boat-compasses, and even ships' compasses are also useful.
A portable telescope, such as is used for deer-stalking or by military men, in a leathern case with belt to sling over one shoulder, is almost indispensable to the owner of large herds of cattle, in order to distinguish his brand at a distance. Troughton and Simms, of Fleet Street, are the best mathematical instrument makers; Dollond, in St. Paul's Churchyard, the best telescope maker.
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.-According to each person's taste and knowledge. The bugle and cornet-i-piston would be heard to advantage among the echoes of the beautiful mountain scenery.
CRICKET APPARATUS is of service almost all the year round, and the game is already in great vogue.
QUOITS, and other requisites for athietic out-of-door exercises suited to fine weather, are also perfectly appropriate.
BIRDS.-Every one should try to introduce Pheasants and
Partridges, which would both do well in all probability. As to the former, do not take out too many cock-birds: one to every eight or nine hens is the best proportion.
If possible, take Rooks, both for the sake of the peculiarly English associations connected with them, and also for the sake of their usefulness in destroying insects.
Pea-fowl, Swans, and Guinea-fowl, are also desirable emigrants.
GAME.-It would be most desirable to introduce Red-deer and
Fallow-deer into the Colony, as both would be sure to increase rapidly and flourish. The Australian Agricultural Company imported several head of deer into Van Diemen's Land some
years ago; but the cost oftransport, and the result of the experiment, is not known.
Hares would also do well. They should be shipped as leverets, and care should be taken not to give them too much soft food; but a sufficient supply of carrots &c. may be preserved in a wholesome state during the whole journey, by burying them in a cask filled with sand. There is no destructive animal of any kind in New Zealand, so that game would be sure to increase rapidly. Kangaroos from Australia, and Lamas of various kinds from South America, might probably be introduced with advantage.
SEEDS AND PLANTS .-Although many English as well as foreign plants have already flourished in New Zealand, sufficiently to bear seed, there is no harm in taking some of choice kinds, even of the commonest things. Among the seeds most important are wheat, barley, oats, rye, buckwheat, maize, turnips, swedes, mangold wurzel, rape, tares, vetches, lucerne, peas, beans, linseed, caraway, coriander, clover, and grasses of all kinds. The seeds should be carefully collected, if possible, by the colonist himself or, at any rate, by some sure friend. It is a great mistake to depend for your supply even on the best seedsmen. Remember that if you chance to get rubbish or inferior seed, it will be another year before you can repair the error.
Of those plants or seeds which have been introduced into England from warmer countries, the colonist should procure his stock from the region of their original growth. Again premising that it is not pretended to put down all that may be taken, the following seeds are especially recommended to notice: From England.-Haw and other Thorns; Furze or Gorse; Heather; Acorns; Horse Chesnuts; Beech nuts; Blackberry; Flower Seeds and Garden Vegetables (except Potatoes) of all kinds, and such English fruits as will propagate by seed. From abroad or from hothouses: Melon, Gourd, Pumpkin, and Cucumber; Tomato; Portuguese and Spanish Onion; Almond; Olives; Peach, Apricot, and Nectarine; Orange and Lemon; Chesnut, (the best are from near Naples); Acorns of the Cork Oak from Spain or Italy.
PLANTS.-In many instances, cuttings or plants must be
taken out rather than seeds. Wooden cases filled with sand or earth, and covered with a strong glazed frame, are provided for this purpose. After choosing what plants you will
take, the best plan is to have them packed by some nurseryman who is in the habit of selling plants for exportation, such as Loddige of Hackney, or Knight and Perry of King's Road
West, Chelsea. After packing, all the joints of the case should be hermetically sealed with some cement impenetrable to the air or salt water. The glazed frame should be covered
with a wire-guard to prevent breaking. The boxes should be then fixed to the deck in some light position, well out of the way of the sailors' manoeuvres, which will be pointed out
by an officer of the ship. On the edge of the poop is the most convenient place. The most useful plants are: Fruit trees of all English kinds, including Raspberry, Currant, and
Gooseberry cuttings; Forest trees of ditto; Vine, Olive, and Mulberry;
Lemon and Orange; Hop-sets; Strawberry plants; Rhododendron, Azalea, and Camelia; Rose, Geranium, and other Flowers. It is not easy to determine whether a parasitical plant like the mistletoe can be transported, either in seed or as a plant; but to a British Colonist, the experiment of planting the symbol of the ancient Druids in the Britain of the South Seas, should at least seem worth trying.
Many of the superior nurserymen, such as Messrs. Knight and Perry, of King's-road West, Chelsea, who are assiduous in collecting exotic plants which may be adapted to English horticulture, whether in the hot-house or out of doors, would probably be willing to make arrangements with respectable Colonists, to supply them, not only at their departure, but periodically afterwards, with such English and foreign seeds and plants as they might require, on condition of receiving an equivalent in return of select New Zealand seeds and plants.
MONEY.-There are three ways of taking out capital to the
1. Take gold. This is probably the best way of all. Pack your sovereigns in a strong wooden box, and pay freight and insurance upon them.
2. Pay the money into the Union Bank of Australia, No. 38, Old Broad-street, City, and take in exchange Letters of Credit on their branches in the colony. For this transaction, however, the Bank now charges 2 per cent., having until very lately charged.4 per cent.; and, moreover, the letters of credit are not honoured in specie, but in local notes of the Bank, promising to pay in bills at thirty days' sight, bearing 2 per cent. premium, on other Australian branches. This Bank has so complete a monopoly of the interchange of money between England and the colony, that its other charges are equally exorbitant.
BOOKS, MAPS, and ENGRAVINGS.-Every person who intends to adopt New Zealand as his future home will take care to supply himself with a good collection of these cheerful companions. It would be presumption to point out what particular books should be taken: but it may not be amiss to direct attention to such as relate especially to New Zealand.
Arrangements can easily be made after arrival and
settlement in the colony for the formation of book-clubs, to be supplied periodically with such new publications as they may desire. Before starting, each family should arrange so
as to receive regularly a file of some weekly London paper. Those which, like the Spectator, Examiner, and Athenaeum, contain full notices of literary, dramatic, and musical
subjects, are the most satisfactory to a colonist.
Good engravings will be a great ornament to the rooms ofthe colonist who cannot afford to take valuable paintings with him. All the engravings that have ever been published can be seen at the British Museum, where there is a room set apart for them, open to any respectable person who chooses to apply for admittance. Take the engravings carefully packed, in cases lined with tin, and soldered: frames can be made from the handsome indigenous woods of New Zealand.
A FEW HINTS FOR THE PASSAGE
This interval of about four months may be easily turned to some account by the really industrious passenger. After the first troubles of sea-sickness are over, study of any kind is most welcome as an aid to get over the tediousness of the voyage.
If the habit have not been acquired before, learn to keep a diary. No matter how little there may be to record; make it a point to jot down something every day; if you can think of nothing else, copy the ship's daily log. The main point is to acquire the habit of keeping a daily journal. It is impossible to over-rate the utility of this practice when once thoroughly acquired.
Fix upon some particular subject to be studied during the voyage. A great deal ofany subject may be learned by four months' assiduous application, and the daily progress made will furnish matter for the diary.
There can be no better opportunity for learning the use of the sextant and other astronomical instruments; and navigation and seamanship generally, which are always useful.
It is almost needless to recommend as much exercise, on deck, as the weather will allow. If you want a good salt-water bath, remember that, except in very rough weather, the decks are washed at sunrise, or soon after, every morning. So go on deck in a bathing-dress, and let the sailors throw pails of water over you.
HINTS ON ARRIVAL IN THE COLONY
If you have chosen to take part in the foundation of a perfectly new Settlement, the first thing to be done is to erect some shelter for your family and for your goods. Until each person shall have chosen his land, a spot will probably be allotted for temporary occupation, to any one applying for it, by the Company's Agent or Chief Surveyor. If you are going to a settlement already established, find a lodging for your family and store-room for your goods in the first instance.
In either case, as soon as ever this preliminary step
shall have been taken, start off to see your land, if you have bought any in England. If you have bought a Land-order in England, hasten to examine carefully all the land from
which you have a right to select, and choose as soon as ever you are enabled. If you intend to buy land in the colony, ascertain at once what land is for sale there, and go to see
it. In any case, do not waste time in idleness, or be too long looking about you without an object. Determine quickly what you intend to do, and then set about it.
Do not listen to people who force their acquaintance on you in order either to grumble at hardships real or imaginary, or to praise inordinately everything in the colony: such persons constantly annoy new-comers, from the time of the ship's arrival in the port until the Colonist has entered steadily upon his adopted life; you may generally depend on it that they are actuated either by self-interest, or by foolish vanity and idleness. Avoid them, and judge very much for yourself. This advice is of course intended for perfect strangers, knowing no one in the place where they arrive, and not possessing a sincere and earnest letter of friendly introduction to some experienced Colonist. The guidance of such a friend is undoubtedly most valuable. If really at a loss for advice, apply to the New Zealand Company's Agent in the particular settlement. He is less interested in setting you wrong, and more interested in setting you right, than probably any one else there; and he is sure to possess the most knowledge on the very points in which you want.