Marriage register of the Presbyterian Congregation of Banbridge,
County Down, 1756-1794
In 1880 the writer was entrusted with the Register Book of this congregation by the late Rev. KM'Cammon, minister in charge of the Downshire Road Presbyterian "unreadable" Church. The entries relating to marriages number over 300, and are referred to as "Purposes of Marriage," with the exception of those following the words, "Marriage without Proclamation." It would appear that a "Purpose of Marriage" meant the actual solergnization? of the marriage ceremony, as there is no reason
to believe that another book existed recording marriages in fact. In a few instances, under the headingof "Purpose of Marriage" it is stated that the ceremony of the marriage took place some days later (see entries under date 10th March, 1758, and others at intervals). The presumption is that the clerk or minister omitted to enter the "Purpose" or proclamation of banns, or that the proclamation took place on the same day as the marriage. The marriages, up to 30th March, 1761, commence with the words, "A Purpose of Marriage between," and after this date "Between" only is written; and then in later entries "Between is omitted. It is certain, however, that the knot was tied effectually, no matter what doubts we may have as to the meaning of a "purpose"; and whether the contracting parties were married on the day of publication of banns? or some days after does not make much difference.
Some of the surnames appear in strange guise, as "mahallan" (Mulhollan); "McCubbin" (McKibbin);"Hillows" (Hillia?); "Ewer" (Ewart)' "Dennisken" (Denniston); "McGumery" (Montgomery), & cc.
There is nothing very peculiar in the names; only in one instance do we find a name other than those ofScotch, Irish, or English origin. We refer to Jennaux, which surname is, doubtless of Huguenot origin. Of double Christian names only one instance occurs.
The Purpose of Marriage are as follows (') :
May 30 Joseph Risk and Isabella Swan.
June 8 William Hamill and Seragh Beggs.
Aug 8 Thomas Anderson and Heloner Locket (Lockhart)
Aug 15 John Meek and Seragh Maballen (Mulholland).
Sept. 19 Jas. Skelly and Mary Majore.
(1) In almost every instance, where no place is named, the words "of thiscongregation" are to be understood.
Sept. 19 John Coulthart (Coulter) and Mary McMullan.
Nov. 21 Robert Jordan [not legible] Moorelicad.
Nov. 19 William Duff and Seragh Mehaffy.
Feb. 27 James Carnweil ( of not legible) and Jane Mehaffy.
Mar 6 John HiIows (Hillis) and Agnes McWjlliam.
Mar 8 Robert Ewer (Ewart) and Susan Bowman
Mar 8 Thos. Dunn and Ann Dunbar.
June 12 James Robeson and Saragh (not legible).
July 3 Hugh Miligan and Jane Magill
July 10 Joseph Nelson and Mary Thompson
July 18 James Jordan and Mary Dennisken (Denniston).
Oct 19 Archibald McCullogh and Mary McClung (McCIurg).
Nov. 6 Daniel Magill and Eliz. Anthony.
Jan. 29 James Magin and Mary Robison.
Jan. 29 John McClung (McClurg) and Margaret Robinson.
Mar 19 William Dodds andJane Kelly, Married 23rd March.
April 16 Richard Bell and Elizabeth Adams.
Apil 23 Robert Herron and Elizabeth Stuart, married 25tth April.
May 14 James Glass of Drumbanagher,and Jane Dumble.
Oct. 15 John McMcMullan and Anne Jenneaux.
Nov. 12 Willian Scott and Mary Maitland
Dec. 3 Hugh McArtney (McCartney) and Hannah Majore.
Dec. 10 Robert Wallace and Prudence Thompson.
Jan. 21 John Thompson and Isabella Grier (Greer).
Feb. 11 The Revd. Mr. Sims (2) of Tulllish and Mrs. Hannah Elliott.
Feb. 25 James Cousans or Magherally, and Mary Adams.
Mar. 4 Josias Anderson and Elizabeth Anderson.
Mar. 4 Alexr. Moffet and Eleanor Rogers.
Nov. 18 John Cowan and Mary Dunn.
Jan. 8 Hugh Diel (Dale) (not legible) and also William Evans and Susan Cochrane.
Jan 13 James Gillespie and Jane Kerr.
Jan. 27 John Maitland and Jane Porter, married, 29th January; Also James Campbell, ofRathfriland, and Margaret
Majore, married 31st January; and also Archibald McMaster and Mary Wilson.
Sept. 7 James Stevenson and Hannah Bell.
Nov. 1 William Raine and Mary Smith.
(2) Mr. Sims was Presbyterian Minister of Tullylish Congregation.
Dec. 7 James Murray and Mary Hamilton, of Donaghcloney.
July. 8 James Bell and Marjory Morrison.
April. 23 William Leister and Elizabeth Ferguson.
April. 9 Saml. Forsyth and Jane Kerr, of Rathfriland.
Nov. 1 John Martin, Of Drubanagher, and Elizabeth Campbell.
Nov. 30 Peter Brown, of Tullylish, and Elizabeth Rogers.
Nov. 30 William Kells and Martha Cherry.
Dec. 20 Saml. Barr and Elizabeth Anderson.
Dec. 25 James Gutberie and Martha McClaine.
Dec. 27 Robert Pilson and Mary Murray.
Jan. 10 Anthony McCay and Hannah Taite.
Jan. 24 George Kinnear and Elizabeth Anderson; and James Anderson and Susan Thompson, ofMagherrally; also Archbld. McCubbin (McKibbin) and Ann Hamilton.
Feb. 14 John Scott and Isabel Mulligan.
Mar. 4 John Majore and Catherine Lowry, of Tonaghmore.
May 23 William Jordan, of Donaghcloney, and Jane Gambwell (Gamble).
June 20 George McCashland, of Magherally, and Susan Nisbit; and Danile King and Agness Duff.
July 4 Samuel Black and Bridget McKinley.
Aug 15 Hugh Gordon, of Mountmorris and Mary McWilliams.
Sept 12 William Finlay, of Lurgan and Alice Brown.
Oct. 10 Gilbert Kyle, of Donaghcloney and Jane Robinson.
May 29 John Stephenson and Sarah McCormick, of Donaghmore.
May 29 Daniel Mulligan, of Magherally and Mary Skinner.
Aug. 1 James Barns, of Mountmorris and Mary Clark.
Aug. 7 Archibald McDowell and Agnes Wilson.
Aug. 21 John Mount, of Dromore and Mary Little. and Saml. Geddis and Jane Majore.
Aug. 25 Joseph Diery (Deery), of donaghcloney and Elisabeth McLeroy (McElroy).
Jan 15 Bernard Neil and Sarah Hook.
Jan 22 James Chambers and Mary Kerr.
May 26 Saml. McMullan and Agnes Chambers; and between Wm. Brown, of Tullylish and SarahKerr.
Mar 15 John Croll, of Magherally and Sarah Bell.
April 1 Richd. McMurdey (M'Mordie) and Mary McClelland of Loughbrickland.
June 17 Saml. McClelland and Mary Small of Clare.
July 29 Charles Cowan and Agnes Gilmore of Magherally, and James Anderson and Mary Meek.
n/a Henry Smith and Esther Mulligan.
n/a Patrick Brown and Mary Mathews.
Mar 31 John McCracken and Hannah McCammon.
Apr. 6 Wm. Meek and Elizabeth Black, and Joseph Adameston (Edmonson), of Loughbricklandand Mary McBride.
April 28 James Mathews and Margaret Fordice.
Sept. 8 John Majore and Mary Forbes.
Sept. 15 James Duff and Sarah M'Cracken of Magherally.
Sept. 22 William Edmonson and Susan Boyd of Magherally.
Nov. 12 Alexander Fullerton and Mary Harrison.
Nov. 19 Andrew Hearshy (Harshaw), of Loughbrickland, and Jane Parker.
Dec. 29 Alexander Scott, Of Dromore, and Isabella Bell.
Feb. 17 Christopher Bell and Mary Scott.
Mar 6 James Lowry, of Ballymony, and Mary Rogers.
Mar 30 Saml. Coulter and Margt. Kelly of Rathfryland.
June 9 Thos. Lackey and Martha Briggs.
Oct. 19 John Kincaid of Magherally, and Margt. Anderson.
Dec. 14 Patrick McDowell and Hannah Spiers.
Dec. 21 James Bingham and Hannah McCullough of Tullylish.
Mar 1 John Esdale of Donacloney, and Hannah Dick.
Mar 8 Thomas Adams and Mary Evans.
Mar 22 Thomas Adams and Jane Cowans of Magherally.
May 2 Jas. Geary, of Magherally, and Isabelle Kinear.
May 17 James Laverty, of Vinecash (Co. Armagh), and Arabella McCormick.
Aug. 23 Wm. Bodel and Isabella Kincaid.
Aug. 30 Jas. Morrow and Margaret Graham.
Sept. 13 Andrew Bradford and Mary Roney.
Oct. 4 Jno. Walker, of Drumard, and Isabel Adams.
Oct. 11 John Stevenson and jElisabeth Gillespie.
Jan. 4 Daniel Parke and Mary Anderson.
Apr. 4 George Forsyth and Sarah Dobbin.
Apr. 10 Thomas Finlay, of Tullylish and Susanna Fordice.
Apr. 10 John Graham and Eliza Robinson.
Apr. 24 James Thompson and Mary Wallace, Magherally.
May 1 Joseph Skelly of Saintfield and Jane Skelly.
May 1 John Forsyth and Mary Dumble.
May 28 William Anderson and Jane Duff.
July 26 David Cairns, of Drumbanagher, and Jane McMullen.
July 31 James McMaster and Sarah Graham.
July 31 James McBride and Mary Mulligan.
Apr. 21 ? Cowan and Mary Morehead.
Sept. 18 Harry Herron and Isabella McElroy.
Sept. 18 Hugh Dyel (Dale) and Agnes Bell.
Sept. 18 Hugh Cromey, of Rathfryland and Ellen Meek.
Oct. 31 John Foster, of Tullylish, and Mary Brown.
Nov. 7 Saml. Black and Mary Hamilton.
Nov. 20 Saml. McMurray and Ester McCoubry, of Kilmore.
Mar 12 William Dickie and Mary Wills.
April 18 John Evans and Martha Mills.
June 18 William Logan, of Donacloney, and Margt. Fordyce.
Sept. 2 Hugh Mulligan and Eliz. Dougan, of Mountmorris.
Sept. 9 William Moor, of Rathfryland, and Widow Sarah Lyon.
Sept. 17 William Dunn, of Tonaghmore, and Jane Deal (Dale).
Oct. 22 Saml. McNight and Jane Patterson, of Magherally.
Nov. 19 Nathaniel Darby and Mary Wallace.
Dec. 24 John Thomson and Mary Fox.
Dec. 31 Arthur Philips, of Kilmore, and Margaret Wallace.
Dec. 31 George Noble and Eliz. Wills.
Feb. 11 Hugh Mathews and Mary Paul of Vinecash, Co. Armagh.
Apr. 8 Hugh Hart of Rathfryland, and Sarah Kearns.
June 17 Saml. Campbell and Jane Thompson, Magherally.
Aug. 19 John Neill and Mary Duncan.
Aug. 19 Saml. Mulligan and Ann Meek.
Aug. 26 Saml. Risk and Margt. Wiley, of Loughbrickland.
Sept. 9 Wm. Andrews, of Tullylish and Deborah Knight.
Sept. 20 George Sleeth and Mary Cuming.
Nov. 4 Andrew Little and Jane Pipers.
Nov. 23 John Burns, of Tonaghmore, and Margt. Gourlay.
Dec. 2 Brice Morrow and Agnes Smith.
Feb. 9 John Wright, of Donagcloney, and Jane Waugh.
Mar 10 Josia Anderson and Elizabeth Mathews.
May 4 James Hamilton and Isabella Crothers.
June 15 James Johnsston and Margt. Matchet.
June 30 Gain Neil, of Mountmorris, and Agnes McBride.
July 15 Wm. McWilliams and Sarah Barber, Rathfriland.
July 22 Gowen Adams and Agnes Irvine.
Nov. 4 Wm. Brown, of Rathfriland, and Sarah Mulligan.
Nov. 11 Saml. McBride and Sarah Makee (McKee), of Drumbo.
Nov. 11 Benjamin McCutcheon, of Loughbrickland, and Mary Herron.
Feb. 9 Hugh Parker and Hannah McCord.
July 19 John McMullan and Barbara Con, of Rathfryland.
Sept. 20 Thos. Kennedy and Margt. Knight.
Oct. 19 John Murray and Jane Savage.
Feb. 14 Robert Adams and Jane Martin, Dromara.
Feb. 18 Andw. Hamilton, of Magherally, and Jane Graham.
Oct. 31 John Mahallan (Muholland), of Markethill, and Eliz. Hamilton.
Nov. 22 James McWilliam and Patience Carns.
Dec. 14 William Hawthorne and Jane Hawthorne, of Loughbrickland.
Feb. 12 Joseph McBride, of Dromore, and Sarah Hamilton.
Feb. 20 Daniel Wilson, of Donacloney, and Martha Thompson.
Oct. 8 Alex. Craig ad Mary Kyle.
Dec. 17 William Edmeston and Mary McComb.
July 14 Saml. Mattear (Mateer) and Margt. McCormick.
Aug. 25 Hugh Cromey and Mary McClelland.
Oct. 28 Wm. Jordan, of Dromara, and Jane Hook.
Dec. 7 James Bell and Sarah Carson, of Loughbrickland.
Feb. 29 Saml. McCartney, of Drumbanagher, and Elizabeth McBride.
June 1 Andrew McBride and Mary Bell.
Aug. 18 James Bell and Mary Bell.
Sept 18 Saml. Hawthorne and Margt. Rodgers.
Nov. 16 John Fleming, Apothecary, and Mary Baxter.
Dec. 30 Andrew Potts, of Loughbrickland, and Mary McMoodie,,of Banbridge.
Jan. 17 Alexr. Sterling and Sarah Green of Markethill.
Jan. 29 John Jonkin (Jenkins) and Sarah Edmenson, of Scarva.
Jan. 29 James Corey (Curry) and Elizabeth Martin, of Dromore.
Apr. 5 Hugh Gordon and Esther Little.
May 31 John Morton and Sarah Magaffockn (McGaffin), of Tullylish.
June 7 James Edmeston, of Scarva, and Mary Edemeston.
Nov. 15 Robert Bell and Isabella Dale, of Loughbrickland.
Nov. 28 Robert Bell, of Loughbrickland, and Isabella Brown.
Nov. 28 James Porter and Isabella Clark.
Aug. 15 Hans Cowan and Mary Wiley.
Sept. 5 Samuel Gourley, of Drumbanaghar, and Margaret Deen.
Sept. 12 Archd. Kneight and Sarah Clogston, of Tullylish.
Sept. 26 John Lockhart and Mary McConwel (McConnell).
July. 22 Thomas Bigham and Mary Forsyth.
May. 19 Thomas Matchet and Elizabeth Crothing (Crothers), married 20th May.
May. 26 Edwd. Henvin and Eliz. Elliot, married 27th May.
Oct. 13 Samuel Glass, of Tullylish and Elizabeth Sterling.
Nov. 24 Isaac Scott, of Drumbanagher, and Mary Robinson.
Feb. 16 Samuel Cowan and Margaret Lockhead.
Feb. 23 William Ingram and Mary Barber.
Mar. 2 Edwd. Hawthorne, of Loughbrickland, and Elizabeth McLeroy (McElroy).
Apr. 20 John Bell and Eleanor Bell of Magherally.
May 5 Samuel Vitche and Brissel Coultard.
Dec. 25 Thomas Downs and Mary McWilliams.
Dec. 28 Thos. Parker and Susan Smith.
Dec. 28 Saml. Seawright, of Loughbrickland, and Mary Gourley.
Apr. 11 William Gregg, of Newry, and Agnes Anderson.
May. 5 John McWilliam and Agnes Bell.
May. 5 Geo. McWilliam and Margt. McCoy.
May. 16 John Minis and Margt. Burns.
May. 16 John McCrum and Janet Bell.
Dec. 1 George Mahallum, Jun. (Mulholland) and Jane McMordie, married by Mr. Jackson.
Dec. 26 John Gibson and Elizabeth Darragh.
Jan. 16 James Wilson, of Dromore, and Sarah Mooreland.
Jan. 20 Bryce Smyth and Agnes Sterling, married 21st by Mr. Jackson.
June. 5 Thos. Boyd and Mary Gulian?, married 12th June.
July. 3 Hugh Graham and Agnes Hawthorn.
Aug. 1 Thos. Park and Jane McBride, of Rathfryland.
Oct. 2 William Campbell and Agnes Cowan, marrieth 9th Oct.
Nov. 6 John Bryson and Mary McGrath, married 7th Nov.
Jan. 29 James Magill and Rose McLinden, married by Mr. Jackson, 30th Jan.
Aug. 20 Alex. McClure and Ann Mulligan, married by Mr. Jackson.
Aug. 27 Henry Herron and Jane Muligan.
Jan. 7 George Crawford and Jane Bradford, married by Mr. Jackson on 22th Jan.
Apr. 1 William Thompson and Ann Hughes, married by Mr. Jackson.,
(Witnesses of the marriage: George McWilliam and Mary Forsyth).
Apr. 18 John Gillespay and Margt. Patterson, same day married by Mr. Bryson.
Feb. 24 James McCallister and Mary Bodel, of Tullylish.
Mar. 2 Archibald McCallister and Rachel Frickelton.
Apr. 6 Alexander Williamson, of Crumlin, and Ester Gillespy.
Apr. 13 Isaac Brown and Mary Smyth.
Feb. 1 Philip McWilliam and Mary Park.
Mar. 8 John Irwin and May Cowan.
Mar. 15 Samuel Coultard (Coulter) and Hannah Moreland.
June 6 Robert Mathews and Ann Herrin, married same day by Mr. Jackson.
(Witnesses present: Jane McClelland, Hugh McClelland).
Feb. 7 Thomas Wilson and Jane Wilson.
Feb. 21 Thomas Friar, of Glaschar, and Jane Irwin.
Mar. 28 John Cartland and Mary Murdock, of Magherally.
Apr. 4 John Campbell, of Ballyroney, and Ester McBride.
Apr. 4 Thos. Cowan and Mary Stephenson.
July 11 John McKeee and Jane Graham, of Ballyroney.
Feb. 20 Robert Graham and Elizabeth Hazlett, of Loughbrickland.
Mar. 6 William Hewitt and May Kearney.
Aug. 28 John Mathews and Elizabeth Hutcheson, of Loughbrickland.
Nov. 20 Thomas McBride and Susannah Burns.
Aug. 12 Thomas Doran, of Dromore, and Alice Finlay, married 14th August.
Oct. 29 William Forsyth and Mary Bell.
Marriges without Proclamatiom :
Oct. 4 William Pike and Mrgt. McClung.
Dec. 1 George Mulholland, Jun., and James (Jane?) McMordie.(Witnesses present-Hana McMordie and ? McMordie).
Jan. 19 John Porter and Sarah McClelland, (Witnessesed by Ann Matchet and IsabellaBradford).
June. 26 David Black of Glascar and Jane Seawright, (Witnessed by James Kerr and Jane Kerr,otherwise Herron).
Nov. 3 Robt. Crothers and Jane Henry, (Witnessed by Rev. James McMahon and GeorgeMahallam).
Nov. 5 Francis Bell and Mary Dobbin, (Witnesses by James Withers, Se., AnnWithers, andJames Withers, Jun.).
Nov. 6 Thomas Graham and Sarah Fleming, (Witnesses present-Rev. Mr. Cumming, CaptainJames Law, and Robert McClelland).
July. 11 Henry Sterling and Jane Neight, (Witnessed by Robert Sterling, Jun., and MaryAnderson).
Oct. 30 Edward Turner and Eleanor Waugh, (The groom certified by Mathew Kerr andwitnessed by Rev. James McMahon and David Waugh).
Feb. 6 Henry Knight and Margaret Goorly. (Witnessed by Robert Gamble and Joseph Morton).
Jan. 8 Thomas Goorley and Agnes McWilliam, (Certified by Philip Graham and Hugh Herron,Witnessed by James Hamilton and William Graham).
Feb. 20 Alexander Patrick, of Magherally, and Jane McCann.(Witnesses present-James Seawright and Elizabeth Patrick).
June 30 William Fleming and Isablella Green, (Witness present Thomas Briggs).
Mar. 8 Hugh Cowan and Isabella Hook. (Certified by Philip Graham, (Witnesses present JohnIrwin and John Finney).
Apr. 9 Captain James Law (1) and Sarah Crawford, (Witnesses present-George Crawford andJames Fleming).
(1) Captain James Law was a well known volunteer officer and had command of acompany in 1780 known as the Banbridge Vol. Infantry.
May. 10 Andrew Minnis and Mary Kells, (Witnesses present-James Kyle and Philip Graham).
May. 25 John McMordie and Rachel Graham, (Witnesses present-Rachel Lawson and RachelBrown).
May. 27 James Lindsay, of Tullylish, and Mary Anderson, (Witnessed by Henry Wier and JohnLockhart. The groom
certified by Rev. Mr. Sherrard, John Dixon, and Hanry Dixon).
Dec. 1 John Martin and Mary Dick, (Witnessed by Joseph Denharn, Joseph Knox and HenryJackson, Jun.).
Jan. 14 Robert Mason, of Rathfryland, and Eleanor Park.
Jan. 21 John Linn (1), of Loughbrickland, and Agnes Dunn.
Feb. 23 George Brown and Isabella Lowry.
May. 17 Robert Smyth and Isabella Fulton.
Apr. 28 William McWilliam and Agnes Maitland.
Nov. 28 James Armour and Leticia Workman.
Dec. 23 John McMullan, 14 Light Dragoons, and Catherine Russell.
Jan. 14 Adam Bell and Jane Cowan.
Apr. 25 Samuel Coudy (Coady) and Susan Graham.
May. 26 William McMullan of Mountmorris, and Elizabeth Shields.
Aug. 23 Hugh McClean and Margt. Darragh.
Sept. 30 John Parker, of the Parish of Seapatrick, and Elizabeth Forsyth.
Dec. 12 Robert Bradford and Isabella Dick.
Dec. 14 John Gillespie and Jane Forsyth.
Jan. 1 Thomas Mawhood, of Loughbrickland, and Sarah Robinson.
Apr. 13 Alex. Kearns of Dromore, and Margt. Crothers.
May. 19 Robert Henderson and Sarah Briggs.
May. 25 James Coulter and Agnes Glue (probably Grew).
July. 2 Thomas Hagan and Elizabeth Anthony.
Aug. 10 Hugh McCaw and Martha McElroy.
Oct. 18 William Scott and Margaret Irwin.
Oct. 30 William Mulligan and Mary Mulligan.
Nov. 16 John Griffin, of Magherally, and Sarah Wills.
Dec. 3 James Risk, of Loughbrickland and Eleanor Irwin.
(1) John Linn of the Presbyterian Congregation of Loughbrickland was thegrandfather of the writer.
Mar. 5 Baptist Mulligan, of Magherally and Rose Mulligan.
Mar. 27 Saml. Herron and Agnes Kyle.
Apr. 1 John Parker and Elizabeth Dunn.
Apr. 22 Andrew Ratcliffe, of Cloughakilt and Jane Stephenson.
Apr. 29 William Dale to Patience McBride.
July. 6 Andrew Rainey and Mary Brown.
July. 6 William Maitland and Jane Majore.
Dec. 30 John Coulter and Eleanor McChesney.
Jan. 28 Will Porter and Cath. Phenn.
Jan. 28 Will Dodds and Mary Matchett.
Apr. 5 Abraham Smith and Jane Graham.
Extract from comment by Rev. W. T. Latimer, B. A., on the above :
(See Journal of the Royal Society of Antiqueries, Ireland. Vol. XXIX., pp 75-76 )
A "purpose of marriage" was nothing more or less than a proclamation of banns, and as almost all whowere proclaimed were soon afterwards married, I believe there was no separate book for registration of marriages. This opinion is supported by the fact that when marriages without proclamation were entered, this fact was recorded and that in some of the entries the date of marriage as well as the date of the proclamation.
In 1701 the Synod of Ulster enacted that banns of marriage should be published on three severalsabbaths, and that any minister who married a couple in transgression of this rule should be rebuked and suspended. But this law was unpopular with the Presbyterian people. The publicity given thereby to intended marriages was in itself so obnoxious that many Presbyterians submitted to be married in the Established Church where license could be substituted for proclamation.
But as this publishing of the banns was the law of the Irish Presbyterian Church, it was at first generallycarried it by ministers; and when this fact was recorded in the books of the congregation, it was proof that the law had been observed. This, I think was probably the reason why in some congregations the "proclamation" and not the ceremony of marriage was recorded. A record of the marriage itself would not have been considered sufficient evidence.
Note: From 1794 to 1814, no record is extant of marriages or baptisms. From 1814, commencingwith the pastorate of Rev. James Davis, a record was in existence