Fenian Raid (1870) - On 26 May 1870, O'Neil again crossed the border near Franklin, Vermont, but was forced back quickly and again arrested.
Canadian General Service Medal
The medal was awarded to members of the Imperial and Canadian forces who had taken part in the suppression of the Fenian raids and Riel's first rebellion, the latter being generally referred to as the Red River expedition.
Because the medal was not issued until 1899, it was awarded only if applied for and the recipient must have:
(a) been on active service in the field; or
(b) served as guard at any point where an attack from the enemy was expected; or
(c) been detailed for some specific service or duty.
Fenian Raid (1866) - Fenians is the name of the old Irish National Militia. After the Civil War in the USA, the American Fenians were bolstered by Civil War mercenaries. In need of something to occupy this large force, John O'Neil crossed the Niagara River, captured Fort Erie, and made his headquarters at Limeridge. The Fenians defeated a unit of the Canadian Militia at Ridgeway, but withdrew to the USA when a stronger force was sent to the area. President Johnson had many of the Fenians arrested.
Red River (1870) - Colonel Garnet Wolseley led an expedition to Fort Garry, leaving Toronto on 14 May and reaching Fort Garry on 24 August. They captured Louis Riel and prevented a Fenian raid on Manitoba.
A circular, silver medal, 1.42 inches in diameter.
The obverse shows a diademed and veiled effigy of Queen Victoria
wearing the Order of the Garter, facing left, and the legend VICTORIA
REGINA ET IMPERATRIX.
The reverse displays the red ensign of Canada, floating with the breeze,
surrounded by a wreath of maple leaves and surmounted by the word
A plain, straight, swivelling suspender is attached to the medal with a
The ribbon is 1.25 inches wide and consists of three equal stripes: red,
white, and red. (The same ribbon as the 1943 Canada Medal.)
The recipient's name, service number, rank, and unit were indented,
impressed or engraved on the rim.
The medal was authorized in January 1899, twenty-nine years after the
last event it commemorated.
There were 16,668 of the medals awarded, always with bars. Of these,
15,300 were awarded to Canadian units.
(Picture and transcript courtesy of theVeterans Affairs Canada Website