Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   

Dictionary of Ancient Occupations and Trades,
Ranks, Offices, and Titles

TOP A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z BOT
Jump to: MA ME MI MO MR MU
Guide

new = Recent changes
as of 2014-12-07
macer
a mace bearer. (=a heavy club, usu. with a metal head and spikes used esp. in the middle ages.)
Scot an official who keeps order in courts of law.
a swindler (e.g. cup-and-ball macer)
machinator
one who contrives or schemes; intriguer, plotter schemer; usually in bad sense.
machinist
one who invents, makes or controls machines or machinery; an engineer.
one who works a machine, esp. a sewing machine.
a painter who works mechanically and by rule.
U.S. an engine room artificer or attendant; a "machine" politician.
magistrate
civ an officer administrating the law.
civ a member of the Upper House of the General Court (Legislature).
cf senator
an officer conducting a court for minor offences and preliminary hearings
magnate
a wealthy and influential person
maid
an unmarried girl or woman; a virgin.
dom a female servant.
maid of honor
the chief unmarried woman attendant of a bride.
an unmarried noblewoman attendant upon a queen or princess. [AHD]
maid-in-waiting
an unmarried woman attending a queen or princess.
majordomo
dom the chief official of an Italian or Spanish princely household.
dom a house steward; a butler. (=med.L. major domus highest official of the household.)
malefactor
a criminal; an evil-doer
malender
a farmer
maltster
forms: maltestere, malstere, maultstere, maulster, malster, maltster
one whose occupation it is to make malt (=sprouted grain, usu barley)
a brewer.
-man
A suffix used to denote one engaged in a particular occupational or social rôle, e.g. (e.g. businessman), (e.g. layman), (e.g. mailman). Some object that this is sexist usage, insisting on the Politically Correct substitution of person, e.g. (e.g. businessperson), (e.g. layperson), (e.g. mailperson) —or even (e.g. personperson)!
manciple
a steward
mantua-maker
F. in 18°C., a maker of mantuas, an article of clothing
cf dressmaker
manucaptor
A person who stands surety that another (esp. a prisoner) will fulfil a legal obligation to appear in court on a specified day. (OED 2007)
marescal
see marshal
marquess
Also: marquis
see nobility
marshal Also: marshall
US an officer of a judicial district, similar to a sheriff.
US the head of a fire department.
Mil a high-ranking officer in the armed forces of certain countries, (e.g. air marshal, field marshal)
Brit a high-ranking officer of state, (e.g. earl marshal)
an officer arranging ceremonies, controlling procedure at races, etc.
[judges] marshal 
Brit an official accompanying a judge on circuit, with secretarial and social duties.
US a court officer who assists a judge.
Marshal of the Royal Air Force 
Brit mil an officer of the highest rank in the Royal Air Force.
mason
A person who builds (e.g. walls, buildings, etc.) with brick or stone.
Mason 
A freemason; a member of the Free and Accepted Masons, an international fraternal and charitable organization with secret rites and signs.
A member of a guild of skilled itinerant masons during the Middle Ages.
master
a title for a man of high rank, learning, etc.
nowadays the title of a boy not old enough to be called "Mister"
nav. the officer under the captain, in charge of sailing the ship, =commander, a/k/a sub-captain, under-captain, rector, master-commanding.
the captain of a merchant ship
a workman who, by training and experience, is qualified to teach apprentices and to carry on his trade on his own account, as distinguished from a journeyman. (Chiefly in appositional combining forms, as (e.g. master carpenter).)
the designation of certain legal functionaries, officials, etc. See the table, Master of ….
master of hounds 
one who owns or controls a pack of hounds for the hunt, usually a member of the hunt elected to have control of the kennels and the hunting arrangements generally. Also: ~foxhounds, ~beagles, ~harriers, ~staghounds
Master of the Horse
see the table
Master of ...
The English court and royal household has had a bewildering array of titled positions, some hereditary, that are Master of something, with duties of the nature of control, superintendance or safe-keeping. Several of the household positions had similar female positions (=Mistress of...).
Armoury 
Artillery 
Assay 
Bears  Also: Master of the Hawks, Swans, Buckhounds, etc.
Ceremonies 
Chancery 
Chivalry 
obs
Coin  Also: ~ of the Mint
Court of Common Pleas 
Exchequer 
Faculties 
Falconer 
A high-ranking officer, often of noble birth himself.
Game 
a royal game-keeper
Horse 
the officer who has the management of the horses belonging to a sovereign or other exalted personage.
Household (King's, Queen's) 
Huntsman 
Veneur
Jewel-house 
King's Bench 
Lunacy  Also: Master in ~
administered the estates of asylum inmates,
Mint 
Misrule 
King of the Gypsies, the captain, chief or ringleader. [CD]
Music (King's) 
Ordinance  Also: Master General of the ~
Posts 
Request(s) 
Revels 
Robes 
Rolls 
Wardrobe 
Clothing and other domestic items.
Wards (and Liveries) 
Work(s) 
[OED]
master-at-arms
naut formerly a warrant officer in the [British] navy appointed to instruct the officers and crew of a ship of war in the exercise of small arms, and to act as the principal police officer on board.
the principal police officer aboard a ship of the merchand marine. [OED]
-mate
naut. a rank just below another, a helper, e.g. Gunner's Mate
mate
naut an officer on a merchant vessel ranking below the captain
mechanic
a skilled worker, esp. one who uses, makes or repairs machines, vehicles or tools; a blacksmith.
one employed in a manual occupation, a handicraftsman; [obs. & now rare, contemptuously]: a low or vulgar fellow. [OED]
in a restricted sense, a skilled workman, esp one skilled in the making or use of machinery. (=In some English manufacturing districts the term denotes a man who has the management and repairing of the machinery in a factory.) [OED]
mender
a clothier, esp. one who inspects the woven cloth and repairs defects
mendicant
a beggar
a member of an order of friars forbidden to own property even in common, who work or beg for a living.
cf religious
menial
dom of a servant: forming one of the household; a domestic; (=Now only contemptuous, applied chiefly to liveried men-servants kept for ostentation rather than use; often suggesting an imputation of pomposity or arrogance.) [OED]
mercantile
of trade, trading
commercial
mercenary, fond of trading
mercantile marine (=merchant marine)
mercenary sp: pl. ~ies
a hired soldier in foreign service
mercer
a dealer in textile fabrics, esp. silks and other costly materials.
merchant
a retail trader; dealer; storekeeper
esp. Brit a wholesale trade, esp. with foreign countries
types of: baker, bookseller, bookdealer, bookmonger, butcher, chandler, clothing merchant, clothier, confectioner, draper, fishmonger, fishwife, florist, fruiterer, furnisher, furrier, greengrocer, grocer, groceryman, haberdasher, ironmonger [Brit.], jewler, liquor merchant, newsdealer, perfumer, poulterer, saddler, shoe merchant, stationer, tobacconist, vintner
merchant mariner
a sailor (or officer) in the merchant marine (=a nation's commercial fleet)
merchantman
a merchant ship, i.e. a ship conveying merchandise
metaphorically, a sailor serving on one of these
mesomorph
a person whose body type (somatotype) is characterized by a robust, muscular build caused by a predominance of tissues derived from the embryonic mesodermal layer.
cf ectomorph,
cf endomorph.
midshipman
nav. a naval officer-in-training, esp. at a naval academy
midwife
a person, usually a woman, trained to assist women in childbirth (=a/k/a granny)
migrant
one who moves from one region to another, usually not on a permanent basis
an itinerant worker who travels from place to place in search of work, perhaps following various crops as they ripen for gathering
military ranks
See the table. Note: Not all ranks were in use at all times or in all services. Services may have provided grades within these ranks, as Master Sergeant, or Lt. Col.;
[Ref: The Origin of the Ranks and Rank Insignia Now Used by the United States Armed Forces at http://www.history.navy.mil/​trivia/​trivia04.htm]
See also the scholarly article "Military Rank" at http://www.friesian.com/rank.htm
Military & Naval
Ranks
Commissioned officers
General

Colonel
Major
Captain

Admiral
Commodore
Navy Captain
Commander
Lieutenant
Ensign
Warrant Officer
Noncommissioned
officers
Sergeant
Corporal
Petty Officers
Enlisted
Private
Seaman
milkmaid
A girl or woman who milks (esp) cows, or works at a dairy.
milkman
A man who sells or delivers milk.
miner
one whose work or business it is to extract ores or minerals from the earth.
a machine for the same purpose, esp for coal.
a soldier, often a specialiat, engaged in mining operations.
minister
eccl a member of the clergy
dipl an agent usually ranking below an ambassador (see also diplomat)
gov a high officer of state appointed to head an executive or administrative department of government
minor (=minor canon)
minor canon
eccl. hist. a cleric who is not a member of the chapter, who assists in daily cathedral services. cf canon
minstrel
an itinerant medieval entertainer, esp. one who sings or recites poetry
mintmaster
civ. one who issued local currency
missionary
a person sent on a religious mission, especially one sent to promote Christianity in a foreign country.
cf evangelist,
cf apostle
mistress
a woman in a position of authority, control or ownership, as the head of a household. [AHD]
a woman owner of an animal or slave. [AHD]
Mistress 
formerly a courtesy title when speaking to a woman. [AHD]
chiefly Brit a female schoolteacher. [AHD]
cf master.
see the table at kith.
modiste
F. a maker of fashionable clothing and accessories in the current Paris fashions.
moke
slang a dull or boring person.
chiefly Brit. a donkey.
moll
slang a female companion of a gunman or gangster.
a prostitute. (=Probably from the name Moll or Molly, nicknames for Mary.)
monarch
a soverign with the title king, queen, emperor, or the equivalent.
a supreme ruler.
a powerful or preeminent person.
moneyer
a coiner; one licensed to strike coins
-monger
a seller of goods, as alemonger, fishmonger
monk
eccl. a member of a religious community of men living under certain vows, esp. of poverty, chastity and obedience.
cf nun
montebank
a person who deceives others, esp in order to trick them out of money; a charlatan.
hist a person who sold patent medicines in public places.
mould[i]warp catcher
Eng a mole catcher. mouldwarp=mole. Now chiefly northern dialects. [OED]
Mr.
from the time of the Conquest, indicating a Frenchman (Monsieur).
to the 16° century, an abbreviation of Master, signifying someone of high social status.
now, an abbreviation of Mister. [DOT]
Mrs.
often used in early times to signify status, being an abbreviation of Mistress. Many marriage registers with the bride's name prefixed by Mrs. are wrongly assumed to indicate that she was a widow when she was in fact a single woman of high social status. Female children of high status families also used this abbreviated title. The title Madam has a various times throughout history been used to replace the word Mistress. [DOT]
muleskinner
a teamster
murderer
one who has unlawfully killed another person.
an animal slaughterer, itinerant or with his own slaughterhouse. [DOT]
musketeer
mil. a soldier armed with a musket

Jump to: MA ME MI MO MR MU
TOP A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z BOT

Services

visitors /~dav4is/Sources/Occ.M.htm
Uploaded: 2014-12-07 07:41 
data errors | external links | FAQ | Sources help
site help
Colophon description
-fin-
© 1998, 2014
Roderic A. Davis, 2nd
All Rights Reserved
Email: Rod Dav4is
 dav4is @ YAHOO.com
Snail:
 Genealogy, et Cetera
 c/o Rod Davis
 P.O. Box 118
 Hyde Park, NY 12538
 USA
Search this site:

 
[HOME]
[INDEX]
(to this folder)

[TOP]
(of this webpage)
Monitor page
for changes

it's private
powered by
ChangeDetection