Genealogical Research Tips
Genealogical Research Tips
Roderic A. Davis, 2nd
P.O. Box 118
Hyde Park, NY 12538
This file copyright ©2010 Roderic A. Davis ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
I am often asked for advice on how to get started in
genealogical research, or about other more specific aspects of "doing"
genealogy. This page is my attempt to answer all those questions in one
Please consider these recommendations mere recounting of what has seemed
to work for me. I am no expert, but I have formed opinions and ideas on
various aspects of this business which I am only too happy to pass on.
I hope that they work as well for you as they have for me.
You will notice a dearth of advice relating to doing primary research
-- finding birth certificates and the like. There is a good reason for
this deficiency: I have done very little of my own poking about in musty
archives or brambly cemeteries, relying more on published sources, both
on the web and in hardcopy. My rationale is this:
Original documents are often fragile, and the less handling they endure,
the better. It is impossible for every interested genealogist to
personally view these documents!
I am certain that all these documents will eventually be available on the
web. This will allow proper conservation of the originals while simultaneously
affording the widest availability for researchers.
B. Getting Started: Tools
First, arrange for your ancestors to have come from England
to America in the 17th or 18th century. OK, that
was a joke. As it happens, those immigrant families are exceptionally well
researched already, with plenty of books published about them over the
past 200 years or so. You can count yourself fortunate indeed if your ancestors
actually did come from 17th or 18th century England!
Of course, you may not even know yet where your ancestors called home.
But seriously, where does one start? A good starting place is Cyndi
Howell's outstanding web page, Cyndi's
List, which has a whole segment devoted to Beginners.
There is another useful collection of how-to
articles on the FTM site. One particularly nice report is Beginning
Genealogy, by Suzanne Guinn. The National Genealogical Society has
some interesting perspectives on why one might want to pursue genealogical
research, and some career opportunities for those skilled in its techniques:
In the discussion below I will concentrate on the infrastructure of
your research office -- setting up your tools.
What is it that you hope to accomplish with your research?
Far from being a frivolous question, the answer will -- or should --
be the focus of your research. Give it some serious thought. Until you
can write down your objective in one or two short sentences, I submit that
your research experience will be less than satisfying.
Once you have crisply defined your objective, this will help you identify
and deal with distractions -- things that come along that look interesting,
but fall outside your objectives. There is no harm in pursuing them, as
long as you recognize them for what they are: sidelines. Such things
are certain to pop up. Count on it.
Having a formal objective will help you prioritize your work.
Yes, I view this as essential equipment. I recommend that you invest in
one of the better laptop models. This will allow you to bring it with you
when traveling. It should have plenty of RAM (Random Access Memory) and
a sufficiently large Hard Disk Drive (HDD). My Compaq 17XL360 has 128 MB
and 10 GB, respectively.
Mac or PC?
Good ink-jet printers are cheap and reliable. Mine is a HP DeskJet 722C.
One essential feature to look for is the ability to control the quality
of printed pages. Printing at the lowest, or "draft", quality is just fine
for most work, and can drastically reduce the amount of ink used and usually
proceeds at a faster pace, too. See also, FinePrint,
PERIPHERALS: PERSONAL BACKUP - a review of devices. See also Backup
This may prove useful in a number of ways:
To scan the family photographs for online keeping, or perhaps to publish
them on the web.
To scan documents for exchange with other genealogists
To use as a FAX or, in conjunction with your printer, as a copier
I don't have one yet, but it's on my list.
This item would be most useful for documenting such things as tombstones and such.
You could also make photo images of source documents
with less handling of the fragile originals -- where permitted, of course!
Genealogy Database Program
You will need a Genealogical Database program to help you organize your
data and to produce reports. There are a number of them on the market:
Some essential features:
Family Tree Maker (FTM):
This is my main vehicle. It certainly has its warts
and foibles, but most of these you can get accustomed to avoiding.
I use version 4.4, which I think is the last good version they produced.
They are now on version 8, having added a lot of useless -- and mostly
unwanted -- junk to the program. FTM has an active group of user forums
for discussion of problems.
Personal Ancestral File (PAF):
A free program from the Mormons. I have it, but have used it very little.
See Cyndi's List for
See Bill Mumford's Genealogical
Software Report Card for a features comparison of several common
brands of genealogical software.
Another list, Louis
Kessler's Genealogical Program Links.
Ability to enter data for individuals: names, dates, notes, events, etc.
Ability to enter multiple relationships, such as multiple spouses, adoptions,
divorces, out-of-wedlock births, etc.
Ability to read and create GEDcom input files. These are the chief means
of transporting blocks of data, universally accepted and produced by all
worthwhile genealogy programs.
Ability to produce reports for printing. Ability to customize the reports
is useful. Chief report formats: Ancestor trees, Descent trees, Outline
Descendant Trees, Register or NGS format, Ahnentafels, Family Group Sheets
-- the more kinds, the better.
Ability to document the sources of your data, with multiple sources permitted.
Citations should be permitted individually for each piece of data, e.g.
individually for birth and death dates. Sources should (optionally) appear
Ability to accommodate partial dates (e.g. birth date 3 Oct, year unknown),
and dates in Old/New style form. (Test: can the program handle the date
29 Feb 1700/01? This is a valid leap day date often mishandled by programs.)
A rather complete list of features of various programs is here.
FinePrint is an essential utility
for any office that prints anything. Some of its features:
I figure that it has saved me at least US$100 per year -- well worth the
US$39 registration fee. There is a free trial version with the only restriction
being the number of pages it will print. Per invocation, that is!
Gives duplex (print on both sides) capability to all printers
Can print multiple reduced-size page images on each sheet, saving ink and
Can adjust page images to fit any paper that your printer can handle
Water marks, e.g. DRAFT [timestamp] on each page
It is important that you install several browsers, for the simple reason
that no single browser seems capable at present of successfully displaying
web pages. If you stick with one browser, you are limiting your research
to the pages that it can display. Believe me, there is nothing more frustrating
than believing that the answer to a critical question lies on a webpage
that you cannot view!
These are the browsers that I use:
Opera is little known outside its small
circle of devoted fans. Although recent releases have been somewhat unstable,
I still use it as my primary browser. I like its bookmark manager and its
"one-click" method for overriding objectionable page markup, such as images,
poor contrast between text and background, too-small text, etc.
Opera has recently offered a free version, supported by advertisements.
The registered version still costs US$39.
reviled, I now appreciate its clean page renderings and other features.
Some think it a lumbering behemoth, but I find it quite nimble, albeit
the most backward of the three, is also the most popular. Go figure! I
do use its email client, Messenger, exclusively, though.
Gary Cramblitt's Columbine Bookmark
Merge is my preferred bookmark manager, as it "understands" the bookmark
file formats of all three of my browsers (and Mosaic, too), allowing me
to port bookmark files from one browser to another.
is an ad-blocker with other useful functions.
It can protect you from the dreaded pop-up ads!
I use Symantec Norton AntiVirus 2001.
In the three months after installation, this product saved me from 17 virus-laden emails!
Obviously, I can't stress enough the importance of virus protection.
Filing Systems, Organizers
One File or Many?
Now that you have set up your infrastructure, I'm sure
that you are anxious to get down to work! Donna Przecha's article, "This
Year I am Going To... New Year's Resolutions for the Genealogist at Heart"
has some useful ideas for getting started. As noted in this
article, you probably have already started collecting data, if you
consider the collective knowledge about your family that is already "known"
by yourself and other family members. A good starting point would be to
begin interviewing them.
In this section I will expound on some general principles that have
Work from the known to the unknown
For example, if your family has a legend that you are descended from Hector Boiardi, a/k/a Chef Boyardee,
don't start by looking at his offspring.
Begin with what you know: your parents, their parents, and so on.
As you work, you will be constantly distracted by temptations to pursue sidelines.
While trying to uncover your 3x great grandfather's second wife's birth name, you will encounter that name you were looking for last year .
If you leave off the task at hand to pursue the serendipitous discovery, you will never get anything done.
Keep good notes
This is how you remember where that name was found so that you can return to it when you finish with 3x great grandfather's wife:
Keep a clue-file.
This is where you record your serendipitous discoveries so you can return to them
when you finish the current activity.
Don't try to remember it.
Write it down!
You absolutely must make a good backup plan -- and stick to it!
I cannot emphasize this enough. It has been said that all home computer
owners can be categorized into one of two groups:
As one who has been through two HDD crashes, I speak from experience!
In the first instance my WinBook bit the dust after only 8 months use!
I was fortunate in that I had just made my first test backup and was able
to recover most of my genealogical data, but I lost everything else, including
all of my email.
Those who have already experienced a hard drive failure
Those who will
The outcome of my second crash is still in doubt as I write this in
November 2000. Ironically, I was in the process of upgrading the WinBook
to replace my failed backup device -- under the direction by telephone
of WinBook Technical Support -- when the installation crashed in the middle,
leaving the Registry in a hosed condition. Technical Support was unable
to recover, and my WinBook is an expensive boat anchor.
Actually, I have been able to get to DOS on my WinBook, and I am in
the process of recovering data via floppy disk. I have ordered a utility
(PowerCopy) that comes
with a special cable that should allow me to recover all of my data.
A good backup strategy will protect your data from loss. Loss could
occur from a number of fronts, including: virus attacks, hardware failure,
and natural disaster.
No, not a teenage social phenomenon!
You will see, or have seen, dates in the form 11 Jan 1740/41.
What's up with that?
This form, called a double date,
is not meant to express any uncertainty in the year, but rather to accommodate the fact of a calendar change -- from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar -- that occurred at various times in different locales.
The Catholic countries made the change first, at the direction of Pope Gregory XIII (hence the name) in 1582.
The rest of the Christian world resisted the change, some keeping to the Julian calendar well into the 20th century!
Britain and its possessions, including the American colonies, changed calendars in 1752.
The new calendar much more accurately tracks the period of the Earth's orbit around the sun by inserting an extra day (leap day) at the end of the month of February on the following schedule:
Simultaneously with the calendar change, these two changes were made:
- In every year evenly divisible by 4, except
- Years also evenly divisible by 100, except
- Years also evenly divisible by 1000.
- Days were dropped to bring the calendar back into synchrony with the sun. E.g. in the British change in 1752, the day following 2 Sep. 1752 OS (Old Style, or Julian) was decreed to be 14 Sep. 1752 NS (New Style, or Gregorian).
- The beginning of the year, New Year's Day,
was moved from March 25 to January 1.
In the old reckoning 24 Mar 1700 had been followed by 25 Mar 1701.
The double date form is intended to account only for the second of the above changes,
that of the move of New Year's Day.
This change meant that dates between Jan 1 and Mar 24 were reckoned into different years in the two calendar systems.
To avoid confusion as to which was meant, the double date notation was adopted.
The notation aaaa/bb expresses the OS year ("aaaa") and the last two digits of the NS year ("bb"), which is always the next year after the OS year.
A date of 1699/00 would mean 1699 OS and 1700 NS.
The double date notation
is properly applied only to dates between Jan 1 and Mar 24, and only for years before 1752 in English-speaking countries -- the year in which they made the change.
- 20 Oct 1700/01
- Meaningless, because 20 Oct is outside the Jan-Mar range.
- 11 Feb 1731
- Ambiguous; is this an OS date or NS? This is actually George Washington's birth date expressed in OS. NS equivalent: 22 Feb 1732 NS.
- 22 Feb 1731/32
- George Washington's DOB in double date notation. Note that this expresses the year difference only; the difference in date from 11 Feb to 22 Feb is not made apparent and is thus ambiguous.
So, in summary: You cannot ignore the double date notation.
- You will find primary (and secondary) sources that used them
- Without some clue, some of your dates will be ambiguous and your readers -- You do expect to have readers, yes? -- will be unable to determine what you meant. Acceptable clues include:
- double date notation,
- OS and NS notation,
- a blanket statement prominently displayed that explains your date notations precisely, e.g. that all dates are NS (a common strategy).
Where should you seek data? If you have done any poking
around the web at all, you already know that there is no shortage of websites
devoted to genealogy! It is easy to suffer from "data overload". As if
that were not enough, there are a number of other source media besides
People have been publishing genealogy related material for a very
long time so there are several different kinds of published data that you
might encounter. Here are some terms that you might run across:
In the sections that follow, I will only list a selection of available
sources, leaving to you the pleasure of discovering your own favorites!
Ahnentafel (Ger. ancestor table)
A genealogical report format wherein one person's ancestors are tabulated
in successive antecedent generations.
The Sosa-Stradonitz numbering system
for such reports.
An account or exposition of the descendants from an ancestor or, conversely,
the enumerating of one's ancestors, with careful attention to the relationships.
In a published genealogy, in any of the various media, someone has done
all the work and laid everything out, usually in an orderly fashion.
There is no standard format, and every author seems to have designed
An offer, usually by a volunteer, to perform a lookup service in a particular
resource owned by, e.g. a particular book, or conveniently located near,
such as a courthouse, the one making the offer. These kind folks are like
gold; Treat them nicely. Don't forget to say "Thank you" -- even if she
couldn't find what you were looking for! You should offer to reimburse
all out-of pocket expenses, too!
One important aspect of a genealogy report is the manner in which individuals
are identified, usually by number. Far from a trivial subject, the numbering
method can greatly enhance or impair the utility of a report. The definitive
essay is Richard A. Pence's Numbering
Systems in Genealogy, which describes and discusses the relative
merits of most known systems.
Primary source - see Sources
Record report format
The descent report format adopted by the National Genealogical Society
(NGS) for its Quarterly publication, The Record, a/k/a Modified Register
Register report format
The descendant report format adopted by the New England Historic and Genealogical
Society for their publication, The Register
The house publication of the New England Historic Genealogical Society.
A published genealogy or other work which has been reissued. There are
publishing houses that specialize in reprints of genealogical subjects,
such as Higginson Book Company.
Secondary source - see Sources
These articles provides a good
overview of source quality:
Sources are often categorized by their degree of removal from the event(s) documented.
Sources closer to the event are considered superior to those of further removal.
- primary source
- Birth certificate, marriage licence, etc.
- secondary source
- A work for which the author has consulted chiefly primary sources in its creation.
- tertiary source
- A work for which the author has consulted chiefly secondary sources in its creation.
Tertiary source - see Sources
Note that the contents of these sites are not indexed by the web search
engines for the simple reason that the engines haven't paid the fees required
for access, so they cannot index the sites. Therefore these sites usually
provide their own, private search facility.
(GLC) - a collection of over 2800 books.
They have recently stopped adding new books, it seems.
Titles include Savage's Dictionary, Jacobus' History and Genealogy
of the Families of Old Fairfield. Books are for the most part copyright-expired
and in the public domain -- meaning "old". Search function. Has a history of access problems.
Expensive, but worth it.
Ancestry.com has a smaller collection
of books and records, some of which are free, but the best ones require
a "premium" membership. As they add new databases (or books), they initially
have free access for a week.
Many publishing houses offer both hardcopy books and books on CD-ROM. Given
a choice, I will always opt for the real book. I have yet to see an electronic
book viewer, CD or otherwise, that is as useful and convenient as a nicely
bound and printed book. Nevertheless, here are some CD publishers:
Perhaps best known is Brøderbund's World
Family Tree (WFT) collection. These are not books, per se, but
family trees contributed by users of their genealogical program, Family
Tree Maker (FTM), which is required for viewing the trees. As such, they
are not reviewed, meaning that any given tree could be a total fiction.
Each CD contains several thousand trees, each of which may contain any
number of individuals, from just a few to tens of thousands. The collection
now numbers in the fifties, I think. You can buy the CDs or subscribe to
the entire collection for online use by the month or by the year. Their
online search engine
includes these and a number of other sources in its domain.
of Tisbury, MA - a fine collection of historical records related to
the town of Tisbury, Dukes County, Massachusetts and the island of Martha's
Library - the text of works authored by people in the [Tisbury] database
and other early Colonial documents. This gem is buried on the Tisbury site.
You would never find it except with a search engine!
It is best to cultivate familiarity with several search engines, because
no single one covers all of the web! RefDesk.com has probably the
most complete list of extant
A web ring is an association of related websites who band together and
provide a mechanism to navigate the entire collection of member sites.
You will find rings devoted to virtually any topic you can imagine, including
non-specific genealogy rings, specific surname rings, and rings organized
geographically. You will usually see the very stylized navigation ports
at or near the bottom of a page, looking somewhat like this:
This ______ Web Ring
is owned by ______
Prev | Next 5 | Random | Next | Skip Next
List of Sites in Ring
I have discovered some sites on web rings that I probably would not
have found in any other way. A website can belong to any number of different
Errors and Fraud
There are a plethora of societies eager to take your money
and sign you up as a member. Some of these are well known historical and/or
genealogical societies, usually open to anyone, while others are restricted
to members who are able to prove certain ancestries. You can easily find
yourself paying many hundreds of dollars in annual dues! Before joining
-- or applying for membership in -- any such organization, you should carefully
weigh the benefits, if any, against the cost.
Benefits to look for:
Some societies that you should consider joining:
Access to a private library
Subscription to a respected house periodical
Discounts on their or other publications
A national organization, such as the National Genealogical Society,
A regional society, of the region where your research is concentrated,
such as the New England Historic Genealogical Society, NEHGS
State or county genealogical or historical societies for the areas of your
research, but only if they have a robust memberships. Some county GS are
If your ancestors had a strong presence in certain towns, you should consider
seeking out and joining the associated genealogical or historical society
for those towns. These may be your best sources!
Now that you have accumulated some data, what will you
do with it? Do you plan to keep it to yourself? I hope not! Here are some
guidelines about what to publish: Standards
For Sharing Information With Others, recommended by the National
Genealogical Society (NGS).
Where can you find space for your website?
GEDcom to HTML translators
There are quite a number of these. In addition to producing the HTML files
for your website, many of them can also create an index file for use with
Roll your own
These allow people with personal websites to submit index information to
a central location where researches can look up names and find pointers
to the website pages where the sought names appear. The central location
doesn't contain the data, just the indices to the data, which actually
resides on submitters' websites.
Gene Stark's GENDEX:
a free index database, the accumulation of submitted indices produced by,
e.g., Stark's GED2HTML program. 15 million names claimed.
There are a number of organizations that will accept and store your data,
usually in GEDCOM form, and publish it for you on their website. Most provide
this service for free, the resulting database providing a lure for potential
customers of their products. As long as they don't charge for access to
data you freely provided, I see no harm at all in this practice. The host
controls access and presentation format.
Features to look for:
Some examples: (all free)
A good search engine for the accumulated data.
A pleasing and useful presentation format for the data
Can users download copies of your data in convenient form, e.g. GEDcom?
Some databases let you specify if you wish this to be allowed or not.
- A new service which is growing rapidly.
(I have started uploading my data here to give it more visibility.)
- Simple to use
- Global search
- Names also indexed in GENDEX
- Unique matching feature shows which individuals in other GenCircles users' files
may be a match to yours.
- Ancestry World Tree
- by Ancestry.com, claims 79 million names.
- Dave Wilks' free GEDcom server
- claims only about 250,000 names, but I like the presentation format, and the access
is quite speedy. The indexing is by GENDEX, which
rolls your data into all the rest available in that index, for a total
of more than 15 million names claimed.
- FTM Home Pages
- at RootsWeb.
Claims 46 million names, and the display formats are quite nice, including
pedigrees and descents.
Several options come to mind:
Click here for a list of providers.
G. Summary of external links
- Ancestry World Tree
- Dave Wilkes' free GEDcom server
- Electronic Book Publishing Service