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Arms Driscoll DNA Project
Haplogroups
DNA

The Driscoll Results by Haplogroup and Clade

A clade is a subgroup within a haplogroup consisting of a progenitor and all his descendants. To simplify by way of analogy, a haplogroup could be a ggggg-grandfather and all his male descendants are the haplotypes. A clade could be defined as any one of his grandsons and all those males descended from that grandson. More complete definitions follow. The links in the list below lead to Driscoll results.

Haplotype

A haplotype is the specific genetic signature of a person's DNA. The set of numbers in the table below illustrates a 37 marker haplotype for a man named Fineen.

ID D
Y
S
3
9
3
D
Y
S
3
9
0
D
Y
S
1
9
D
Y
S
3
9
1
D
Y
S
3
8
5
D
Y
S
4
2
6
D
Y
S
3
8
8
D
Y
S
4
3
9
D
Y
S
3
8
9
i
D
Y
S
3
9
2
D
Y
S
3
8
9
i
i
D
Y
S
4
5
8
D
Y
S
4
5
9
D
Y
S
4
5
5
D
Y
S
4
5
4
D
Y
S
4
4
7
D
Y
S
4
3
7
D
Y
S
4
4
8
D
Y
S
4
4
9
D
Y
S
4
6
4
D
Y
S
4
6
0
Y
-
G
A
T
A
-
H
4
Y
C
A
I
I
D
Y
S
4
5
6
D
Y
S
6
0
7
D
Y
S
5
7
6
D
Y
S
5
7
0
C
D
Y
D
Y
S
4
4
2
D
Y
S
4
3
8
Fineen 13 23 14 11 11-14 12 12 11 13 13 30 16 9-10 11 11 25 16 20 29 15-15-17-18 11 11 19-23 16 15 19 16 37-37 13 13

Haplogroup

A haplogroup is the set of haplotypes sharing a common characteristic. All persons within a specific haplogroup share a common ancestor. The relationship between different haplogroups is slowly being worked out, forming a family tree of mankind as a whole. To date there are 21 primary haplogroups A throughT and numerous subgroups. The diagram below is a simplification for clarity, an accepted standard for the complete tree is maintained by the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) and found on their page:Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree.

A person's haplogroup is determined by SNP tests. In many instances a person's haplogroup can be predicted by the existence of key markers in the haplotype. Another prediction method is to look at the haplogroup of closely related persons. In this project persons are subgrouped by haplogroup be it known or predicted.

Tree

Clade

A clade is a subgroup within a haplogroup consisting of a progenitor and all his descendants. To simplify by way of analogy, a haplogroup could be a ggggg-grandfather and all his male descendants are the haplotypes. A clade could be defined as any one of his grandsons and all those males descended from that grandson. In this project subgroupings by haplogroup are further divided by clades based either on marker patterns in the haplotypes or a common denominator among related persons.

SNP

SNP is an abbreviation for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. For the typical project participant the details beyond that are not particularly important. What is important to know is that the existence of an SNP mutation can be measured in someone's DNA and that is the parameter that defines one's Haplogroup. The subject is confusing because label names vary by vendor, new SNP mutations are discovered that need to be incorporated and the differences between predicted, tested and terminal SNP mutations are confusing in an of themselves. The diagram below is an abbreviated diagram illustrating some of the terminology.

Terminal

myFTDNA Match List

The chart below is an example of a myFTDNA match list. Two frequently asked questions are (1) why does my match include people of different haplogroups and (2) how can I be classified as say DF21 when nobody in my match list is DF21? Answers:

  1. When no terminal SNP is shown such as for Tom, the haplogroup is an FTDNA prediction that typically falls short of the actual haplogroup. Harry on the other hand is known to be positive for L21 and thus his haplogroup is shown as R-L21 and his terminal SNP is L21. Since Tom, Dick and Harry are so closely related the probably are all R-L21.
  2. Project predictions are able to use marker patterns, paper trails, results in other projects and tests done at other labs. As a results a project predicted haplogroup can be downstream of both FTDNA predicted haplogroups and tested haplogroups.
Match List

References

  1. ISOGG Wiki
  2. Haplotype, Genetic Distance, TMRCA tables (with these mutation rates) and PHYLIP compatible input tables on this site were generated using McGee's Y-DNA Comparison Utility.
  3. Phylogenetic trees on this site were created using MEGA
  4. Network diagrams were created using Network.
  5. Clade and interclade TMRCA were computed using Generations111T.xlsx

This page was last modified: Thursday, 04-Dec-2014 20:52:08 MST

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