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Group 2 Genetic Analysis
Descendants of Archibald & James Stark, & Dr. Richard Starke
     
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Page 1

 

Report 1: G2 Y-DNA Results Analysis

 

 

Introduction

About 75 to 100 years after the arrival of Aaron Stark [1608-1685] in Connecticut, three men with the surnames Stark and Starke arrived in New Hampshire and Virginia. Their names were Dr. Richard Starke of York Co., Virginia, James Stark of Stafford Co., Virginia, and Archibald Stark of New Hampshire (father of General John Stark of Revolutionary War fame). Earlier genealogical research has not been able to determine if these three men were related. However, independent research of each of these men has suggested the ancestral home of each could have been in or near Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland. Many of the early Stark family researchers had claimed the Aaron Stark family and these three men were somehow related. Y-DNA comparisons of the Modal Haplotype of Group 1a & 1b Members — descendants of Aaron Stark — to the Modal Haplotype of Group 2a, 2b, & 2c Members; reveal they have a genetic distance of 17 over their respective Modal H37 Haplotypes. The odds greatly favor Members of Group 1 and members of Group 2 could not have shared a common male ancestor within thousands of years, thereby eliminating the possibility Aaron Stark was a near relative of these three later arrivals to America within Genealogical time. 

The usage of surnames did not become common until the 13th and 14th centuries. By the year 1400, surname usage had become common practice. As a general rule of relatedness within Genealogical time, the following will discuss the probability that two individuals shared a common ancestor within 20 generations. A conservative probability of 80% or greater — for the purposes of this discussion — will be considered sufficient to declare that any two individuals compared; having the surname Stark or one of it's derivatives; most likely have a common ancestor that lived after the year 1400.

This population of individuals have been variously tested over Panel 1 (Markers 1-12), Panel 2 (Markers 13-25), and Panel 3 (Markers 26-37) as will be presented in the Genetic Results Table. One or more participants can have the same haplotype over any combination of these Panels . For the purposes of this discussion, the most common haplotype over a selected group of DYS Markers will be referred to as the G2 Modal Haplotype.

 

Terminology

Before we begin, here are some explanations of common terms used in this summary.

 

Allele Values:  

A DNA sequence that repeats at a certain locus or place. The allele value is the number of times the sequence repeats. (Pronounced uh-LEEL)

DYS Markers:  

(DNA Y-chromosome Segment number): The "name" of a marker on the Y-chromosome. It is assigned based on a nomenclature system controlled by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, which assigns DYS numbers to newly discovered markers. DYS markers have "allele values" which are observed from DNA samples supplied to a laboratory by the Program Members. In our analysis, there will be 37 total DYS markers discussed. DYS-393 is the first marker followed by DYS-390, etc; until the last marker designated as DYS-438.

Haplotype:  

A haplotype is defined as a collection of two or more DYS markers (DNA Y-chromosome Segment number). Our DYS Markers have been organized into three separate haplotypes identified as numbered "Panels." For example, DYS Markers 1 through 12 would be Panel 1; DYS Markers 13 through 25 would be Panel 2; and DYS Markers 26 through 37 would be Panel 3. The collection of DYS Allele values in each Panel or any combination of these panels represent a haplotype for each of the Members. {Return to Text}

Lineage:  

Each Member has submitted his genealogically researched direct male lineage to Aaron Stark. It is presumed these are accurate and have been properly researched. The lineages of all participants are presented in the Members Genealogical Lineage Table. Use Back Button to return to this text. 

 

 

Analysis of the Y-DNA of Descendants of Archibald, James, and Richard has proven their descendants most likely genetically share an unknown common ancestor within genealogical time. Members of Group 2 have been variously tested over the H12, H25, and H37 haplotypes. Following are Descriptions of Group 2 subgroups.

 

G2a: Descendants of Dr. Richard Starke [1668-1704] of York Co., VA

G2b: Descendants of Archibald Stark of Manchester Co., NH

G2c: Descendants of James Stark [1695-1754] of Stafford Co., VA

G2d: Descendants of James Stark [1695-1754] of Stafford Co., VA / Genealogy Incomplete

G2e: Genetic Matches to Groups 2a, 2b, & 2c with Different Surnames

 

 

 

Page 2

 

G2 Genetic Results Table

The following Genetic Results Table presents the allele values available over 12 to 37 DYS Markers for each of the members results presented. Cells with this background color report DYS Marker allele values equivalent to the G2 Modal Haplotype.  Descendants of Dr. Richard Starke [1664-1704] are presented in G2a; descendants of Archibald Stark [1693-1758] of Hew Hampshire are presented in G2b; and descendants of James Stark [1695-1754] of Stafford County, Virginia are presented in G2c. In the Kit # column for each member, will be the kit3 for that individual. Under his kit# will be the subgroup and "Letter Code ID" for each Member used when discussing genetic comparisons. [For example, Under the kit # for N21529 will be G2a (G2 Subgroup) / A (Letter Code ID) or G2a/A. The Letter Code ID will be used in genetic comparisons. [For example, genetic comparison of Member A to Member B)

For the purpose of this report, a Mutation occurs in a DYS Marker column when an allele value differs from the Modal Haplotype allele value in that column. For example, in Panel 1 (Markers 1 thru 12), all of the allele values in the Marker 1 column are 13 — resulting in no observed mutations in this column. However, in the Marker 2 column, the allele value 24 occurs more often than the allele value 23. Therefore, Members B, C, and D — having the allele value 23 in the Marker 2 column — have their Marker 2 allele values highlighted in yellow; indicating each has a Marker 2 mutation relative to the Modal Haplotype allele value of 24. This method of determining mutations results in a minimum number of mutations for the population tested.

According to FTDNA, those DYS Markers labeled in RED have a higher mutation rate than those Markers not labeled in Red.

To review the lineage of any Member, clicking  on the "Kit#" will take you to a more complete lineage report. If the Allele value in the Marker 37 column is presented with a Red colored font, this member has genetic results beyond 37 markers. Clicking on the Kit# will take you to a presentation of those additional DYS markers.

Haplogroup R-M269 is a shorthand notation for Haplogroup R1b1a2. Red colored font for a member's haplogroup indicates a FTDNA prediction which has not been confirmed.

If the Allele value in the Marker 37 column is presented with a Red colored font, this member has genetic results beyond 37 markers. These results are  presented on the 67 Marker Y-DNA Test Results Web page.

 

Group 2 Y-DNA Results Table

 

 

Panel 1 (1-12) Haplotype

Panel 2 (13-25) Haplotype

Panel 3 (26-37) Haplotype
Marker #

<====> 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
K
I
T
#
H
a
p
l
o
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a

3
8
5
b

4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9

3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8

4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9

4
6
4
a

4
6
4
b

4
6
4
c

4
6
4
d

4
6
0
G
A
T
A
H
4
Y
C
A
I
I
a
Y
C
A
I
I
b
4
5
6

6
0
7
5
7
6

5
7
0

C
D
Y
a

C
D
Y
b

4
4
2

4
3
8

G2 Modal Haplotype R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

N21529

G2a/A1a

R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 35 36 12 12

94630

G2b/B1a

R-M269

13 23 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29                                                  

95073

G2b/B1b

R-M269

13 23 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29                                                  

25347

G2b/B2a

R-M269

13 23 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 19 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 35 36 12 12

74402

G2c/C1a

R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

260109

G2c/C1b

R-M269 13 25 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 16 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

84342

G2c/C2a

R-M269

13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 17 18 36 36 12 12

171929

G2c/C2b

R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

76284

G2c/C2c

R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 13 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 16 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

136832

G2c/C2d

R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 16 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12
315853
G2c/C2e
R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

76964

G2c/C2f

R-M269

13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29                                                  

115705

G2c/C3a

R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 13 15 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 19 18 35 36 12 12
338943
G2c/C4a
R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12
339097
G2c/C4b
R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

115170

G2d/D1a

R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

241988

G2d/D2a

R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12
245962
G2d/D2b
R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

A-Private

G2d/D2c

R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 11 19 23 15 --- --- --- --- --- 12 12

175209

G2d/D3a

R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 12 13 28 18 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12
N6868
G2e/E1a
R-L21 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 19 36 36 12 12
226545
G2e/E2a
R-M269 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12
B6603
G2e/E3a
R-DF21 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

 

  

 

 

Page 3

 

Group 2: Genealogical Lineage Table

The Group 2 Lineage Table shows the direct male line from the Kit Number to the earliest known ancestor for that kit. Reading from right to left, the earliest known Ancestor of each member of Group 2 is shown in the left columns (Gen 9 & Gen 10). Dr. Richard Starke and John Stark III of Killermont are the earliest known ancestors reported in the Gen 10 column. James Stark of Stafford, County, VA is the earliest known ancestor in the Gen 9 column. The common ancestor of all members of Group 2 is not known with certainty. The Group 2 Genetic Genealogy Report suggests William Stark of Dullutur [1520-1575] may have been the common ancestor of all — but proof of descent from William needs further genealogical research.

You will note that the participants in Group 2 cover three generations (Gen 0, Gen 1, & Gen 2). The youngest are in Gen 0; the Parent Generation of Gen 0 would be Gen 1; and the grandparent Generation would be Gen 2.

The right most column shows the Panels tested for the member in that row and the number of mismatches in each Panel — relevant to Kit #74402 (In Gen 1 of Row E). Click on the Kit # for a more detailed report for each participant and his ancestors. Use your back button to return to this page.

 

Group 2 Genealogical Lineage Table
Gen 10 Gen 9 Gen 8 Gen 7 Gen 6 Gen 5 Gen 4 Gen 3 Gen 2 Gen 1 Gen 0 Gen -1

Panels

Mismatches

ID

Dr. Richard

Starke

1668-1704

William

1692-1755

Richard

1734-1772

Lewis

????-1815

William A.

????-1829

Peter B.

1816-1888

William E.

1877-1950

Father

N21529

N21529 -------- ------ -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(1)

A1a

John Stark III

of Killermont

1655-17??

m.

Jean McCutcheon

(1683)

Archibald

1693-1758

General John

1728-1822

John, Jr.

1763-1844

Gradus B.

1785-1864

Leonard

1818-1898

Leonard S.

1847-1913

Fred C.

1877-1960

Father

94630

94630 ------- -------

P1

(1)

B1a

John C.

1907-1975

Father

95073

95073

-------

P1

(1)

B1b

William S.

1724-1776

Thomas S.

1767-????

Rodney G.

1809-1876

Lewis H.

1841-1898

Frederick L.

1875-1969

Father

25347

25347

------

------

-------

P1/P2/P3

(1)/(1)/(1)

B2a
--------

James Stark

Stafford Co., VA

1695-1754

James

1719-1761

James

1747-1829

James

1778-1853

Hebron R.

1802-1870

Strother J.

1842-1912

Daniel H.

1873-1933

Father

74402

74402 ------ -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(0)

C1a
William
1773-1815
Weeden S.
1799-1870
Gideon
1827-1887
Charles B.
1855-1915
Charles G.
1881-1953
Grandfather Father 260109

P1/P2/P3

(1)/(1)/(0)

C1b

Jeremiah

1722-1825

Thomas

1770-1824

John W.

1810-1870

John B.

1839-1908

Henry C.

1879-1952

Father

84342

84342 --------- ------- -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)(1)

C2a

Dallas A.

1886-1958

Father

171929

171929 --------- ------- -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(0)

C2b

John C.

1748-1814

Alexander

1782-1845

Coleman

1805-abt 1865

Joseph B.

1844-1887

Eugene A.

1870-1928

Father

76284

76284 ------- -------

P1/P2/P3

(1)/(1)/(0)

C2c
John
1811-1870

Henry

1840-1875

George W.

1871-1945

Reuben H.

1896-1966

Father

136832

136832 -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(2)/(0)

C2d
Richard Stark Short 1874-1943 Father
Private
315853 ------- -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(0)

C2e

James

1774-1866

Jeremiah

1810-1878

Seymore

1850-1932

Russell S.

1885-????

Father

76964

76964

--------

------- -------

P1

(0)

C2f

Thomas

1721-1802

Jeremiah

1749-1824

James

1775-1852

Thomas G.

1801-1862

Nehemiah V.

1832-1914

George A.

1866-1926

Albert H.

1891-1956

Father

115705

115705

-------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(1)/(2)

C3a
William
1723-1772
John
1761-1824
Thomas M.
1798-1851
William
1841-1911
Wallace
1867-1930
Willie B.
1894-1955
Father
338943
338943 ------- -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(0

C4a
Williamson P.
1838-1886
Charles
1880-1936
Father
338097
339097 --------- ------- -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(0

C4b
?-------? ?-------? ?-------? ?-------? ?-------? ?-------? ?-------?

Father

115170

115170 -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(0)

D1a
?-------? ?-------? ?-------? Abner
1795-1836
William
1827-1855
Charles T.
1854-1933
Jasper N.
1881-1952
Father
241988
241988 -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(0)

D2a
Franklin E.
1893-1951
Father
245962
245962 -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(0)

D2b
Thomas H.
1829-1863
Private Private Father
A-Private
A-Private -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)(1)

D2c
?-------? ?-------? ?-------?

Thomas J.

1815-1870

John P.

1843-1877

William P.

1868-1957

George W.

1915-1987

Father

175209

175209 -------

P1/P2/P3

(1)/(1)/(0)

D3a

 

 

 

Page 4

 

Haplotype Nomenclature

In the following analysis the Panel 1 Haplotype will be designated as H12; Panel 1 combined with Panel 2 will be designated H25; and Panel 1 combined with Panel 2 combined with Panel 3 will be designated H37

 

Analysis of the H12 Haplotypes

Table 2 identifies a number of unique H12 Haplotypes. H12-1 is the most common haplotype and also is the same as the H12 Ancestral Haplotype. All members having H12-1 were a perfect match to each other and exhibited no mutations.  The lesser occurring profiles will be compared to this group of haplotypes defined as H12-1.1

Table 2 identifies four unique H12 Haplotypes; H12-1 being the most common haplotype. All members having H12-1 were a perfect match to each other and exhibited no mutations;   Members B, C, and D each have an allele value of 23 at Marker 2 and represent H12- 2; Member G has an allele value of 13 at Marker 9 and represents H12- 3. Member L has an allele value of 12 at Marker 10 and an allele value of 28 at Marker 12; representing H12- 4.

The lesser occurring H12 Haplotypes will now be genetically compared to H12-1.1

 

 

 

Table 2

H12

Haplotypes

 

Panel 1 (1-12) Haplotype

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a

3
8
5
b

4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9

3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
H12-1 (10) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29
H12-2 (3) 13 23 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29
H12-3 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 13 13 13 29
H12-4 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 12 13 28

 

H12-1:

Comparisons of those with H12-1 to each other results in a 87.07% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within the last 20 generations. Members with H12-1 descending from Dr. Richard Starke A. Members with H12-1 descending from James Stark are: E, F, F1, H, I, J, K & N. This suggests men with the surname Stark or Starke having H12-1 have a common ancestor who lived between 10 and 20 generations earlier. Although the genealogy of J & K is incomplete, their partial genealogy suggests they are most likely descendants of James Stark. The genealogy of N is not known at this time and his surname is Kelly. 

H12-2:

Comparisons of those with H12-2 to those having H12-1 results in a 59.32% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The members with H12-2 are: B, C, & D. All are descendants of Archibald Stark. If those having H12-2 are compared to each other, there is a 87.07% probability they have a common ancestor who lived within the last 20 generations. However, the comparisons to the H12-1 members yields a probability that is insufficient in value to determine the relatedness of the H12-1 Members to the H12-2 Members. 

H12-3:

Comparison of the Member with H12-3 to those having H12-1 results in a 57.13% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within the last 20 generations. The participant with this profile is G. This Member is a descendant of James Stark. The comparison to H12-1 yields a probability that is insufficient in value to determine the relatedness of the H12-1 participants to the H12-3 Member. 

H12-4

Comparison of the Member with H12-4 to those having H12-1 results in a 59.66% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within the last 20 generations. The participant with this profile is L. This Member is most likely a descendant of James Stark. Observe the H12-1 Haplotype has the allele values of 13 and 29 at Markers 10 & 12 respectively. The H12-4 Haplotype has the values 12 & 28 at these same Markers. When a DYS- 389-1 (Marker 10) and DYS-389-2 (Marker 12) comparison yields a difference at both of these markers, they can represent a mutation of 1 rather than 2 if the mutation is plus 1 at both markers or - 1 at both markers. In this case, the mutation is -1 at both Markers relative to the H12-1 Haplotype. Therefore, this comparison yields a genetic distance of 1 over the H12 Haplotype.

 

While there is sufficient genetic evidence to establish relatedness in comparisons within each of the H12 haplotypes, the comparisons of H12-1 to H12-2, H12-3, & H12-4 cannot resolve relatedness between these members without additional genetic data. Nor can comparisons of H12-2, H12-3, and H12-4 to each other resolve relatedness between these Members. However, genetic results over the H25 and H37 haplotypes will later determine B, C, D, G, and L are related to those members having H12-1.

Future participants genetically tested having the surname Stark and having H12-1 — most likely will be descendants of one of the men who are presently the common ancestor of Subgroups 2A, 2B, & 2C. New members joining the program having H12-2, H12-3 & H12-4 could also be descendants of these men. However, it is suggested new members having these Haplotypes upgrade their test to include the Panel 2 DYS Markers (13 through 25) to confirm their relatedness to members tested over these additional Markers.

_____

1)

The time predictor used for all of the following comparisons is furnished by Family Tree DNA and referred to as FTDNATiP™. The FTDNATiP™ results are based on the mutation rate study presented during the 1st International Conference on Genetic Genealogy, on Oct. 30, 2004. The probabilities calculated take into consideration the mutation rates for each individual marker being compared. For more information, click HERE.

 

Analysis of the H25 Haplotypes

Table 3 identifies a number of unique Haplotypes when the Panel 1 and Panel 2  haplotypes are combined (H25 Haplotype).  Haplotype H25-1 is the most common haplotype and all members having H25-1 were a perfect match to each.

 

 

Table 3

H25 Haplotypes

 

Panel 1 (1-12) Haplotype

Panel 2 (13-25) Haplotype

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a

3
8
5
b

4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9

3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8

4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9

4
6
4
a

4
6
4
b

4
6
4
c

4
6
4
d

H25-1 (7) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17
H25-2 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 16 17
H25-3 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 13 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 16 17
H25-4 (1) 13 23 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 19 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17
H25-5 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 13 15 17
H25-6 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 12 13 28 18 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17

 

The lesser occurring H25 haplotypes will be compared to the H12-1 haplotype.

 

 

H25-1:

Comparisons of those with H25-1 to each other results in a 99.12% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H25-1 descending from Dr. Richard Stark is A. The Members descending from James Stark are: E, F, F1, & K. This suggests men with the surname Stark having H25-1 are most likely descendants of James. They could also be descendants of Richard; but results from only one descendant of Richard are insufficient to make this determination with confidence.

H25-2:

Comparisons of the Member with H25-2 to those having H25-1 results in a 82.75% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member descending from James having H25-2 is J. This degrades the 87.07% probability comparison of G to E, F, & K observed in the H12-1 haplotype . However, J continues to be related to these members because of his H12-1 perfect match.

H25-3:

Comparisons of the participant with H25-3 to those having H25-1 results in a 82.84% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H25-3 is G. This comparison improves the genetic probability this descendant of James is related to the other members of Group 2 who descend from James. 

H25-4:

Comparison of the Member with H25-4 to those having H25-1 results in a 83.4% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H25-4 is D. This Member is a descendant of Archibald. Relatedness was questionable in the H12 haplotypes that descendants of Archibald were related to descendants of Richard and James. However, with the addition of the Panel 2 markers, the genetic probability has improved.

H25-5:

Comparison of the Member with H25-5 to those having H25-1 results in a 94.77% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H25-5 is I. This Member is a descendant of James. Markers 21 through 25 are the results of Multi-copy Marker 464. FTDNA counts a difference in allele at one or more of these markers as one mutation. Therefore, the differences at Markers 23 and 24 count as a genetic distance of 1 in this comparison to the H12-1 Haplotype; rather than a Genetic distance of 4.

H25-6:

Comparison of the Member with H25-6 to those having H25-1 results in a 85.08% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H25-6 is L. This Member is most likely a descendant of James Stark. Observe the H25-1 Haplotype has the allele values of 13 and 29 at Markers 10 & 12 respectively. The H25-6 Haplotype has the values 12 & 28 at these same Markers. When a DYS- 389-1 (Marker 10) and DYS-389-2 (Marker 12) comparison yields a difference at both of these markers, they can represent a mutation of 1 rather than 2 if the mutation is plus 1 at both markers or - 1 at both markers. In this case, the mutation is -1 at both Markers relative to the H12-1 Haplotype. Therefore, this comparison yields a genetic distance of 1 related to Markers 10 and 12 and an additional genetic distance of 1 due to the Marker 15 mutation for a total genetic distance of 2 in this H25 comparison.

 

H25-1 provides sufficient genetic confidence that the descendant of Richard Starke is related to two descendants of James.  Therefore, Richard and James have a common ancestor who could have lived between 1500 and 1668 (the birth year of Richard). The probability of one descendant of James (H25-3) was much improved when markers 13 thru 25 were added for comparison, but was just above the 80% threshold desired to establish relatedness. The same applies for the descendant of James (H25-2) and the descendant of Archibald (H25-4). H25-5 & H25-6 provides sufficient evidence Members I and L are descendants of James and related to the descendants of Richard Starke and James Stark represented in the H25-1 haplotype.

 

    

 

 

Page 5

 

Analysis of the H37 Haplotypes

Table 4 identifies a number of unique H37 haplotypes when the markers of Panels 1, 2 & 3 are combined.

 

Table 4

H37

Haplotypes

 

Panel 1 (1-12) Haplotype

Panel 2 (13-25) Haplotype

Panel 3 (26-37) Haplotype
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a

3
8
5
b

4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9

3
8
9
-
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
-
2
4
5
8

4
5
9
a

4
5
9
b

4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9

4
6
4
a

4
6
4
b

4
6
4
c

4
6
4
d

4
6
0
G
A
T
A
H
4
Y
C
A
I
I
a
Y
C
A
I
I
b
4
5
6

6
0
7
5
7
6

5
7
0

C
D
Y
a

C
D
Y
b

4
4
2

4
3
8

H37-1 (4) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12
H37-2 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 17 18 36 36 12 12
H37-3 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 35 36 12 12
H37-4 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 13 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 16 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12
H37-5 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 16 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12
H37-6 (1) 13 23 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 19 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 35 36 12 12
H37-7 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 13 15 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 19 18 35 36 12 12
H37-8 (1) 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 12 13 28 18 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 30 13 15 17 17 11 10 19 23 15 15 18 18 36 36 12 12

 

Referring to the Genetic Results Table, three members of Group 2 (E, F1, & K) had no mutations over all 37 markers and are a perfect match. This repeating Haplotype has been assigned H37-1 as presented in Table 4. When E, F1, and K are compared to each other, there is a 99.99% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within the last 20 generations. 

 

 

H37-1:

H37-2 through H37-7 were compared to H37-1 which had no mutations over 37 markers. The Members with this profile are E, F1, K & N; probable descendants of  James Stark. The lineage of E and F1 is known; but that of K and N is not known at this time.

H37-2:

Comparison of the Member with H37-2 to those with H37-1 results in a 99.86%% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with this profile is F. This further confirms the relatedness of this descendant of James to another descendant of James, as suggested by the genealogical research.

H37-3:

Comparison of the Member with H37-3 to to those with H37-1 results in a 99.83% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H37-3 is A. This Member is a descendant of Richard. This further confirms the relatedness of this descendant of Richard to a descendant of James. This genetically confirms that James and Richard share a common ancestor who lived before Richard, although the genealogical research has not been able to confirm the name or relationship of this common ancestor.

H37-4:

Comparison of the Member with H37-4 to those with H37-1 results in a 99.33% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H37-4 is G. This participant is a descendant of James. This further confirms the relatedness of this descendant of James to another descendant of James, as suggested by the genealogical research.

H37-5:

Comparison of the Member with H37-5 to those with H37-1 results in a 99.33% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H37-5 is J. This confirms J is related to the other members of Group 2 and most likely is a descendant of James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia. The genealogy of G back to James is only partially known at this time.

H37-6:

Comparison of the Member with H37-6 to those with H37-1 results in a 96.78% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H37-6 is D. This Member is a descendant of Archibald. This further confirms the relatedness of this descendant of Archibald to descendants of James and Richard. Archibald, James and Richard have a common ancestor who lived before Richard, although the genealogical research has not been able to confirm the name or relationship of this common ancestor.

H37-7:

Comparison of the Member with H37-7 to those with H37-1 results in a 96.24% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H37-7 is I and is a descendant of James.

H37-8:

Comparison of the Member with H37-8 to those with H37-1 results in a 99.43% probability they share a common ancestor who lived within 20 generations. The Member with H37-8 is L. The lineage of L is only partially complete but suggests he is a descendant of James Stark.

 

These comparisons confirm descendants of James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia, Dr. Richard Starke of York County, Virginia, and Archibald Stark of New Hampshire have a common ancestor who most likely lived after the calendar year 1500 and before the birth of Richard in 1668. 

 

Conclusions

Genealogical research suggests E is a descendant of James Stark. The perfect H37-1 match of E, F1, & K suggests K is most likely also a descendant of James; but his genealogy is not known at this time. The H12-1 haplotype of E is a perfect match to F, F1, H, I, J, & K. Therefore, all of these Members are genetically related and most likely share James as a common ancestor; as suggested by the genealogical research. The H37-1 haplotype comparison of E to the H37-4 haplotype of G and the H37-8 Haplotype of L was required to genetically confirm G & L  shared a common ancestor with E within 20 generations  — therefore, confirming all of the descendants of James Stark in Group 2 are related although the genealogy is not complete for Members J, K, and L.

The H37-1 haplotype comparison of E to H37-3 haplotype of A genetically confirms descendants of James Stark and Dr. Richard Starke share a common ancestor who lived after the calendar year 1500. Therefore, all of the descendants of James Stark are related to descendants of Richard Starke — the genealogical research unable to determine the name or relationship of their common ancestor.

The H37-1 haplotype comparison of the E to the H37-6 haplotype of D genetically confirms descendants of James Stark share a common ancestor with descendants of Archibald Stark who lived after the calendar year 1500. The H12-2 haplotype comparison of descendants of Archibald Stark revealed they were a perfect match to each other (see Table 2, H12-2) — confirming all of the descendants of Archibald are related to each other and most likely share Archibald as a common ancestor. If D shares a common ancestor with the descendants of James Stark as described above, then D also shares a common ancestor with the descendants of Richard Starke who lived after the calendar year 1500. It then follows that if D is related to descendants of James and Richard; therefore, B & C are related to these same descendants.

The H12-1 haplotype could be a genetic profile identifying future participants who descend from James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia. H12-3 (G) may be a genetic profile identifying descendants of John Carter Stark, a grandson of James Stark. The mutation at Marker 439 could have occurred with the birth of John Carter or with the birth of any direct males from John Carter to G. More descendants of John Carter Stark will need to be tested to confirm in which generation this mutation occurred.

The above analysis has shown all members of Group 2 share a common ancestor who lived within the last 20 generations (lived after the calendar year 1500). This suggests James, Richard and Archibald most likely have a common ancestor who lived previous to their generations (at least before 1668, the approximate birth year of Richard). Genealogical research will be required to identify this common ancestor of all members of Group 2.

Earlier genealogical research (undocumented) suggested Archibald and James were brothers and Dr. Richard Stark was their Uncle. In her publication entitled "The Family of General John Stark of New Hampshire, Jane Elizabeth Stark Maney1 had this to say about "Other Stark Families in America."2

 

 "Some genealogists have suggested that James Stark may have been a brother of Archibald, our immigrant ancestor. In 1998, the Scottish genealogist, A. R. Bigwood, failed to find this relationship, in fact, indications are that they were not brothers.

Another early Stark family settled in York County, Virginia in the early 1700's, Richard Stark, who had been a physician in Glasgow, Scotland. He was a surgeon for a Scottish regiment of soldiers. He was born in Scotland before 1668, and is related to the James Stark and Archibald Stark families in some way. Some have suggested that he may have been an uncle of Archibald Stark." 

 

Using the genetic results of specific descendants in Group 2 having the H37 haplotype, a "Genetic Genealogy Report" has been prepared to address the issues presented in the Maney publication. 

_

________

1)

Jane Elizabeth Stark Maney, The Family of General John Stark (1728-1822) of New Hampshire, published by Higginson Book Company, 2002; 148 Washington Street, Post Office Box 778; Salem, Massachusetts 01970. Web Site: http://www.higginsonbooks.com/

2)

Ibid. Page viii.

 

 

 

Page 6

 

Genetic Genealogy Analysis of the Descendants of James Stark [1695-1754] (G2c)

 

Introduction

The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the genetic and genealogical data of male descendants of James Stark [1695-1754] of Stafford County, Virginia. All the members of Group 2c are genealogically known to be descendants of James Stark.

 

Group 2c Genealogical Lineage

The Group 2c Genealogical Lineage Table shows the direct male line from the Kit Number to James Stark. Reading from left to right, the earliest known Ancestor — James Stark — for each member of Group 2c is shown in the Gen 9 column.

You will observe the participants in Group 2c cover three generations (Gen 0, Gen 1, & Gen 2). The youngest are in Gen 0; the Parent Generation of Gen 0 would be Gen 1; and the grandparent Generation would be Gen 2. The second column from the right most  column (ID) shows the Panels tested for the member in that row and the number of mismatches in each Panel — relevant to the G1 Modal Haplotype. Click on the Kit # for a more detailed lineage report for each participant. Use your back button to return to this page.

The number of Unique Transmission Events (Births) in a generation can be found under the Gen number for that column. A UTE occurs when the Y-DNA of the Father is transmitted to his son. In each generation, the total births are the sum of all of the individuals listed in that Gen column. The total number of Births reported in Gen Columns 0 through 8 are presented in the Gen 9 column.

 

Subgroup 2C Genealogical Lineage Table

Gen 9

UTE=40

Gen 8

UTE=3

Gen 7

UTE=5

Gen 6

UTE=5

Gen 5

UTE=5

Gen 4

UTE=6

Gen 3

UTE=6

Gen 2

UTE=6

Gen 1

UTE=3

Gen 0

UTE=1

Panels

Mismatches

ID

James Stark

Stafford Co., VA

1695-1754

James

1719-1761

James

1747-1829

James

1778-1853

Hebron R.

1802-1870

Strother J.

1842-1912

Daniel H.

1873-1933

Father

74402

74402 ------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(0)

E

Jeremiah

1722-1825

Thomas

1770-1824

John W.

1810-1870

John B.

1839-1908

Henry C.

1879-1952

Father

84342

84342 --------- -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)(1)

F

Dallas A.

???-???

Father

171929

171929 --------- -------

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(0)/(0)

F1

John C.

1748-1814

Alexander

1782-1845

Coleman

1805-abt 1865

Joseph B.

1844-1887

Eugene A.

1870-1928

Father

76284

76284 -------

P1/P2/P3

(1)/(1)/(0)

G

James

1774-1866

Jeremiah

1810-1878

Seymore

1850-1932

Russell S.

1885-????

Father

76964

76964

--------

-------

P1

(0)

H

Thomas

1721-1802

Jeremiah

1749-1824

James

1775-1852

Thomas G.

1801-1862

Nehemiah V.

1832-1914

George A.

1866-1926

Albert H.

1891-1956

Father

115705

115705

P1/P2/P3

(0)/(1)/(2)

I

 

Group 2c H12 Haplotype Life Expectancy Calculations  (Markers 1 thru 12) [See Appendix 2]

The genealogical data suggests there were 40 Births (UTE transmissions). H12 is a 12 marker haplotype over Panel 1. Member G has an allele value of 13 at DYS-439 while the most common allele value is 12, resulting in one mutation.

In the H12 Haplotype, there was one observed mutation. Solving equation (1) for K=1; B=40; and M=12:

R=K/B*M=1/40*12=1/480=(.00208) = the  mutation rate based on the total observed mutations in the H12 haplotypes

Solving for Appendix 2 equation (3):

(Average Life Expectancy of H12 Ancestral Haplotype) =1 / [1 - (1 - 0.00208)12]= approximately 40.52 generations.

If equation (3) is solved using the FTDNA average assumed mutation rate of (0.002) — the resulting number of generations will be 41.2. The member data will result in a H12 mutation rate that is approximately equal to the Standard mutation rate of 0.002.

 

Group 2c H25 Haplotype Life Expectancy Calculations (Markers 1 thru 25) [See Appendix 2]

Member H was not tested beyond Marker 12. H has a total of 6 UTE transmissions that must be subtracted from the total UTE transmissions (40-6=34). Referring to the Genetic Results Table, the total mutation count will be 3.

Solving equation (1) for K=3; B=34;  and M=25:

R=3/34*25=3/850=(.00352)= the  mutation rate based on the total observed mismatches in the H25 haplotypes

Solving for Appendix 2 equation (3):

(Average Life Expectancy of H25 Ancestral Haplotype) =1 / [1 - (1 - 0.00352)25]= approximately 11.85 generations

If the Standard mutation rate of (0.002) ---  assumed in the FTDNA literature --- is used in equation 3, the resulting number of generations will be 20.48. As more participants have been tested  the member mutation rate is greater than the Standard mutation rate of 0.002.

 

Group 2c H37 Haplotype Life Expectancy Calculations (1 thru 37) [See Appendix 2]

Member H does not tested beyond Marker 12.  H has a total of 6 UTE transmissions that must be subtracted from the total UTE transmissions (40-6=34). Referring to the Genetic Results Table, the total mutation count will be 6.

Solving equation (1) for K=19; B=151; and M=37:

R=6/34*37=6/1258=(0.00476) = the  mutation rate based on the total observed mismatches in the H37 haplotypes

Solving for Appendix 2 equation (3):

(Average Life Expectancy of H37 Ancestral Haplotype) =1 / [1 - (1 - 0.00476)37]= approximately 6.17 generations.

If the average assumed mutation rate of (0.002) --- assumed in the FTDNA literature --- is used in equation 3, the resulting number of generations will be 14. The member data will result in a H37 mutation rate that is considerably higher than the Standard mutation rate of 0.002.

 

 

 

 

Page 7

 

Appendix 2: Haplotype and DYS Marker Life Expectancy Calculations

 

Introduction

Mutation Rate: The rate at which a genetic marker or haplotype mutates or changes over time; expressed as a decimal value or a percentage. Commercial DNA testing laboratories use an average haplotype mutation rate most often given as 0.002, 0.003, and 0.004. Depending on the study, these average mutations for all of the markers in a haplotype applies to the general male population as a whole.

Surname projects having genealogical research of high quality with one common ancestor identified as the progenitor  —  can have average mutation rates that do not agree with the literature.  The number of participants and the genealogy of the descendants of their most recent common ancestor is of sufficient quality; it becomes possible to calculate the average mutation rate for various haplotypes and DYS Markers using Kerchner's equations. 

The mathematical model is based on an article by Charles F. Kerchner entitled, "An Overview and Discussion of Various DNA Mutation Rates and DNA Haplotype Mutation Rates." 

 

Haplotype Mutation Rates (Mathematical Model) 

Each Unique Transmission Event (birth) that occurred after the members common ancestor has been totaled in the Genealogical Lineage Table. For each birth, there can be two possible outcomes at each marker.  Either there was a mutation or there was not a mutation at the marker being examined. With this information, we can calculate an average mutation rate for each of the H12, H25, and H37 Ancestral Haplotypes using the equations of Charles F. Kerchner  as follows:

 

Mutation Rate = (Total haplotype mutations) divided by the (Total Births) times the (Total # markers in the haplotype)

Then for R= [Mutation Rate]; K= [Total haplotype mutations]; B= [Total Births]; and M=[Total # markers in the haplotype]

we have the equation: 

 

R=K/B*M    [Average Ancestral Haplotype Mutation Rate]    (1)

Given R, then:

Probability (new emerging haplotype) +Probability (old haplotype)=1

Probability (old haplotype) = (1-R)M

Probability (new emerging haplotype) = 1 – (1-R)M

Then if  P(N) = Probability (new emerging haplotype); we have the equation:

P(N)=1 - (1 - R)M                (2)

 

A new haplotype can emerge at any time; but the above estimates the historically implied life expectancy of the Ancestral Haplotype, as defined by the genetic test results of Aaron's male descendants with the surname Stark --- and --- the genealogical data to define the number of generations. To convert this result to the number of generations, we simply divide  1 by P(N) obtaining the following equation:

 

(Average Life Expectancy of Ancestral Haplotype) = 1 / P(N)=1 / [1 - (1 -R)M]  (Stated as the # of Generations)      (3)

 

This will be the estimated average life expectancy before a new haplotype will emerge within the perimeters of the genetic and genealogical data provided. Equation 3 has been used to calculate the average life expectancy of the H12, H25, and H37 Haplotypes.

 

 

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The webmaster is yours truly, Clovis LaFleur.  I am a volunteer and receive no financial remuneration of any kind from Family Tree DNA, nor am I one of their "web affiliates" (i.e., I don't profit from "click through's").  I'm retired and genealogy is my hobby and is not my business. As webmaster I am not responsible for the genealogy material provided by members nor am I responsible for the Test Results publicly reported by FTDNA. The analysis of results prepared and presented by me on these web pages are based on my interpretation of the Y-DNA results published and the genealogy provided by the project members. Discussion of my analysis with members and others will always be welcome.