|Report 1: Genetic-Genealogy (Pages 1-4) / 37 Marker Y-DNA Results (Page 5) / Summary Lineage of Members (Page 6)|
Reported here are the findings genetic test results for the Stark Family Y-DNA Surname Project relevant to the descendants of Aaron Stark (1608-1685) of Connecticut. These Genetic results have resolved a number of genealogical issues. For example: 1) Providing genetic proof descendants of Jonathan Stark & Sarah Lacock are descendants of Aaron Stark; 2) Proving several lineages previously believed to be descendants of General John Stark of Revolutionary War fame, were actually descendants of Aaron Stark; and 3) providing genetic proof Aaron Stark was not a descendant of John Muirhead (alias John Stark) who, in 1488, saved King James IV of Scotland from the charge of a bull.
A methodology that may be unique to
this family group —
discovered within the genetic data and genealogical research
— will be employed in
future genetic comparisons of males with the surname Stark (or one
of it’s Variants). The methodology to be described involves the
use of genetic comparison parameters; these parameters suggesting
a male with the surname Stark (or one of it’s variants) could
share Aaron Stark as a common ancestor with others descending from
this progenitor. These parameters will be useful to Stark Family
Project Administrators and new Project participants who have not
been able to make reliable genealogical connections to an earlier
ancestor or to Aaron
A History of the Stark Surname Over Genealogical Time
In Scotland, the family name is an old one. In the words of Sir George Mackenzie (1636-1691), a legend, then nearly 200 years old, proclaimed one origin of the name in Scotland.
"Stark, beareth azur, a chevron, argent, between three acorns in chief, or, and bull's head erased of ye 2nd base. Those of ye name are descended on one John Muirhead, 2nd son of ye Lord of Lachop, who at hunting in ye forest of Cumbernauld, one day seeing King James ye IV in hazard of his life by a bull hotly pursued by ye hounds stept in between ye King and ye bull, and gripping ye bull by ye horns and by his great strength almost tore ye head from it for which he was called Stark and his posteritie after him and bears ye rugged bull's head in their arms. Ye old sword of ye family has on it "Stark, alias Muirhead."
The origins of the Stark surname in North America began with the arrival of Aaron Stark in New England between 1630 and 1637 — his ancestral home in Europe not known with certainty. He was born about 1608 and died in 1685 in New London County, Connecticut. His service in the Pequot War under Captain John Mason in May of 1637, is the first record we have of him in Connecticut. He eventually settled in New London County, Connecticut in a region that later became Groton Township. Aaron Stark had three sons named Aaron Stark (Junior), John Stark, and William Stark (Senior). John Stark had no sons to whom he could have passed his surname and Y Chromosome. William Stark (Senior) and Aaron Stark (Junior) have numerous male descendants; many living today who carry the surname Stark.
About 75 to 100 years after the arrival of Aaron Stark in Connecticut, three men with the surnames Stark and Starke arrived in New Hampshire and Virginia. Their names were Dr. Richard Starke of Virginia, James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia, and Archibald Stark of New Hampshire (the father of General John Stark of Revolutionary War fame). The genealogical research had not been able to determine if these three men were related. However, independent research of each has suggested their ancestral home could have been in or near Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
As Stark pioneers began to move westward, descendants of the progenitors of these four early arrivals in North America became mixed in the records as they settled in the same regions. In some instances, some of the descendants of Aaron Stark began to spell their name "Starks." This occurred most often in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Northeastern New York where the descendants of Archibald lived. Some spelled the name Starke and were descendants of Dr. Richard Starke. About 1732, descendants of William Stark (Senior) — son of Aaron Stark — moved to New Jersey and later migrated into Virginia, western Pennsylvania, and later into Kentucky and Indiana. At about the same time, descendants of James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia moved into these same regions. As occurred in the Northeast, these families also became mixed in the records.
In 1896, the Stark Family Association was created for the purpose of collecting and preserving the genealogy of the early arrivals to North America. From 1903 to 1952, an annual yearbook was published by the Association on the activities and research of it's many members located throughout the United States and Canada. In 1927, Charles R. Stark compiled a genealogy based on the Association's research entitled; "The Aaron Stark Family, Seven Generations of the Family of Aaron Stark of Groton, Connecticut." This publication recorded 2,171 descendants of Aaron. Today, the number of known descendants recorded has grown to approximately 15,000. In 2002, an excellent genealogy of the family of General John Stark entitled "The Family of General John Stark (1728-1822)," was published by Jane Stark Maney, which has a large compilation of the descendants of Archibald Stark. Another publication entitled "James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia and His Descendants" was compiled by Mary Kathryn Harris and Mary Iva Jean Jorgensen.
Although there is a wealth of genealogical research available on these families, we do not as yet know with certainty, the location of Aaron Stark’s ancestral home. While the Genealogy suggests Dr. Richard Starke, James Stark, and Archibald Stark have their origins in Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland, documentation has not been found which positively records they were specific generational relatives sharing a common male ancestor with the surname Stark or Starke. Further more, many Aaron Stark family researchers believed they were related to General John Stark; or that Aaron was related to the New Hampshire families in Scotland.
Introduction to Y Chromosome Testing
As genealogist, we have been primarily tracing our ancestors by following the family surname "paper trails." [Our documented paternal lines.] In order to do the same genetically, we must follow the Y chromosome trail of two living males to a male ancestor they have in common, that is, a male ancestor with the same surname. Living males with the same surnames can be genetically tested and their respective Y chromosomes compared to determine if they share a common ancestor who lived after the usage of surnames became common in Europe in the 13th and 14th centuries (referred to as genealogical time).
Sex is determined by two sex chromosomes referred to as X and Y. A female has two X-chromosomes (XX); while a male has one X and one Y chromosome (XY). Females receive an X Chromosome from each parent which then recombine. Because Y doesn't recombine with other chromosomes, it's unusually good for tracing how men have traveled and settled around the world. The Y chromosome transfer from Father to son is relatively unchanged from generation to generation. If, for example, their Y Chromosomes were compared, the probability will be very high they are a perfect Y Chromosome match. If this son passes his Y-DNA to his son — this grandson's comparison to his grandfather will result in a perfect genetic match. In an ideal world, this would continue through generation after generation. However, genetically, we do not live in an ideal world — for random mutations over many generations can and do occur.
All people living today have a genetic past that traces back to Africa. Over thousands of years, different groups have traveled and settled around the world. Each group has its own path and history recorded in DNA. Part of that record is found on the Y chromosome. Population geneticists study changes in the genetic code called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). They happen at a rate of approximately one mutation every few hundred generations. Once discovered, SNPs are placed on the Y chromosome Consortium’s (YCC) phylogenic tree. This tree can then be used to explore our own shared past and place our — or a representative relative’s — Y chromosome in the context of ancient historic migrations.
Haplogroups are major branches on the Y chromosome tree. ["Haplo" comes from the Greek word for "single". ] All Haplogroups ultimately descend from a single Y chromosome SNP mutation that was carried by a male that lived in the distant past. As this Y chromosome was passed from father to son, mutations accumulated along different lineages giving rise to a tree-like branching pattern. Geneticists can reconstruct this Y chromosome tree by discovering and typing mutations in different male human populations. Haplogroups are assigned letters of the alphabet, and refinements consist of additional number and letter combinations. For example, a common Haplogroup among Stark Project Members is R1b1. "R" is the “ROOT” Haplogroup and "1b1" are additional number and letter combinations within the root Haplogroup "R" that define Subclades or genetic branches of “R.”
However, the Y chromosome has another type of ancestral marker — Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) — that trace recent ancestry; mostly within genealogical time; or after surname usage was established in Europe. By counting the short tandem repeats on a segment of a selected Y chromosome Marker, these repeats, defined as Allele values, can then be used in comparisons of any two males to determine relatedness. Each DYS marker used in a comparison has a defined label known as a DYS Marker number (DNA Y chromosome Segment). A Haplotype is defined as a collection of two or more DYS markers. Later, an example of a 37 Marker Haplotype will be presented. In the discussion that follows, participants in the project who descend from Aaron Stark [1608-1685] will be compared to other males in the Stark Family Y-DNA Project to determine the statistical probability they could share a common ancestor within genealogical time.
Defining the Ancestral Haplotype of Aaron Stark [1608-1685]
The genealogical research suggests Aaron Stark I [1608-1685] was the common ancestor of all of the Group 1 Members. Using the genetic data, the triangulation method devised by Charles F. Kerchner, Jr. will be employed to define the Ancestral Haplotype of Aaron Stark I. (See Charles F. Kerchner, Jr.'s article entitled "Triangulation Method for Deducing the Ancestral Haplotype in Y-DNA Surname Projects.") A typical line of descent chart looks like a triangle, with the ancestor at the apex, as illustrated right.
For example, Aaron Stark [1608-1685] had two sons. If we create a descendant chart, the shape would be similar to a triangle. The analyzer, by looking from the bottom generation of the chart towards the ancestor --- from different descendant locations on the descendant chart --- is triangulating towards the target, the common ancestor, Aaron Stark [1608-1685]. Kerchner defines this technique as triangulation. The triangulation rules are quite simple and can be stated as follows:
1) If two genetically compared males having the same surname are direct line descendants of two known and different sons of a father --- and --- they both have the same allele value at a specific DYS marker, then by deduction, we presume the father of the two sons had the same allele value at that DYS marker.
2) If two genetically compared males having the same Surname are direct line descendants of two known and different sons of a father --- and --- they both have the same allele value at a specific DYS marker, then by deduction, we presume all individuals in their respective descendant branches from the Father have the same allele value at that DYS Marker.
3) If two genetically compared males having the same surname are direct line descendants of two known and different sons of a father --- and --- neither has the same value at a specific DYS marker, then the allele value of the father cannot be determined; nor can the allele value of individuals in the respective descendant branches be determined; the exception in each branch being the known allele value of the genetically compared Males.
The Genetic Results Table indicates Member 76234 (A1a) has the most common allele values at all 37 of the H37 markers. Member A is a descendant of William Stark (Senior) [1664-1734]. Member 98140 (B1a) also has the most common allele values at all of the H37 markers. Member (B1a) is a descendant of Aaron Stark II [1654-1701]. William and Aaron II are two known and different sons of Aaron Stark I [1608-1685]. When Members (A1a) and (B1a) are compared to each other, they are a perfect match over all 37 markers. Therefore, according to Rule 1, by deduction, we must presume the father of these sons, Aaron Stark I [1608-1685], may have had the same allele values at all 37 DYS markers. For the purposes of this analysis, this H37 Haplotype has been assigned to be the Ancestral Haplotype of Aaron Stark I [1608-1685] and is the same Haplotype as the Aaron Stark Modal Haplotype (ASMH) to be defined below.
Haplogroup; Descendants of Aaron Stark
The descendants of Aaron Stark have been predicted by FamilyTree DNA (FTDNA) to be in Haplogroup R1b1a2 (Shorthand notation is R-M269). The shorthand notation, R-M269, originates from the laboratory that discovered the SNP mutation designated as M269. Two descendants of Aaron Stark (Kits #N17289 & #48711) have undergone deep SNP testing by FTDNA and con-firmed to be members of Haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1a* (shorthand notation is R-U106). This Table reveals the SNPs tested and the results of those test.
The R-U106 Haplogroup has been found to be present in over 25% of those found to be R1b Haplogroup positive. In Europe, R-U106 has a distribution running northwest to east and is found in higher concentrations in England (21.4%) and Scandinavia (Denmark 17.7%), reaches a maximum in the Netherlands (37.2%) and slopes down to the east through Germany (20.5%) and the Alps (Switzerland 13.3%, Austria 22.7) towards the Czech Republic (13.9%) and Ukraine (9.4%). This confirmed Haplogroup for #N17289 and #48711 predicts all of the direct line descendants of Aaron Stark are most likely positive for the U106 SNP mutation.
#N17289 has had additional SNP test confirming he belongs to a Subclade of the root Haplogroup R-U106. For the purposes of this discussion, the Project predicts all members confirmed to be descendants of Aaron Stark are R-U106 positive, but await additional confirmation they ALL could be positive for a Subclade of R-U106.
Group 1 Genetic Results Table Introduction
The Genetic Results Table for Group 1 presents the allele values at each DYS Marker for each of the members. Depending on the Member's tests, the following presents results for Members tested ove 12 DYS Markers, 25 DYS Markers, 37 DYS Markers, 67 DYS Markers, and 111 DYS Markers. have been Those in Column 1 having ID Codes beginning with (A) are descendants of William Stark [1664-1730] and are Members of Group 01a; while cells in Column 1 having ID Codes Beginning with (B) are descendants of Aaron Stark II [1654-1701] and are Members of Group 01b. These Columns reveal from which of the two sons of Aaron Stark I each member descends — according to the genealogical research. The ID Codes are presented after the Member's Kit # and will be used when discussing genetic comparisons. [Comparison of (A1a)/(B1a), for example.]
The Rows representing the Allele Values for each Member have been color coded depending on the DYS Markers tested by each Member. All Members tested over Markers 1 thru 12, 1 thru 25, or 1 thru 37, DYS Markers will have a row with their Member Kit # and ID Code cell presented with this background color. The second column for each Member presents the number of Markers tested, also with the same background color. For example, if a Member was only tested over 12 markers, the second column will have the entry "M#s 1-12." If tested over 25 Markers, the entry will be "M#s 1-25." If tested over 37 markers, the entry will be "M#s 1-37." If a Member has not been tested beyond 37 markers, he will only have one row presenting his results over the markers described. Allele values begin will the Column 3 cells, all of the cells with this background color; the exception being an allele value that differs from the Aaron Stark Modal Haplotype (ASMH), presented with this background color. The yellow background color identifies a Mutation relative to the Aaron Stark Modal Haplotype (ASMH), the values for Markers 1 thru 37 presented in Row 4 after the Marker Numbers presented in Rows 1, 2, & 3.
For the purpose of this report, a Mutation occurs at a DYS Marker column when a Members allele value differs from the Modal Haplotype allele value in that column. For example, in Groups 01a/01b, all of the allele values in the Marker 2 (DYS-390) column are 24 — resulting in no observed mutations in this column. However, in the Marker 1 (DYS-393) column, the allele value 13 occurs more often than the allele value 12. Therefore, Members B2a, B2a1, B2a2, and B2a3 — having the allele value 12 in the Marker 1 column — have their Marker 1 allele values highlighted in yellow; indicating each has a DYS Marker 1 mutation relative to the more common allele value of 13. This method of determining mutations results in a minimum number of mutations for the population tested. This Modal Haplotype has been defined by the Project as, "The Aaron Stark Modal Haplotype (ASMH)," presented in Rows 4 (M#s 1-37), 5 (M#s 38-67), and 6 (M#s 68-111). It has been found the Ancestral Haplotype, discussed above, and ASMH are identical.
IN Column 1, where the Members Kit # and Id Code are presented, those tested beyond 37 markers will have different cell background colors from those not tested beyond 37 DYS Markers. Those tested over 67 DYS Markers will have this background color. There will be two rows presenting their results. The top row will be Markers 1-37, the results presented with this background color. The next row down will be Markers 38-67, the results presented with this background color. Mutations relative to ASMH will be highlighted in yellow; as explained above.
Members tested over 111 Markers will have their Kit # cell presented with this background color. There will be three rows presenting their results. The top row will be Markers 1-37, the results presented with this background color. The next row down will be Markers 38-67, the results presented with this background color. The bottom row will be Markers 68-111, the results presented with this background color. In each row, mutations relative to ASMH, will be presented with this background color.
1) Allele value Cells with this background color have allele values equal to ASMH at DYS Markers 1 thru 37.
2) Allele value cells with this background color have allele values equal to ASMH at DYS Markers 38 thru 67.
3) Allele value cells with this background color have allele values equal to ASMH at DYS Markers 68 thru 111.
4) Any Allele value cell with this background color defines a mutation (different allele value) relative to ASMH at that DYS Marker number.
5) DYS marker numbers are presented in Rows 1, 2, and 3.
6) ASMH Allele Values for Markers 1 thru 111 are presented in Rows 4 (M#s 1-37), 5 (M#s 38-67), and 6 (M#s 68-111).
7) Members Kit #s and Id Codes are presented in the Column 1 cells.
8) This Member Cell Background color indicates tested over Markers 1 thru 37 or less. This Member Cell background color indicates Member was tested over Markers 1 thru 67, the results presented in two rows.
9) This Member Cell Background color indicates tested over Markers 1 thru 111, the results presented in three rows.
Members rows with one or more cells with this background color, have mutations relative to ASMH and define a new Haplotype that has evolved in one of the earlier generations in the Member's Lineage (including the Member's generation). Members Y-DNA Results have been ROW organized in the same order they are presented in the Group 1 Lineage Table; presented after the Results Table. The Lineage Table presents a summary lineage for each Member of Groups 01a & 01b. Clicking on the "Kit#" in the Results or Lineage Tables will take you to a more detailed lineage presentation for that Member; presented in the G1 Lineage Web Page.
Groups 01c & 01d are presented in the following Y-DNA Results Table — but will not be included in the analysis that follows nor in the G1 Genealogical Lineage Table. Although members of Group 01c will have genetic matches to members of Groups 01a & 01b, the lack of Genealogical lineage information prevents using their Y-DNA results in the following analysis. Although Members of Group 01d have genealogical research suggesting they should share Aaron Stark [1608-1685] as a common ancestor, when their Y-DNA results are compared to Members of Groups 01a & 01b, the comparisons clearly reveal they could not share a common ancestor with these members within Genealogical time (after the calendar year 1400). According to FTDNA public web page for the Project, those DYS Markers labeled in RED have a higher mutation rate than those Markers not labeled in Red. Those markers #s in Rows 1, 2, and 3 have their text presented in RED. On the FTDNA public page, Haplogroup R-M269 is a shorthand notation for Haplogroup R1b1a2. Red colored font for a member's Haplogroup indicates a FTDNA prediction which has not been confirmed. However, the confirmed Haplogroup of N17289 (A6a) & 48711 (A1g) predicts all members of Groups 01a & 01b most likely will belong to Haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1a (shorthand notation is R-U106). Therefore, this Haplogroup is presumed for all Members and not in the results presented. [See explanation above.]
Group 1 Genealogical Lineage Table Introduction
The following Genealogical Lineage Table shows the direct male line from each member to their earliest known ancestor. The Common Ancestor of all members, Aaron Stark [1608-1685], is presented in the Gen 12 column. Note that the Kit #'s of the program members are variously shown under the column's labeled Gen 0 through Gen 3. This is because there are now four living generations of Group 1 Members who have contributed there Y-DNA for testing. The following would be the number of generations Aaron Stark lived before the youngest members: 12 generations before those listed under Gen 0; 11 generations before those listed under Gen 1; 10 generations before those listed under Gen 2; and 9 generations before those listed under Gen 3.
The Markers/GD=#/M/MMs column reports the Marker numbers tested / Genetic Distance over the Markers tested / and Marker numbers that were a mismatch to Aaron Stark Modal Haplotype (ASMH)
The 'ID" column assigns a letter code to each row for the purpose of discussion when making genetic comparisons. [Comparison of A1a to B1a for example.] The row organization is the same as the Member organization in the above Y-DNA Results Table.
When reading from left to right, each row will eventually encounter a common ancestor associated with a member in an adjacent row. For example, A1a and A1b have a common ancestor named Moses, reported in the Gen 6 column. A1a, A1b, A1c, and A1d have a common ancestor named Jonathan J., reported in the Gen 7 column. This continues to occur reading left to right until Gen 12 — where Aaron I is reported to be the common ancestor of all of the members.
For the purposes of this discussion, the persons reported in the Generation 11 column are "Genealogical Branch Progenitors." William Stark (Senior) [1664-1730] is the progenitor of the branch consisting of his "A" ID descendants. Aaron Stark II [1654-1701] is the progenitor of the branch consisting of his "B" ID descendants. The common ancestor of all of the members, Aaron Stark I [1608-1685], is presented in the Gen 12 column.
Any Member having a Gentic a genetic distance equal to zero will be a perfect match to the ASMH over the Markers tested for those Members. A perfect match when compared to ASMH will have cells in each generation with this background color in all 12 Gen columns back to Aaron Stark [1608-1685]. Members with Genetic distances greater than zero with have this background color that will end at a ancestor generation with this background color. This indicates the first possible generation from which a transfer of the Mutation relative to ASMH could have occurred. It's possible the mutation could have occurred in any of the generations presented with a blue background, including even the Member tested.
The Gen 0 through Gen 10 offset columns present in Green have been created to normalize all of the Group 1 Members Genealogy to a genetic evaluation over a 10 generation time span — all presented as Descendants of Aaron Stark [1608-1685] presented in Offset Row Gen 10. Observe in the Lineage Table Member #98044 is presented in Top row Gen 1 and is the grandson of John E. Stark [1904-1971], presented in Top row Gen 2. Member #76234 is presented in Top row Gen 3 and his Father is presented in Top row Gen 4. The genealogy submitted by #98044 places him twelve generations removed from the generation of Aaron Stark [1608-1685], presented in Top row Gen 13. I have presumed #98044 will most likely have the same 37 marker Haplotype as his grandfather in Top Row Gen 2. I have then created the Generation Green offset row with Gen 0 placed under Top Row Gen 3. Members who are presented in Top row Gen 4 have been presumed to have Hypothetical sons in Offset row Gen 0, these sons presumed to have the same 37 marker haplotype as their Father in Offset Row Gen 1. In the analysis that follows, all of the Genetic comparisons will reference the Offset Row Generations.
Group 1 Genealogical Lineage Table
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