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The Aaron Stark Family Chronicles



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      Chapter 1: From New Jersey to Washington County, Pennsylvania - 1760-1785  

Volume  4

We have genetically established descendants of five of the Kentucky Stark brothers with the surname Stark are related to other men with the surname Stark — known to descend from Aaron Stark [1608-1685]. If the brothers were descendants of Aaron, then their father was also a descendant. Using the Harris and Jorgensen publication for the basis of our research, can we link the brothers to Jonathan Stark who died in Sussex County, New Jersey in late 1764?


Chapter 2

        Volume 4 Table of Contents        

Chapter 1: From New Jersey to Washington County, Pennsylvania - 1760-1785

Pages 1 thru 24

Chapter 7: Christopher Stark, Martha (Vineyard) Stark & Their Children

Pages 58 thru 67

Chapter 2: The Kentucky Years - A Narrative

Pages 25 thru 36

Chapter 8: Rev. William Wood, Sarah Stark & Their Children

Pages 68 thru 74

Chapter 3: The Life & Times of James Stark [1739-1821]

Pages 37 thru 43

Chapter 9: John Stark, Elizabeth Eddy & Their Children

Pages 75 thru 78

Chapter 4: Jonathan Stark [The Younger] & His Children

Pages 44 thru 47 Appendixes

Chapter 5: Daniel Stark, Elizabeth (Wells) Stark & Their Children

Pages 48 thru 54

Chapter 2 Appendix: The Stark Families & The Kentucky Emancipation Ministers

Pages 1 thru 3

Chapter 6: Joseph Stark & Children

Pages 55 thru 57

Chapter 6 Appendix: Decatur Co., IN Stark Families; A Genetic-Genealogy Analysis

Pages 1 thru 10




Page 1




 Chapter 1

From New Jersey to Washington County, Pennsylvania - 1760-1785


Copyright © August 2006;

by Clovis LaFleur, with Editorial Assistance by Donn Neal

Major contributors: Pauline Stark Moore & Gwen Boyer Bjorkman



Western New Jersey in 1795

This map has many of the features and townships which were in this region of early New Jersey as they would have approximately appeared in 1760. These boundaries, by 1795, had been altered as new townships and counties were formed. [Note the mileage scale in upper left corner to approximate distances on this map.]




Page 2



We have genetically established descendants of five of the Kentucky Stark brothers with the surname Stark are related to other men with the surname Stark — known to descend from Aaron Stark [1608-1685]. If the brothers were descendants of Aaron, then their father was also a descendant. Using the Harris and Jorgensen publication for the basis of our research, can we link the brothers to Jonathan Stark who died in Sussex County, New Jersey in late 1764?[1]


1760 Through 1770 - From New Jersey to Loudoun County, Virginia

On August 27, 1760, the Will of Joseph Lacock was made and witnessed by James Stark, a grandson of Joseph.[2]1 James Stark was the son of Jonathan Stark and Sarah Lacock, the latter being the daughter of Joseph. This probate suggests James Stark could have been a son of Jonathan and Sarah (Lacock) Stark and provides a probable link of one Kentucky brother to this couple. The date suggests a probable time frame for the birth for James; 1739 or earlier. To witness a Will required the witness to be 21 years of age or older.

At about the same time, there was a Henry Lacock probate record in Sussex County; this man a son of Joseph Lacock. Inventory was made September 23, 1760 and October 3, bond was made by William Lacock, as administrator, and Joseph Lacock (Henry’s brother) as fellow bondsman.[3]

Several given names and surnames are mentioned in these two documents which are of importance to this discussion. A daughter, Sarah, her married name not given, was most likely Sarah Stark, wife of Jonathan Stark. William Lacock made bond October 3, 1760 as administrator of his father's estate and on the same date William's brother, Joseph Lacock (Junior), made bond as fellow bondsman.[3] On the same day, these two men were named administrator and fellow bondsman of Henry Lacock’s estate. From 1760 to 1784, the year the Stark brothers moved to Kentucky, James Stark, William Lacock, and Joseph Lacock were reported living in Sussex County, New Jersey; Loudoun County, Virginia; and Washington County, Pennsylvania. Nathan Lacock, named as a child of Joseph Lacock (Senior), appeared in the records with his brother, William Lacock, in Loudoun County.

From 1758 to 1769, the surname Vineyard can be found in the Loudoun County, Virginia tithables list. According to the Virginia State Library, males were tithable when they reached age sixteen and appeared as tithables for the head of the household until they reached the age of twenty-one. Men on the tithable list were not necessarily members of the established church but were required by law to contribute to its support. The Vineyard family settled near Harper's Ferry in Northern Virginia twenty-five years before the revolution.[4] Francis Vineyard had six sons named John, Francis, Stephen, Thomas, William, and James. There were at least two daughters, one named Martha, who married Christopher Stark, and the oth er named Sarah, who married John Clevenger.[4]

The French & Indian War came to an end with the treaty made in Paris in 1763. Under its terms, the French ceded to Great Britain all of the French territory in North America east of the Mississippi. As a result of the sudden expansion of the British Empire to twice it's prewar size, complex jurisdictional and governing problems began to challenge the government in London. In an attempt to avoid further conflicts with the Indians, the British Government issued the "Proclamation of 1763," which gave London, rather than the provincial governments, control over the westward movement of potential settlers. The proclamation expressly forbid settlers to advance beyond the mountains that divided the Atlantic Coast from the interior. However, even before the Proclamation was issued, the existing colonial governments had begun to make conflicting claims of jurisdiction in the Ohio Valley.[5]



Mary Kathryn Harris & Mary Iva Jean Jorgensen, James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia And His Descendants (Copyright 1985, Privately Printed Fort Worth). Volume 1, pages 1269-1271.


Calendar of New Jersey Wills, Vol. III, 1751-1760. Calendar of New Jersey Wills, 1670-1760. [database online] Provo, UT, 2000. Original data: New Jersey Historical Society. Calendar of New Jersey Wills, Administrations, etc. Newark, NJ New Jersey Historical Society, 1901. Quote "Joseph Laycock of Hardwick, Sussex County, Will of... Wife [not named]. Children-- John, Nathan, Joseph, Sarah, Elizabeth, Henry, and William. Real and personal estate. Executors-- Sons Joseph and William. Witnesses-- Edward Pigot, Jeames Stark, Henry Crosley. Proved Oct. 8, 1760. Inventory 125 pounds, 9 shilling, & 3 pence. Inventory by Henry Crosley and Ephraim Darby, 23 September 1760." Original Reference Libra (Book) 10, page 465, Wills & Administrations, Sussex County, New Jersey. Henry Lacock intestate.


Calen dar of New Jersey Wills, Vol. III, 1751-1760. "October 3 1760 - Bond of William Lacock as Adm'r; Joseph Lacock fellow bondsman, both of Hardwick, Sussex County, New Jersey."


Shriner, Walter O., Letter Addressed to Mrs. Lynn Vineyard, Wharton, Texas. Signed: Walter O. Shriner, 2525 N. Ninth St., Terre Haute, Ind., 47804, March 12, 1971. Contributor: Pauline Stark Moore.


"The Unfinished Nation," by Alan Brinkley, Copyright 1993, McGraw-Hill, pages 92-96.



Page 3


In 1763, fourteen persons formed a church at Knollton, Sussex County, New Jersey. Three of the people named were Joseph Laycock (most likely Joseph Lacock, Junior), Jonathan Start, and Sarah Start, the latter two probably having the surname Stark. The property for the church was a gift from Reverend Henry Crosley, who was a witness with James Stark to the will of Joseph Lacock, Senior in 1760.[1] According to Morgan Edwards, "Knollton Church, Sussex Co. NJ, built in 1763. About the year 1754 ... arrived from Kingwood, Jonathan Start and Sarah Start his wife... baptized at Kingwood were Joseph Collins, Mary Collins, Joseph Laycock ... These 14 persons were formed into a church, at Knollton, June. 12, 1763." Kingwood Church was organized in 1742, by members dismissed for that purpose from Hopewell Chu rch, who were early settlers of the area of Locktown (or Baptisttown).[2] This most likely was not a move to a new location in New Jersey but a membership move to a newly created church closer to the new congregation.

Sussex County, situated at the extreme top of New Jersey, has always been off the beaten path. The Kittatinny Mountains cut across its entire northwestern region, creating highlands which were heavily-wooded. Rising upward from the Kittatinny Valley in the eastern part of the county, these rock covered hills made farming a difficult occupation, especially in Hardwick Township. At the beginning and throughout the French & Indian War, settlers in Sussex County, New Jersey were subjected to especially violent attacks from the Delaware Indians who had declared independence from the Iroquois. Faced with unspeakable violence, many residents, including a minister and the county’s first clerk/surrogate, fled to more civilized locations. This continued throughout the war until peace was declared in 1763. Before and at the conclus ion of the war, there was a boundary dispute between New York and New Jersey which was the source of further violence until resolved in 1769.[3]

Loudoun County, Virginia was created from Fairfax County in 1757. Early settlement in the western portions of the Virginia colony was the scene of considerable land speculation caused by the arrival of large numbers of immigrants from Europe. Colonials, seeking lands free from overcrowding or more fertile soils suitable for farming, also began to move to the region in large numbers from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the Virginia Tide Water regions.[4]

William Lacock, the administrator of his father's will in 1760, was living in Loudoun County, Virginia by 1764. Reasons for moving from New Jersey could have been due to the rocky conditions and poor soil in Hardwick Township; the threat of Indian attacks; the boundary dispute with New York; or a division or disagreement within the Baptist Church of which they were members. For any or all of these reasons, the Lacock and Stark families, united through the marriage of Sarah Lacock to Jonathan Stark, began to look elsewhere for a place to live. Loudoun County, Virginia, created in 1757, rumored to offer excellent opportunities for farming and growing tobacco, the cash crop of the period, attracted the attention of William Lacock who was reported as a resident of the region on the Nicholas Minor 1764 tithables list.[5]

Just before New Year's day of 1765, Jonathan Stark of Hardwick Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, died. On January 29, 1765, named as administrators of his estate were Sarah Stark, his widow, and James Stark, most likely his son. Named as fellow bondsman was Joseph Lacock (Junior), Sarah's brother reported to be a son of her father, Joseph Lacock (Senior) in his 1760 will. Inventory of the estate was completed January 3, 1765 by John Laforge and Samson Dildine, valued at 121 pounds, 4 shilling,& 10 pence.[6] Comparing the place and names of this document to the 1760 Will of Joseph Lacock (Senior), Widow Sarah Stark was most likely the daughter named Sarah in the Will of Joseph (Senior); while Joseph Lacock (Junior) was most likely the same Joseph Lacock named as fellow bondsman with his brother, William Lacock. James Stark and Jeames Stark — who witnessed the Joseph Lacock (Senior) Will — were most likely the same person. These two documents, dated five years apart, suggests the persons named were the same and that James Stark was a son of Jonathan Stark and Grandson of Joseph Lacock (Senior).



Stark, Carol S., "Starks & Lacocks (Laycock) of Sussex Co. N. J., Loudoun Co. VA & Washington Co., PA." Self Published in 1997 in Greshan, Oregon. Author's source Edwards Materials (Baptist History), Volume 1, page 118. By Morgan Edwards. Published Heritage Papers, Danielsville, Georgia, 1984.


"Church and Family History Research Assistance for Primitive Baptist Churches in the State of New Jersey," Copyright c. 2001-2004. All rights reserved. The Primitive Baptist Library. URL: http//


Sussex County, New Jersey History, by Brianne Kelly-Bly. Copyright ©2003.


Emily J. Salmon and Edward D.C. Campbell, Jr., editors, The Handbook of Virginia History, (Richmond, VA The Library of Virginia, Fourth Edition , 1994), p. 25.


"Loudoun County, Virginia Tithables, 1758-1786", 3 Volumes, Marty Hiatt & Craig Roberts Scott, 1995. [Vol. 1- 1749, 1758-1769.]


Sussex County, New Jersey Wills & Administrations, Libra (Book) 12, page 232; Year 1765. Abstract:the administration of the estate of Jonathan Stark of Hardwick, Sussex Co., wheelwright, in testate. Adm'rs Sarah Stark (widow) and James Stark. Fellow bondsman Joseph Lacock, all of the same place. 3 Jan. 1765, Inventory, £121.4.10, made by John Laforge and Samson Dildine.




Page 4


May 14, 1765, Jonathan Stark married Margaret Ball in Morris County, New Jersey.[1] This would obviously not be the same Jonathan Stark who was deceased before January 3, 1765. Sussex County, New Jersey was formed from Morris County June 8, 1753 which would suggest this marriage took place n ear where Jonathan Stark, Senior, and his son James lived. Although the connection of this individual to the Stark brothers is not conclusive from documents thus far presented, there was a Jonathan Stark who lived with or near James Stark in Washington County, Pennsylvania in 1783, and other documentation in Kentucky suggest they may have been related. If this Jonathan married May 14, 1765, then he could have been born before or after James, the earliest date of birth, perhaps in 1736, but not later than 1747 if he was eighteen when he married Margaret Ball.

In 1765, Lord Fairfax sold land in Loudoun County, Virginia to William Lacock and his wife, Martha.[2] In the same year, the Cameron Parish, Loudoun County Tithable list reported William was a resident of the County.[3] Nathan Lacock was reported on the 1765 Cameron Parish tithable list of James Hamilton, this most likely being the Nathan Lacock mentioned in the 1760 will of his father, Joseph Lacock (Senior). Therefore, two of the men recorded in Joseph Lacock's Will of 1760 were living in Loudoun County in 1765. Another name on the 1765 tithable list of Loudoun County was William Wood, reported on John McIlhaney's list.[4] By 1765, William Lacock, Nathan Lacock, William Wood, and as mentioned earlier, Francis Vineyard, were residents of Loudoun County. Later documentation will link these surnames to the Stark brothers of Kentucky.

After Loudoun County was created in 1757, settlement in the western section of the county continued. In 1758, the Virginia Assembly established the town of Leesburg on the eastern side of the county as the county seat. Between 1759 and 1770, in order to facilitate travel to the courthouse, residents of the western sections of the county built and maintained roads that connected them to Leesburg. Two routes led from Williams' Gap to Leesburg. Both roads paralleled present-day Route 7; one paralleled the present route to the south; the other to the north. Prior to the opening of the Leesburg and Snicker's Gap Turnpike in 1835, these two east-west routes served as the central arteries of transportation and trade within the county. The hamlet of Woodgrove developed along the northern most of the two at a point where it intersected with a road that led from Williams' Gap to John Hough's mill at the present site of the town of Hillsboro.[5]

Daniel Stark, Francis Vineyard, William Wood, and William Lacock were on the tithable list of John McIlhaney.[6,7] These men lived in an area bounded by Vestal's Gap, Blue Ridge, and Catacton Creek. James Hamilton's list reported Nathan Lacock, Joseph Stark, Abner Howell, and James Stark with two tithables, the other being William Stark between 16 and 21 years of age. Hamilton's list reported persons living within the area bounded by William's Gap to Vestal's Gap to the junction of Vestal's Gap and the Blue Ridge, and then to Kittocton Mountain.[6]

Presuming the arguments before have provided sufficient evidence of the link between the Lacock and Stark families, then James Stark of Loudoun County must be the same James Stark recorded in the Sussex County Wills of 1760 and 1765. Because William Stark was living in the home of James and was sixteen to twenty years of age, he must have been a brother of James, the estimated age range of James Stark (28 - 32); therefore, being too young to have had a son of sixteen. Could Daniel Stark and Joseph Stark be related? The research of Mary Kathryn Harris and Mary Iva Jean Jorgensen has demonstrated these men were not descendants of James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia. In Volume 1, Part VIII, page 1269, entitled "Other Southern Starks," the Authors gave their reasons for such extensive research of these men" "... we have often found descendants of James Stark (of Stafford County) living in areas where other Stark families were living. In each case, adequately proving the descendants of James Stark of Stafford Co., VA involved learning something of these other Stark families in order to be certain that they were not descendants of James Stark (of Stafford County) and that the Stark families we were researching were indeed descendants of James Stark (of Stafford County)." Their research, which will not be disputed in this discussion, provided considerable evidence these specific men with the surname Stark, recorded in the 1767 tithable list, were not descendants of James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia. The publication further suggested these men were sons of Jonathan Stark and Sarah Lacock, the reasoning being the same as earlier presented.



Source 1: James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia And His Descendants, compiled by Mary Kathryn Harris & Mary Iva Jean Jorgensen, Copyright 1985, Privately Printed Fort Worth. Volume 1, page 1348. Source 2: The Aaron Stark Family, Seven Generations of the Descendants of Aaron Stark of Groton, Connecticut, by Charles R. Stark, published 1927, Wright & Potter, Boston, Massachusetts. Comment Individual #101, page 15. [Author’s Comment: This text incorrectly reports this Jonathan was the son of Aaron Stark, great grandson of Aaron Stark (1608 - 1685). Neither of these sources provides the source of this day of marriage.]


The Lacock Family of Washington County, Pennsylvania, by Raymond Martin Bell & Irene Putnum Lignian, Washington, Pennsylvania, 1986.


Source 1: Loudoun County, Virginia Tithables, 1758-1786." 3 Volumes, Marty Hiatt & Craig Roberts Scott, 1995; Vol. 1- 1749, 1758-1769. Source 2: Loudoun County , Virginia, 1765 Tithables and Voter List. Jean Jorgenson, 1983. [This is hand typed and bound, non-published work. Contributor Pauline Stark Moore.][ Author's comment: This source reported William Lacock had 2 tithables, naming himself and Moses ?Hayton/Hutton? whose age was between 16 and 21.]


Deborah Nordyke; Wood Family researcher. E-mail Address: Deborah’s Source: Loudoun County, Virginia Tithable (McIlhaney's List).


The Historian's Guide to Loudoun County Virginia, Volume I, by John T. Phillips, II (Leesburg, Virginia, Goose Creek Productions, 1996). Reports from the county land records that on May 8, 1759 three commissioners reported on a route for a new road "from Williams' Gap to the Town of John Palmers and by Isaac Nichols'...thence to the (Shenandoah) Road where Samuel Davis formerly lived...thence to the Town..." Page 337 (Original County Land Records, Book A, p. 235); Reports by August 1759, the commissioners had established the route at its western end. Page 224 (Original Land Records, Book A, p. 304); Reports that on J une 10, 1765, three county residents were appointed to "view the route for a Road from Williams Gap to...Leesburg." Page 338 (Original Land Recrods, Book B, p. 626).


James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia And His Descendants, Volume 1, page 1271. Compiled by Mary Kathryn Harris & Mary Iva Jean Jorgensen. Copyright 1985, Privately Printed Fort Worth. For birth of first child of Jonathan Stark and Margaret Ball, see page 1348.


Deborah Nordyke; Wood Family researcher. E-mail Address:



Page 5


Joseph Stark, listed on the next line of the tithable or under the line reporting James and William, was clearly living in close proximity to James and was 21 years of age or older. Logic would suggest he was also a brother. All three appeared to be living in the same general area as Nathan Lacock, which suggest he was their Uncle and brother of Sarah Stark, the widow mentioned in the 1765 probate record of Jonathan Stark. Daniel Stark, reported on the McIlhaney list, was living in the same general area as William Lacock, suggesting Daniel may have also been a brother of James, Joseph, and William, possibly living near his Lacock Uncle. The Harris and Jorgensen research concluded Daniel Stark was not a descendant of James Stark of Stafford County which further suggests he may have been related to the Stark men on James Hamilton's list.

If the arguments are sufficient to consider Daniel, Joseph, and William were related to James Stark, then possible years of birth can be determined from the tithable data. James, as already related, was born before 1739. Jonathan Stark, probably younger than James, was born between 1740 and 1747. Because Joseph and Daniel were over twenty-one, they were born before 1746, and were probably younger than Jonathan, suggesting they could have been born between 1740 and 1746. William was under the age of twenty-one in 1767 and the 1768 tithable list w ill reveal he was twenty-one in that year, suggesting he was born in 1747.

It would appear James and Joseph were not married by 1767 as suggested by the birth dates of their first child, nor was William likely to have been married due to his young age. Jonathan Stark married Margaret Ball in 1765 and their first child, name unknown, was born about 1766 in Morris County, New Jersey.[1] According to later records, Daniel Stark married a woman named Elizabeth, her surname believed to be Wells; but not known with certainty.[2] The son of Daniel Stark and Elizabeth , Jonathan D. Stark, according to a cemetery record, reports he was born May 14, 1768, most likely in Loudoun County.[3] This date of birth of Daniel's oldest known child would suggest the latest year of marriage could have been 1767.

James Stark, Daniel Stark (with his wife Elizabeth), Joseph Stark, and William Stark, were documented as living in Loudoun County in 1767 in approximately the same location as William Lacock, Nathan Lacock, Francis Vineyard, William Wood, and Abner Howell and were most likely brothers of James Stark and sons of Jonathan Stark and Sarah Lacock.

The 1768 James Hamilton Cameron Parish tithable list, compiled within the jurisdiction of Loudoun County, Virginia reveals William Laycock, James Stark, William Stark, and Joseph Stark were living very close to each other. Also reported on Hamilton's list was Nathan Laycock, his residence most likely near these men. On McIlhaney's list was Francis Vineyard, William Wood, and Daniel Stark, the latter two living in close proximity to each other.

On October 11, 1768, Christopher Stark was listed as a juror in the Loudoun County Court minutes. The case name was James McCall & wife Lydia - vs - Leven Powell — involving a dispute related to a detinue slave.[4] He served with Thomas Blincoe, John Popkins, Adam Mitchell, Robert Bell, William Shortridge, Everet Oxley, Timothy Howell, Henry Oxley, Jr., George Danskins, Tunnis Stull, and William Stoddard. For Christopher to serve on a jury, he had to be twenty-one years old placing his year of birth before 1747. As will be discussed later, Christopher Stark who married Martha Vineyard was a brother of James Stark . If he was a son of Jonathan Stark and Sarah Lacock, then he must have remained in New Jersey with other members of the Lacock family or was living with his brother, Jonathan Stark (Junior), which may explain the reason he doesn't appear on the 1767 or 1768 tithable list.[5] Because the above record is later in the year, Christopher may not have become a resident in Loudoun County until after the 1768 tithable list were compiled.



James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia And His Descendants, Volume 1, page 1271. Compiled by Mary Kathryn Harris & Mary Iva Jean Jorgensen. Copyright 1985, Privately Printed Fort Worth. For birth of first child of Jonathan Stark and Margaret Ball, see page 1348.


Author's Comment: Many researchers of this family believe Daniel's wife was Elizabeth Wells. That her given name was Elizabeth is not disputed. There were families with the surname Wells recorded living in Loudoun County, Virginia and Washington County, Pennsylvania at the same time Daniel and Elizabeth were present, but research to date has not been able to authenticate their relationship to Daniel's wife.


Author's Comment: Daniel's son was Reverend Jonathan D. Stark. According to Gwen Bjorkman, his birth date comes from a cemetery record and his date of death and place of burial was stated as follows; "Jonathan D. STARK d. 6 May 1828 (Cemetery record) and was buried in Old Ox Baptist Cemetery, Scott Co ., IN." Gwen Boyer Bjorkman, E-mail to Gene P. Stark dated February 12, 2004.


Loudoun County , Virginia Court Minutes, Book D, page 137. Webster’s Dictionary: "Detinue, noun: 1) detention of something due; the unlaw ful detention of a personal chattel from another. 2) a common-law action for the recovery of a personal chattel wrongfully detained or of its value."


Author's comment: Joseph Lacock (Junior) has not appeared in the record outside New Jersey, as yet, and is presumed to have been still living in New Jersey.




Page 6













Figure 1

1768 James Hamilton Cameron Parish Tithable List

Original of the 1768 Cameron Parish Tithable compiled by James Hamilton with the blocked area magnified revealing the names of Joseph Starke, William Starke, and James Starke. Cameron Parish was within the jurisdiction of Loudoun County, Virginia. The next line under James Starke has the name William Laycock, which was in the next microfilm frame of the list.


Page 7


By 1768, there were five men with the name Stark living in Loudoun County, most likely related and not descendants of James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia. As before, William Lacock, William Wood, and Francis Vineyard were residents as were many men with the surname Howell. The original records of the 1768 tithable lists clearly illustrate James Stark, William Stark, Joseph Stark, and William Lacock were living in very close proximity to each other. Daniel Stark, married by 1767, was living near William Wood in the same general region. From cemetery records, Daniel's first born child, Jonathan D. Stark, was born May 14, 1768. Considering he was married and the possibility none of the other Stark men were married by 1768, he may have had his own place of residence while his bachelor brothers were living near or with their Uncle William Lacock. It also seems reasonable to believe Sarah (Lacock) Stark and her young daughter of the same given name, Sarah Stark who married William Wood, were living in the home of Daniel by 1768. Still living in New Jersey were Joseph Lacock and Jonathan Stark (Junior).

November 5, 1768, the treaty of Fort Stanwix was made with the Indians which opened up the lands west of the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers for settlement. April 3, 1769, the land office opened in Philadelphia and on the first day twenty orders of survey were issued for land in present day Washington County, then part of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. Within one month there were 3200 applications for warrants, mostly made by Scotch-Irish living in eastern Pennsylvania.[1]

Of the five men with the surname Stark found living in Loudoun County in 1768, only James Stark appears on the tithable list for 1769. On the James Hamilton list of tithables for 1769 were Nathan Laycock, Francis Vinyard (3) with sons John and James, and William Laycock. Listed on the next four lines after William Laycock were Daniel Howell, Henry Harris, James Starke, and William Schooley. On the tithable list of Craven Payton were Hugh Howell, Andrew Howell, John Howell, Abner Howell, David Howell, Thomas Howell, Henry Oxley, Jr., James McLinsay, John Howell, John Howell, Sr., and Charles Howell.[2]

Also missing from the tithable list for 1769 was William Wood. According to Wood Family researchers, William Wood married Sarah Stark February 14, 1769. Debbie Nordyke, a Wood family researcher had these comments: "William took his new bride to the new settlement at Redstone Fort, in present day Washington County, PA. Indian trouble broke up the settlement and William brought his family back to Loudoun Co., VA, where Elizabeth was born in December, 1769. Sarah's older brothers, including Christopher, were still in Loudoun County and possibly other relatives. This was probably a safer place for them to return to for Sarah to give birth. Since William continues on the tith lists until 1768, not 1769 and then appears in 1770, this would fit the Draper manuscript notes."[3]

However, as already noted, Christopher Stark was not recorded as a resident of Loudoun County in 1768, nor was Daniel, Joseph, or William. Could these men have moved to Redstone Fort in 1769? Later records disclose Christopher Stark and Joseph Stark were on the Loudoun County tithable list with William Wood in 1770. After 1768, no record of Daniel Stark can be found in Loudoun County nor can records for James Stark be found after 1769. William Stark was not found in the Loudoun County records after 1768 and disappears from all later records suggesting he may have died after 1768.

James Stark may have married Hannah Howell sometime in 1769 or early 1770. There first known child , William Stark, was born November 23, 1770. Although the given name of James' wife is not in dispute, her surname is not known with certainty but because of the close relationship with the family of Abner Howell, cannot be discounted as improbable.[4]

Except for James Stark, four of the brothers were not recorded as residents of Loudoun County in 1769. Christopher and Joseph reappeared in the tithable list in 1770, but William Stark was absent from all of the records after 1768 suggesting he may have been deceased as early as 1769. Based on the research of the Wood family, William Wood and his new wife, Sarah Stark, moved to the new lands west of the Monongahela River, but shortly after arriving, had to return to Loudoun County for the birth of their first child, Elizabeth Wood, born December 4, 1769.[3] William Wood's name was again recorded on the Loudoun County tithable list in 1770. Nathan and William Lacock were still residents of Loudoun County along with the Vineyard family. Joseph Lacock (Junior) and Jonathan Stark (Junior) are presumed to still be living in New Jersey in 1769.

In 1770, Nathan Laycock, William Laycock, and Joseph Laycock appear on the Loudoun County tithable list of James Hamilton. Also on this list was Christopher Stark and Joseph Stark. William Wood was on James Hamilton's list suggesting he had returned to the County .[5]



The Pennsylvania-Virginia Boundary Controversy, by Raymond Martin Bell. Keyhole Vol. XXV, No. 3, July 1997.


Loudoun County, Virginia, 1765 Tithables and Voter List, Jean Jorgenson, 1983. [This is hand typed and bound, non-published work. Contributed by Pauline Stark Moore.]


Deborah Nordyke; Wood Family researcher. E-mail Address According to this source, the marriage date of William Wood and Sarah Stark was recorded in a "Wood Family Bible." Deborah reported there were three different sources with conflicting dates: 1. 1767- Maryland or NJ [Lyman C. Draper Manuscript notes, Series 8BB.]; 2. September 1768 - [1892 Marshall research, DAR 406237]; 3. February 14, 1769- [Bible, date only]. [Author's Comment: I have determined the Bible record most likely to be correct based on the above discussion, as did the contributor of this information and that the place of marriage was Loudoun County, the place of residence of William Wood and Daniel Stark in 1768.]


Author's Comment: As will be revealed later, Daniel and Christopher Stark served during the Revolutionary War in Captain Abner Howell's Company in Washington County, Pennsylvania and James Stark did live in close proximity to members of the Howell family in Loudoun County as reported above.


James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia And His Descendants, compiled by Mary Kathryn Harris & Mary Iva Jean Jorgensen, Copyright 1985, Privately Printed Fort Worth. Volume 1, page 1271.




Page 8


Abner Howell and his family were reported on Stephen Donaldson's list. The Vineyard family may have still been in residence, but records have not been found after 1769. The Shriner Research team reports the Vineyard's moved to Amwell Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania from Loudoun County in 1776.[1] James Stark and Daniel Stark were not living in Loudoun County at the time the 1770 list was compiled. This was the first record found disclosing Joseph Lacock had moved to Loudoun County from New Jersey by 1770.

After 1770, the surnames of interest begin to disappear from the Loudoun County records. The Harris and Jorgensen research team reports Christopher Stark was listed on the "undated tithables" section and once in a section dated "1772-1783."[2] The last record found for James Stark was dated September 13, 1769 in the Loudoun County Court minutes. It was James Stark - vs - Elias John for a note of hand. The defendant did not appear and the plaintiff was awarded 3 pounds . In addition to Joseph Stark being on Hamilton's list of tithables, he appeared in the Loudoun County Court minutes March 14, 1770. Daniel Hart sued Joseph Stark for a note of hand. This case was dismissed as neither appeared.[3] All the above would be the last records in Loudoun County, suggesting the Stark brothers have moved elsewhere by 1771 or 1772 at the latest.


1772 Through February 1774

April 3, 1769, the Pennsylvania Proprietary Land Office opened. Over the next two years, pioneers moved in large numbers into the region afterwards known as Washington County, Pennsylvania. When on March 9, 1771, Bedford County was formed from the western part of Cumberland County, it included this region. Pitt Township and Springhill Township were created at that time, the latter taking in the region which was south of present day Washington, Pennsylvania. The 1772 tax-rolls for Springhill Township, Bedford County, reveal 308 landholders, 89 tenants, and 58 single freemen, most from Virginia and Maryland. Virginia did not attempt to establish court jurisdiction over this part of Western Pennsylvania until late 1773 and early 1774.

The Proprietary of Pennsylvania, observing that this region was quickly filling with settlers from Virginia and Maryland without warrants, became alarmed that the area might be lost to Virginia. On February 26, 1773, it created Westmoreland County from the western portion of Bedford County. Springhill Township, with the same boundaries as before, was within the boundary of the new county. Westmoreland's first county seat was at Hannastown, within thirty-five miles of Fort Pitt.



Figure 3: Colonial Road Map

=== Main Roads / ---- Secondary Roads or Trails

Colonial Roads that may have been used by families migrating from Loudoun County, Virginia to Redstone and beyond. Two ways of travel could have been used. Being close to the Potomac River, they could have traveled by water to Fort Cumberland and then by land on the secondary roads from Fort Cumberland to Redstone. The second method could have been by land traveling up from Loudoun County to Fredericktown and west to Fort Cumberland on the Main Road and then to Redstone on the secondary road. From Loudoun County, the distance to Fort Cumberland was about 75 miles and to Redstone from Fort Cumberland about 60 miles as the crow flies.




Shriner, Walter O., Letter Addressed to Mrs. Lynn Vineyard, Wharton, Texas, signed "Walter O. Shriner, 2525 N. Ninth St., Terre Haute, Ind., 47804, March 12, 1971." Contributed by Pauline Stark Moore. [Author's Comment: Walter Shriner offers no source information for this statement.]


James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia And His Descendants, compiled by Mary Kathryn Harris & Mary Iva Jean Jorgensen, Copyright 1985, Privately Printed Fort Worth. Volume 1, page 1271.


Ibid. Volume 1, page 1271. Reports source of James Stark and Joseph Stark Court records was Loudoun County Court Minutes, Book D, page 270 for James Stark & Page 324 for Joseph Stark.



Page 10


Lord Dunmore, Governor of the Colony of Virginia, visited Fort Pitt in late 17 73 where he met Dr. John Connolly. Dunmore appointed Connolly "Captain and Commandant of the Militia of Pittsburgh." On January 1, 1774, the unsettled boundary between Pennsylvania and Virginia became hotly contested when Connolly posted a proclamation on the walls of Fort Pitt to announce his appointment and Lord Dunmore's intention to claim the region for Virginia. Within this proclamation, Connolly ordered those men in the region dependant on the fort for protection to assemble the militia on January 25.[1,2]

After the lands opened up for settlement in the western regions west of the Monongahela River near Fort Redstone in April of 1769, William Wood, Daniel Stark, and others from Loudoun County may have traveled to Philadelphia when the land office opened, making application for warrants along with many others in Pennsylvania. According to Wood family researchers, grants were issued in 1769 to Benjamin Fry on the Monongahela River; Luther Colvin on Pigeon Creek; and Vincent Colvin on Pigeon Creek.[3] The surname Colvin appears numerous times in the Loudoun County Court minutes as early as 1759 and when the William Wood family moved to Kentucky in 1785 they were accompanied by Benjamin Fry and James Turner, landing at Maysville on December 31, 1784. William Wood was ordained a Baptist Minister in October of 1775 and organized the Limestone Baptist Church in early 1785. The charter members were William Wood, Sarah Wood, James Turner, John Smith, Luther Colvin, Priscilla Colvin, Charles Tucker, Sarah Tucker, and Sarah Stark.[4] From this list of names and their similarity to the names granted land in 1769 above, we can hypothesize these families apparently moved together from Loudoun County to the region which became Washington County, Pennsylvania, and then later to Kentucky. However, examination of the Cumberland County, Pennsylvania Index of Warrantees of Land (1750-1784) reveal none of the names mentioned above.[5] Therefore, the accuracy of the Wood Family research cannot be determined with certainty.

William Wood married Sarah Stark February 14, 1769 in Loudoun County. Before the marriage, Daniel Stark was living near William Wood. Most likely living with Daniel were his sister and mother, Sarah (Lacock) Stark. Wood family researchers theorize William Wood moved to Redstone Fort with his new bride, which would account for his not being reported on the 1769 tithable list for Loudoun County.[3] It would not be inconceivable William obtained a land grant or was squatting on land in the region as early as 1769. Perhaps Daniel, Joseph, and Christopher Stark removed with the Wood and Colvin families to Pigeon Creek, a tributary of the Monongahela River, where their surnames appear in close proximity on land surveys conducted in 1780. Indian problems, always a threat in the region, could have forced William Wood and his pregnant wife, Sarah, back to Loudoun County in late 1769, explaining why William Wood appeared on the 1770 tithable list along with Christopher and Joseph. Unless Daniel and James were somehow missed, as already mentioned, they were not reported as residents of Loudoun County in 1770 and 1771.

Three brothers named Enoch Enoch, Henry Enoch (Junior), and David Enoch had become familiar with the region around Ten Mile Creek and its tributaries as early as 1757. Traveling to and from the land over the mountains were such notables as George Washington, Christopher Gist, and Thomas Cresap who made regular stops at the home of their father, Henry Enoch (Senior), who was living in Hampshire County, Virginia. From these men, the Enoch's were able to learn about the quality of the lands these men visited and their potential for farming.[6]

Henry Enoch (Junior) was documented as a resident of Springhill Township, Bedford County, Pennsylvania on the 1772 tax list.[7] He and his brothers, Enoch and David, had moved from Hampshire County, Virginia, perhaps as early as 1768. The Enoch name could not be found among the warrants issued by Cumberland County and he may have been a squatter without a Pennsylvania land grant. David Enoch served as a Lieutenant in the local militia under Dr. John Connolly in 1774 or 1775 and members of his militia unit were Daniel Stark and Christopher Stark. Also reported as residents of Springhill Township in 1772 were Captain William Crawford, Michael Cox, George Colvin, and Joseph Starkey, all recognized as land owners. Baptist Minister John Crossley was on the 1772 tax list as a boarder who was not head of a family.

Could Joseph Starkey have been Joseph Stark? Later, in 1783, Joseph Stark was reported to have 240 acres in Amwell Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Depending on its location, he could have been in Springhill Township. However, the surname Starkey can be found in many records before and after 1783, so it cannot be determined with certainty Joseph Starkey and Joseph Stark were the same person.



The County Court For The District of West Augusta, Virginia, Held At Augusta Town, Near Washington, Pennsylvania, 1776 - 1777, by Boyd Crumrine. Printed by Observer Job Rooms for the Washington County Historical Society, May 1905.


Historic Pittsburgh, Chronology by Decade 1770 - 1779; Web Page at URL: http//


Deborah Nordyke; Wood Family researcher. E-mail Address


James Stark of Stafford County, Virginia And His Descendants, compiled by Mary Kathryn Harris & Mary Iva Jean Jorgensen, Copyright 1985, Privately Printed Fort Worth. Volume 1, page 1271 & 1272.


Cumberland County Warrantees of Land. 1750-1874. PA Archives Series 3, Vol. 24. See link to list pages at URL http// Click on "Land Records."


Source 1: http://family sers/r/e/n/Betty-D-Renick; Family Research of Betty Dotson Renick. Source 2 : The Tenmile Country and Its Pioneer Families: A Genealogical History of the Upper Monongahela Valley, by Howard L. Leckey, published by Closson Press (Apollo, Pennsylvania), page 49.


The Monongahela of Old or Historical Sketches of Southwestern Pennsylvania to the Year 1800, by James Veach. Pittsburgh, 1910 edition.




Page 11




Figure 4

Washington County, 1781-1787

Location Enoch's Blockhouse, Henry Enoch's home, and William Wood's home. Note location of Redstone near the mouth of Redstone Creek. [Image source: History of Washington County, Pennsylvania: with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men, edited by Boyd Crumrine. Illustrated. Philadelphia: L.H. Everts and Co., 1882. Page 222.



Henry Enoch built a blockhouse two miles below his residence at the junction of Ten Mile Creek and its north fork. This would have been about two miles from the mouth of Ten Mile Creek and the Monongahela River. Nine miles up the North Fork was the blockhouse of Richard Jackson.[1] On December 1, 1773, the first meeting of the Ten Mile Baptist Church was held in the home of Henry's brother, Enoch Enoch. The Ten Mile Baptist Church was the first congregation of any religious denomination in Washington County to procure a regular pastor. They called Rev. James Sutton, February 4, 1774 from Morristown, Morris County, New Jersey, and held their first communion on the first Sabbath in May. Before the next appointed communion could be held, the few members were scattered for the summer on account of the Indians, and the pastor moved back over the mountains until fall.[2] James Sutton was the son of Reverend David Sutton. He married Elizabeth Cox, a surname later to be encountered in Kentucky.

As was the case for Baptist Minister John Crossley, the Virginia authorities had little religious tolerance. Everyone was required to pay the Anglican Church tithables. John Crossley attempted to establish a Baptist Church and was imprisoned.[2] When he was released, he moved to Redstone. The records reveal John's surname spelled as Corbley, Crosley, and Crossley. James Stark witnessed Joseph Lacock's will in 1760 in Sussex County, New Jersey. Also a witness to this will was Henry Crosley, his surname similar in spelling to John's surname. Could there be a connection?

Reverend Henry Crosley was mentioned in the "Edwards' Materials" text as follows: "Rev. Henry Crossley: He was ordained their pastor (Schooly Baptist Church) in 1753, which was the year of their existence as a church: In 1755, he quitted them, and went to Woolverton, where he gathered a small congregation: he soon left them, and went to Knollton, where he continued about three years: from thence to Mount Bethel; from Mount Bethel to Schooly; from Schooly to Morristown; and from Morristown he went to Redstone , where he now resides; and where he will continue; for he is too old to shift habitations."[3]



Source 1: http://family sers/r/e/n/Betty-D-Renick; Family Research of Betty Dotson Renick. Source 2: The Tenmile Country and Its Pioneer Families:A Genealogical History of the Upper Monongahela Valley, by Howard L. Leckey, published by Closson Press (Apollo, Pennsylvania), page 49.


History of Washington County, From Its First Settlement... page 178, Chapter XV, Religious History. By Alfred Creigh, LL. D. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by Alfred Creigh, LL. D. in the Office of the Clerk of the District Court of the United States in and for the Western District of Pennsylvania.


Edwards Materials (Baptist History), Volume 1, page 110. By Morgan Edwards. Republished by Heritage Papers, Danielsville, Georgia, 1984.


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This section of the publication was about the early Baptist Churches and their ministers in Colonial New Jersey. Henry Crossley provided the property for the Knollton Church formed in 1763 in Sussex County, New Jersey and was its first minister. This was the same Church the Stark and Lacock families joined in that same year. Therefore, Henry Crossley appears to have moved to Redstone about 1774 to 1776. However, his relationship to John Crossley is not known.

As further confirmation Henry Crosley/Crossley moved to western Pennsylvania, Alfred Creigh, in his book entitled, The History of Washington County, Pennsylvania, had these comments: "From Rhode Island the cause of religious liberty had spread throughout the New England colonies, and Rev. Henry Crosbye (Crosley) and the Suttons were the heralds that brought it from New Jersey to western Pennsylvania, while John Corbley at the same time carried it fresh from the jails of Virginia."[1] Reverend Henry Crosbye/Crosley and Reverend Henry Crosley were the same person who witnessed the will of Joseph Lacock in 1760. John Corbley was the above John Crossley on the 1772 Tax list for Springhill Township.

The Sutton and Crosley surnames provide a link between the Stark brothers and New Jersey, for one could speculate the Stark families probably knew when the New Jersey Baptist arrived in the region of Redstone and may have been lured to the region in hopes of joining members of their old congregation. The brothers and their families were devout Baptist, and if they found it difficult to practice their religion in Loudoun County, they would have most certainly moved to a more Baptist friendly region.

William Wood was on the Loudoun County tithable list in 1770. By the end of 1770, William was at Redstone and settled near Ten Mile Creek. This was where William was converted to the Baptist faith. He preached in neighborhoods in conjunction with John Corbley (Crossley), Rev. Mr. Majors, Rev. James Ireland, & Rev. Mr. Swingler.[2] Christopher Stark Wood was born March 9, 1772, to William and Sarah Wood in Fallowfield, Washington County, VA/PA.[3] Because these place names did not exist in 1772, Christopher would have been born in what was still Bedford County, Pennsylvania.

Christopher Stark married Martha Vineyard about 1772, the place of marriage unknown but the approximate date determined by the birth of their first child, James Vineyard Stark, May 10, 1773.[4] In October of 1775, Christopher Stark, Daniel Stark, and William Wood were paid at Fort Pitt for militia service during Dunmore's War.

While the question of the residence of the Stark brothers during these years has not been answered, several possibilities have been presented. They may have been squatting on Pennsylvania land warrants as early as 1771 or living in the region of Pigeon Creek with William Wood. For religious reasons, they may have left Loudoun County to join with their Sussex County, New Jersey Baptist neighbors, escaping the tithable system of Virginia. Let's now address the Stark brothers participation in Dunmore's War.


1774 Through 1775 - Dunmore’s War

Most historians are in agreement the murder of Mingo Chief Logan's relatives at Baker's cabin on April 30, 1774, was the beginning of the conflict between the settlers and Native American tribes which became known as Dunmore’s War. However, preceding that date, the boundary dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia was the cause of considerable unrest amongst settlers west of the Monongahela River. On January 1, 1774, the unsettled boundary between Pennsylvania and Virginia became hotly contested when Dr. John Connolly posted a proclamation on the walls of Fort Pitt announcing his appointment by Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, as Commandant of the Militia of Pittsburgh and further proclaimed Virginia had jurisdiction over Pittsburgh and its dependencies. The proclamation posted stated the following:

"Whereas his Excellency John, the Earl of Dunmore, Governor in chief and Captain General of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, and Vice Admiral of the same, has been pleased to nominate and appoint me Captain, Commandant of the Militia of Pittsburgh and its Dependencies, with instructions to assure his Majesty’s Subjects settled on the Western Waters, that having the greatest Regard to their Prosperity and Interest, and convinced from their repeated Memorials to the House of Burgesses the Necessity of erecting a New County, to include Pittsburgh, for the redress of our Complaints, and to take every other Step that may attend to afford you that justice for which you Solicit. In order to facilitate this desirable circumstance, I hereby require and command all persons in the Dependency of Pittsburgh to assemble themselves there as a Militia on the 25th Instant, at which time I shall communicate other Matters for the promotion of public Utility. Given under my Hand, this 1st day of January, 1774."

Signed: John Connolly

[Source: "History of Washington County, Pennsylvania with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men." Edited by Boyd Crumrine. Published in Philadelphia by L.H. Everts and Co., 1882. Page 169.]



History of Washington County, From Its First Settlement... page 178, Chapter XV, Religious History. By Alfred Creigh, LL. D. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by Alfred Creigh, LL. D. in the Office of the Clerk of the District Court of the United States in and for the Western District of Pennsylvania.


Deborah Nordyke; Wood Family researcher. E-mail Address Her source: Unpublished Lyman C. Draper (1815-1891) Manuscript notes, Series 8BB. Owned by the Wisconsin State Historical Society.


Cemetery Record. Christopher Wood is buried in Hoover Cemetery, Athens, Indiana.


David Stark Borrowman, Stark Family History, (Manuscript), page 25, Markers In The Hutton Hill Cemetery. This would have been Nebo, Pike County, Illinois. Inscription reads, "James Stark died Oct. 19, 1853 age 78 yrs., 5 mo., 9 days." Translates to May 10, 1775 for birth date. [Author's comment: Most researchers show the date as May 10, 1773. I have used their date although the tombstone indicates he was born two years later. Tombstones have been known to have errors or Borrowman was not correct in his text.]




Page 13


Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, created on February 26, 1773 from part of Bedford County, also claimed jurisdiction over the region. Arthur St. Clair, Prothonotary (Chief Clerk) for Westmoreland County, received communication January 12th from Justice Aeneas Mackay which said; "This imprudent piece (The proclamation) will I am much afraid be the means of creating great confusion and disturbance in this country, unless proper steps will be taken to check it in time." In his proclamation, Connolly had commanded the militia to assemble in Pittsburgh on January 25th. One day before the appointed time for the militia to meet, Connolly was arrested by order of St. Clair for having been the author of the proclamation and unlawfully ordering the militia to be assembled. Connolly was jailed after refusing to promise assurances of good behavior till the next court met in April.

St. Clair believed the arrest of Connolly would be an end to the affair. However, about eighty armed men assembled the next day, their allegiance clearly with Virginia and Dr. Connolly. Towards nightfall, after a day of drinking, they became belligerent but no hostile acts occurred because the Westmoreland officials maintained a low profile until morning.

The Pennsylvanians were stunned to learn Dr. Connolly was given a commission signed by Lord Dunmore giving him military authority over the region, for they believed such disputes would be settled by the Crown. In a letter to Governor Penn, St. Clair wrote: "And it must be evident to you that Lord Dunmore, as Governor of Virginia, can have no more right to determine this matter, than one of us, for this plain reason; the charters of Pennsylvania and Virginia, both flowed originally from the Crown; on that footing they are perfectly independent of each other; but they are both parties in this dispute, and consequently neither can be judge."

After a few days, Dr. Connolly, after pledging his honor to return before the next court in April, was released by Sheriff John Proctor. After spending a few days in Pittsburgh, Connolly traveled to Redstone where twenty men were recruited to accompany him to Virginia. He was commissioned Justice of the Peace of West Augusta District by the Augusta County Court, providing him with additional legal powers. He returned to Pittsburgh on March 28th with about 20 armed men and again declared the region was within the jurisdiction of Virginia. "West Augusta District was part of Augusta County and within the jurisdiction of Virginia," declared Connolly to those assembled to hear him read a letter prepared and signed by Lord Dunmore. The letter further announced the actions of Connolly had the full support of the Governor of Virginia and commanded him to assemble the militia at Pittsburgh to enforce the Laws of Virginia. Soon after, Sheriff Proctor and his Constables were arrested giving Virginia full control of Fort Pitt. In a letter to Governor Penn, Justice Mackay wrote: "The Indians are greatly alarmed at seeing parties of armed men patrolling through our streets daily, not knowing but there is hostility intended against them and their country."

Connolly left Pittsburgh March 30th with a militia body-guard of between 150 and 200 men, intending as promised, to appear at the next court secession of Westmoreland County at Hannastown. However, his intention was not to summit to the court of Westmoreland but to use his authority as Justice of the Peace of West Augusta District to issue Kings Warrants for the arrest of Westmoreland Justices Mackay, Devereux Smith, and Andrew McFarlane. They were arrested at their homes on April 9th for interfering with the duties of a Virginia official and transported under guard to Staunton, Virginia. Mackay was granted permission to proceed to Williamsburg where he reported the circumstances of the arrest of the three men directly to Lord Dunmore. According to Mackay, Dunmore stated; "... that Connolly was authorized by him as Governor of Virginia to prosecute the claim of that Colony to Pittsburgh and its Dependencies, and as to taking of prisoners, he Connolly only imitated the Pennsylvania officers in Respect to Connolly's imprisonment by them." After the audience before Dunmore, the three prisoners were released who then returned to their homes. After failed attempts by Governor Penn to negotiate a settlement of the boundary dispute with Lord Dunmore, Governor Penn sent correspondence on April 22, 1774 to William Crawford, his associates, and Justices of Westmoreland directing them to use caution when confronting the Officers of Lord Dunmore. Lacking the ability to retaliate, Pennsylvania temporarily conceded jurisdiction of the region to Dr. Connolly and Virginia.

On April 30, 1774, Mingo Chief Logan, with a hunting party consisting of men, women and children, pitched camp at the mouth of Yellow Creek on the west side of the Ohio River. Up river at the mouth of Beaver Creek lived Joshua Baker, whose chief occupation was trading with local tribes and providing them with Liquor. Several members of the tribe including relatives of Chief Logan, made a peaceful visit to the Baker cabin, and after several of the tribesmen became intoxicated, were killed by Daniel Greathouse and several other settlers. One woman with a baby of about 2 months was among those killed but the child's life was spared. This event, more than any other, escalated already strained relations between the settlers and Native Americans to a state of war.

On May 6th, Valentine Crawford, brother of William Crawford, living on Jacobs Creek near the Youghioheny River, wrote a letter to George Washington which said: "This alarm has caused the people to move from over the Monongahela, off Chartier's and Raccoon [Creeks], as fast as you ever saw them in the year 1756 or 1757 down in Frederick County, Virginia. There were more than one thousand people crossed the Monongahela in one day at three ferries that are not one mile apart." This correspondence suggests that the region between the Monongahela and Ohio Rivers was rapidly being evacuated as the settlers moved to safer areas east of the Monongahela River.



Page 14


On May 8th, William Crawford, living on the west bank of the Youghioheny River near Stewart's Crossing, wrote a letter to Colonel George Washington: "Daniel Greathouse and some others fell on some (Indians) at the mouth of Yellow Creek, and killed and scalped ten, and took one child about two months old, which is now at my house. I have taken the child from a woman that it had been given to. Our inhabitants are much alarmed, many hundreds having gone over the mountain, and the whole country evacuated as far as the Monongahela, and many on this side of the river are gone over the mountain. In short, a war is every moment expected. We have a council now with the Indians. What the event will be I do not know. I am now setting out for Fort Pitt at the head of one hundred men. Many others are to meet me there and at Wheeling, where we shall await the motions of the Indians and act accordingly." Therefore, on May 8th, Crawford, leading about 100 men, left for Fort Pitt where he was to rendezvous with others. He then expected to proceed from Fort Pitt to Wheeling where additional men were expected to join his force.

During the early part of May, Connolly sent a letter to Dunmore informing him of the attacks being carried out by Indians in the region and revealed his plan to send a detachment of men to Wheeling to construct a Fort on the Ohio River. Ebenezer Zane and John Caldwell had already begun construction on the site by building a blockhouse. In early June, without waiting for a reply from Dunmore, Connolly ordered William Crawford to proceed to Wheeling. Rather than travel down the Ohio from Fort Pitt to Wheeling, Crawford most likely elected to travel up Chartier's Creek to Catfish Camp and from there to Wheeling, perhaps recruiting other men along the way. By the time he arrived at Wheeling in the middle of June, his command consisted of between 200 and 300 men.

Meanwhile, Dunmore ordered Colonel Angus McDonald, an officer of Fredrick County, Virginia, to assemble the militia. Once assembled, he was to proceed to Wheeling with orders to assist in the completion of the fort. Upon completion of the fort, he was to then proceed west from Wheeling to the Muskingum River and attack several Shawnee villages at Wakatomica. After some difficulty in raising the force, McDonald crossed the Monongahela River at Redstone Fort with between 400 and 500 men, arriving at Wheeling in July. With the addition of these men, the fort at Wheeling was quickly completed and named Fort Fincastle in honor of Lord Dunmore.

Leaving Crawford in command of about two hundred men at the newly completed fort, McDonald departed Wheeling with about 400 to 500 m en, arriving on July 26th at the mouth of Fish Creek, located about twenty-four miles below Wheeling on the Ohio River. From there, he marched cross country to the Muskingum River. After crossing about 90 miles of wilderness, on August 2nd, the party was ambushed by about 30 Shawnee 6 miles from the villages. After a brief skirmish of thirty minutes, the Native Americans broke off contact leaving four dead and taking their wounded with them. McDonald's command suffered two dead and five wounded. One of those killed in the skirmish was a man named Martin and three of the wounded were Nathaniel Fox, William Linn, and John Hardin. Leaving a small party to attend to the wounded, McDonald pressed on arriving at the Muskingum by nightfall. Across the river, the Shawnee were prepared to protect their villages and during the evening shots were exchanged which produced no casualties.

After several days of small skirmishes with the tribes, the Shawnee sued for peace, a delaying tactic designed to allow the tribes to move their women and children to safety. By the time McDonald crossed the river, the Shawnee were gone, having abandoned their villages. Before leaving, McDonald burned the villages and nearby corn crops. With provisions running low, McDonald returned to Wheeling and then to Redstone Fort where he awaited the arrival of Lord Dunmore.

Lord Dunmore departed Williamsburg, Virginia about mid-August, recruiting some twelve hundred men as he proceeded to Fort Pitt, arriving there in early September. He had ordered Colonel Andrew Lewis, who had been assembling a militia of 1,100 men at Camp Union, to proceed to the mouth of the Kanawha River, where the two forces were to rendezvous for joint attacks on the Shawnee villages located on the Scioto River. Dunmore arrived at Fort Fincastle (Wheeling) on September 30, 1774. On October 1st, Valentine Crawford wrote a letter to George Washington announcing the arrival of Dunmore at Fort Fincastle and Dunmore's plans for the expedition. He wrote: "His Lordship arrived here yesterday with about twelve hundred men, seven hundred of whom came by water with his L'd'p [Lordship], and five hundred came with my brother William by land with the bullocks. His L'd'p has sent him with five hundred men, fifty packhorses, and two hundred bullocks to meet Col. Lewis at the mouth of Hockhocking, below the mouth of Little Kanawha. His Lordship is to go by water with the rest of the troops in a few days."

After McDonald returned from his expedition into the Indian Territory, William Crawford must have returned to Fort Pitt (most likely by the middle of August or early September) where he joined with the forces led by Dunmore. Crawford's troops moved the cattle overland from Fort Pitt, probably driving the cattle up Chartier's Creek to Catfish Camp and then over to Wheeling, arriving either before or on September 30. The supply train then crossed the Ohio and traveled parallel to the river to the mouth of the Hocking River where a stockade for the cattle was erected with the assistance of Dunmore's troops from Wheeling a few days later.

Colonel Lewis' force arrived at the mouth of the Kanawha on October 6th, and not finding Dunmore at the place of rendezvous, sent messengers up the Ohio looking for His Lordship. October 9th, Lewis received a dispatch from Dunmore reporting he was at the mouth of the Hocking River and was going to move up the Hocking and overland to the Shawnee villages on the Scioto River and ordered Lewis to cross the Ohio and proceed overland from his location to the same villages where the two forces would join together for the attack. However, on October 10th, Lewis was attacked by about one thousand Shawnee Warriors led by Chief Cornstalk. The battle of Pleasant Point lasted all day with heavy casualties on both sides causing Chief Cornstalk to retreat across the Ohio and return to the villages on the Scioto River. After attending to the wounded, Lewis proceeded towards the Shawnee villages as ordered.




Page 15












Figure 5


April 30- Massacre of Logan's Relatives at Bakers Cabin.


May 8- William Crawford leaves Stewart's Crossing for Fort Pitt with 100 men.


May to early June - William Crawford at Fort Pitt assembling men for move to Wheeling.


Mid June - William Crawford arrives at Wheeling with between 200 and 300 men and works with Ebenezer Zane and John Caldwell to build a fort later named Fort Fincastle in Lord Dunmore's honor.


July - Angus McDonald arrives from Frederick County, Virginia with between 400 and 500. Assists in completion of Fort.


July 26 - Angus McDonald leaves Wheeling with 400 men arriving at Fish Creek 24 miles down river from Wheeling. Begins march overland from Fish Creek to Shawnee Villages on the Muskingum River.


Page 16


Dunmore arrived at Camp Charlotte on Sippo Creek before Lewis arrived and probably because of the defeat at Point Pleasant, Cornstalk and the other Shawnee Chiefs met with Lord Dunmore. A council of the chiefs was held, and although Cornstalk was bitterly opposed by many of the chiefs, he was able to persuade them to seek a peace with the Virginians. The terms set forth by Dunmore were honored by the Shawnee and a treaty was concluded. By the time Lewis arrived, the war was over, and although he and his men wanted to continue the hostilities, Lord Dunmore ordered them to return to Point Pleasant.

Not all of the Indians wanted peace, for the Mingo were still defiant. They slipped away with their prisoners and livestock stolen during the hostilities, thus not complying with the terms of the treaty signed by the Shawnee Chiefs. Major William Crawford, promoted from Captain by Dunmore, wrote the following letter to his friend George Washington:

Stewart's Crossing, Nov. 14, 1774"

Sir, - I yesterday returned from our late expedition against the Shawanese, and I think we may with propriety say we have had great success, as we made them sensible of their villany and weakness, and I hope made peace with them on such a footing as will be lasting, if we can make them adhere to the terms of the agreement, which are as follows: First they have to give up all the prisoners taken ever by them in war with white people, also Negroes, and all horses stolen or taken by them since the last war. And, further, no Indians for the future is to hunt on the east side of the Ohio, nor any white man on the west side; as that seems to have been the cause of some of the disturbance between our people and them. As a guarantee that they will perform their part of the agreement, they have given up four chief men, to be kept as hostages, who are to be relieved yearly, or as they may choose. The Shawanese have complied with the terms, but the Mingoes did not like the conditions, and had a mind to deceive us; but Lord Dunmore discovered their intentions, which were to slip off while we wer e settling matters with the Shawanese. The Mingoes intended to go to the Lakes, and take their prisoners with them, and their horses which they had stolen.

Lord Dunmore ordered myself with two hundred and forty men to set out in the night. We were to march to a town about forty miles distant from our camp up the Scioto, where we understood the whole of the Mingoes were to rendezvous upon the following day, in order to pursue their journey. This intelligence came by John Montour, son of Capt. Montour, whom you formerly knew.

Because of the number of Indians in our camp, we marched out of it under pretense of going to Hockhocking for more provisions. Few knew of our setting off, anyhow, and none knew where we were going to until the next day. Our march was performed with as much speed as possible. We arrived at a town called the Salt Lick Town the ensuing night, and at daybreak we got around it with one-half our force, and the remainder were sent to a small village half a mile distant. Unfortunately one of our men was discovered by an Indian who lay out from the town some distance by a log which the man was creeping up to. This obliged the man to kill the Indian. This happened before daylight, which did us much damage, as the chief part of the Indians made their escape in the dark, but we got fourteen prisoners and killed six of the enemy, wounding several more. We got all their baggage and horses, ten of their guns, and two white prisoners. The plunder sold for four hundred pounds sterling, besides what was returned to a Mohawk Indian who was there. The whole of the Mingoes were ready to start, and were to have set out the morning we attacked them.

[Source: History of Washington County, Pennsylvania with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men. Edited by Boyd Crumrine. Published in Philadelphia by L. H. Everts and Co., 1882. Pages 72 and 73.]

This assault on the Mingo town by Major Crawford was the last act of hostility in Dunmore's War. In late October, Dunmore pulled out and was back at Redstone by November 17th. Before leaving the region, however, he left some troops to garrison various outposts along the Ohio and many in his command did not return home until January or February of 1775.


Bibliography - 1774 Through 1775 - Dunmore’s War


History of Washington County, Pennsylvania with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men, Edited by Boyd Crumrine. Published in Philadelphia by L. H. Everts and Co., 1882.


Documentary History of Dunmore's War, 1774, (1905), edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites & Louise Phelps Kellogg, published by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin (Madison, Wisconsin), reprinted by C. J. Carrier Company (Harrisonburg, Virginia), 1974. Pages 151-156. [McDonald's Expeditio n Extracts from a letter from Maj. Angus McDonald to Maj. John Connolly. Reprinted from English Historical Manuscripts Commission, 11th Report , Volume V, p. 359.] [Based on extracts enclosed in a letter from Thomas Walpole to the Earl of Dartmouth, dated October 27, 1774].


The Indian Wars of Pennsylvania: An Account of the Indian Events, in Pennsylvania, of The French and Indian War, Pontiac's War, Lord Dunmore's War, The Revolutionary War and the Indian Uprising from 1789 to 1795; Tragedies of the Pennsylvania Frontier, Based Primarily on the Pennsylvania Archivesand Colonial Records, Second Edition, Including Supplement to the First Edition and Handwritten Corrections by the Author (1931). By C. Hale Sipe. Reprinted in 1995, 1998, 1999 by Wennawoods Publishing. Battle of Point Pleasant, pages 498-499.


Lord Dunmore's Little War of 1774: His Captains and Their Men Who Opened Up Kentucky & the West to American Settlement (2002), by Warren Skidmore with Donna Kaminsky, published by Heritage Books, Inc. (Westminster, Maryland), 2002. Pages 9-12 Chapter Three: Preparation s for War.




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Figure 6 - Dunmore War Later


August 2 - McDonald ambushed by Shawnee. Nathaniel Fox Wounded.


Late August - McDonald back at Redstone awaiting arrival of Lord Dunmore.


Early September - William Crawford back at Fort Pitt awaiting arrival of Lord Dunmore.


Mid September - William Crawford and 500 men move cattle and supplies from Fort Pitt to Wheeling.


September 30 - Dunmore and Crawford arrive at Wheeling. Crawford continues to Hocking River.


October 9 - Crawford & Dunmore at mouth of Hocking River where Stockade was completed for the cattle.


October 10 - Battle of Point Pleasant occurs.


Later in October - Dunmore arrives at Camp Charlotte where Cornstalk and Chiefs meet to discuss ending the war.


Towards end of October - Crawford sent up the Scioto to destroy Mingo Village.


November 14, 1774 - Crawford writes a letter to George Washington from his home at Steward's Crossing.


Page 18


The Stark Brothers Participation In Dunmore’s War

James Stark, Daniel Stark, Christopher Stark, and William Wood participated in Dunmore's War for which they were paid at Fort Pitt in October of 1775. However, at the beginning of hostilities, their place of residence is not known with certainty. They all may have been living near Pigeon Creek which would have placed them about five miles west of the Monongahela River and half-way between Redstone and Pittsburgh.

Records from Dunmore's War report Daniel Stark and Christopher Stark served in Colonel William Crawford's Frederick County, Virginia Regiment under Captain Joseph Mitchell, their company commander. Two others serving in Captain Mitchell's Company were Lieutenant Nathaniel Fox and Sergeant Zophar Ball. The length of service of Captain Mitchell, for which he was paid 79 pounds and 10 shillings, was 159 days.[1]

Assuming hostilities ended before the end of October 1774, Mitchell's pay period probably ended about November 1, 1774, implying his pay period began about May 20, 1774. Therefore, the Stark brothers could have served in Colonel William Crawford's Regiment between May 20, 1774 and November 1, 1774. From the above historical account, William Crawford departed his home with 100 men May 8th for Fort Pitt, where other men of the surrounding area militia were to assemble. By the time Crawford was ready to leave Fort Pitt for Wheeling he had a command of between two hundred and three hundred men, many apparently living on both sides of the Monongahela River and as far east as Laurel Hills. Its possible some of these men traveled over the mountains from Frederick County, meeting at Steward's Crossing before proceeding on to Fort Pitt with Crawford. Joseph Mitchell could have been one of these men. Because Pigeon Creek was in close proximity to Stewart's Crossing, the Stark brothers could have also been among those who assembled at Steward's Crossing. Once the men had assembled at Fort Pitt, they surely were organized into companies, not all of the men in each company necessarily from the same region but assigned to regional Captains.

The above historical account reveals the region between the Monongahela and Ohio Rivers had been mostly evacuated. Allowing Daniel and Christopher time to move their families to safety on the east side of the Monongahela River between April 30th and May 20th, they probably had time to travel to Fort Pitt to participate in the militia assembly or assigned to Mitchell's Company May 8th at Steward's Crossing. If they served in William Crawford's Regiment, then they most likely participated in much of the activity attributed to his regiment during Dunmore's War.

Without doubt, Daniel and Christopher participated in the construction of Fort Fincastle if they were part of William Crawford's Regiment when he departed Pittsburgh in early June. Nathaniel Fox was a Lieutenant in Mitchell's Company and was one of those wounded when Angus McDonald's command was ambushed near the Muskingum River August 2nd. Logic would suggest Daniel and Christopher, as members of the same company, were members of McDonald's expedition to the Shawnee villages located on the Muskingum River. However, as the historical accounts mention, William Crawford was ordered to stay at Fort Fincastle with about 200 to 300 men to protect the Fort and residents in the area. Therefore, Mitchell's Command would most likely have been temporarily assigned to the expedition, which would have been McDonald's prerogative as the ranking officer on the scene.

Likewise, it cannot be said with certainty that Captain Mitchell's Company traveled back to Fort Pitt with Crawford in late August or early September; for surely some men would have stayed at Fort Fincastle in the event the Indians renewed their attacks across the Ohio. Again, one can only speculate that the Stark brothers may have participated in moving the cattle and supplies from Fort Pitt to Wheeling as related in the historical account. Assuming Captain Mitchell's Company participated in concert with William Crawford's Regiment after September 30, 1774, then one would have to presume they would have participated in the Regiment's activities throughout the month of October 1774 and the skirmish with the Mingo's late in October. At the conclusion of the War in late October, Crawford's regiment must have been relieved or disbanded by November 14, 1774, the date Crawford wrote his letter to George Washington from Stewart's Crossing. However, did the Stark brothers complete their tour at that time and return to their families?

The records of payment for Dunmore's War reveal John Connolly was in Command of the West Augusta County Battalion . After Lord Dunmore's return to Redstone November 17 and from there to Williamsburg, Connolly resumed command of the forces remaining in the District of West Augusta. Although a treaty had been signed and honored by the Shawnee, there were other Indian tribes which did not want to honor the agreement. Therefore, as a safety precaution, one would have to presume companies of men would have been garrisoned at forts on the Ohio River as a first line of defense in the event these tribes chose to renew their raids.

Within Connolly's command was Lieutenant David Enoch, brother of Henry Enoch. Recall Henry had built a blockhouse on Ten Mile Creek about 1770. The length of service of Lieutenant Enoch, for which he was paid 79 pounds and 10 shillings, was 132 days.[1] Serving in Enoch's Company was Sergeant Zophar Ball, the same Sergeant who served in Joseph Mitchell's Company. Private Peter Nieswanger later reported he had first served under Captain Peter Helphinstone before being assigned to David Enoch's Company. Those men appearing on the rosters of both Joseph Mitch ell's Company and David Enoch's Company were: Daniel Stark, Christopher Stark, John Reese, Reese Gaddis, William Carter, Abraham Sutton/Suttin, Phillip Vavell/Varvill, George Keaner/Kinder, John Henry, Micheal Spencer, William Morris, Elijah Morris, Archibald Morris, and Alexander Keith. Of the thirty-four privates in Enoch's Command, at least fourteen had served with Mitchell.



Lord Dunmore's Little War of 1774: His Captains and Their Men Who Opened Up Kentucky & the West to American Settlement (2002), by Warren Skidmore with Donna Kaminsky, published by Heritage Books, Inc. (Westminster, Maryland), 2002. Pages 42, 53-54, 66-67.




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Other names that might have been part of Mitchell's command could have been Sergeant Jonathan Frazee / Private Jonathan Frazer and Private Benjamin Frazee/Frazer). Private James Stark was reported as a member of this command, probably joining after returning to the region with the other Stark Families sometime in November.[1]

Where these men may have lived before Dunmore's War has not been fully researched, but circumstance suggest all of the men in Enoch's Command most likely lived between the Ohio and Monongahela Rivers, staying behind to protect their families who were returning to their homes. If David Enoch's pay period started on November 1, 1774 and ended 132 days later, then the men in his company served until about March 12, 1775.

However, the historical account revealed Connolly called out the militia on January 25, 1774, as related in those historical events which occurred before the massacre at Bakers Cabin on April 30. If the pay period was continuous from January 25, then the service would have ended about June 6, 1774, about the time William Crawford departed Pittsburgh for Wheeling. Therefore, this cannot be completely discounted. However, one would have to question the Stark Family loyalty to Virginia at that time if they had moved to a region they believed belonged to Pennsylvania to escape the Virginia tithable system and Virginia's intolerance of Baptist. This would rather strongly suggests they probably were not participants in Connolly's activities before the massacre at Baker's Cabin.

While the above has not established a place of residency for the Stark Family after 1772, the brothers participation in Dunmore's War suggests they were living between the Monongahela and Ohio Rivers at the time of the massacre of Chief Logan's relatives at Baker's Cabin on April 30, 1774. Their service in Mitchell's Company would seem to imply they came from Frederick County, Virginia, the regional name given to their Regiment commanded by William Crawford. However, the historical account clearly reveals Crawford was a Westmoreland County official on April 30, being appointed a Major in the Virginia militia after April 30. Therefore, it would seem reasonable to expect men under his command were not all residents of Frederick County. Many were probably members of the local militias that assembled at Stewart's Crossing, Pittsburgh, and Wheeling.

An even more compelling reason for believing they lived in the region was their service under Lieutenant David Enoch. The Enoch family was documented living on Ten Mile Creek by 1772 and historical accounts report they had build a blockhouse only two miles from the Monongahela River on that same creek. One could easily speculate David Enoch's men lived near the Blockhouse, providing protection in that region against Indian attacks, and that these same men had served earlier in Joseph Mitchell's Command. If this were true, then the men in Enoch's command could have been living near the blockhouse. This would be only one of several possibilities, for they could have also garrisoned any of the several forts built along the Ohio River.

What is known for sure is James Stark, Daniel Stark, Christopher Stark, and William Wood were paid at Fort Pitt for their service in Dunmore's War, which would at least suggest they were living near Pittsburgh by October of 1775 and their participation in Dunmore's War further suggests they could have been living over the mountains in the boundary disputed region before April 30, 1774.


The Revolutionary War Years

Early in May 1775, communication arrived in the disputed region that on April 19th a detachment of Royal troops under the command of General Gage at Boston, Massachusetts, had fired on provincial troops at Lexington. These were the opening shots of the Revolution. The boundary dispute between Virginia and Pennsylvania was temporarily set aside; but both Augusta County, Virginia, and Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, had meetings on May 16th at separate locations.

Inhabitants living west of Laurel Hill and claiming allegiance to Augusta County met at Pittsburgh. Several familiar names chosen as members of a committee for the District of Augusta were William Crawford, Henry Enoch, and James Ennis, whom we will learn later was a neighbor of William Wood near Pigeon Creek. The appointed committee had the "... full power to meet at such times as they shall judge necessary, and in case of any emergency to call the committee of this district together, and shall be vested with the same power and authority as the other standing committee and committees of correspondence are in the other counties within this colony." Colony in this instance meant Virginia, not Pennsylvania.

The committee unanimously passed several resolutions supporting the events of April 19th and additional resolutions needed to raise money for gunpowder and supplies for the militia. Of interest in these resolutions was the request for assistance from Frederick County, Augusta County, and Hampshire County in obtaining ammunition. The resolution requested: "... a quantity of ammunition destined for this place for the purpose of government, and as this country on the west side of Laurel Hill is greatly distressed for want of ammunition, and deprived of the means of Procuring it ..." The term "west of Laurel Hill" indicates that the West District of Augusta claimed jurisdiction over the region on both sides of the Monongahela River as far east as Laurel Hill.

Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, had a similar meeting on the same day at their county seat. One of the resolutions unanimously passed stated: "And the better to enable us to accomplish it [Resist the acts of the Parliament of Great Britain] we will immediately form ourselves into a military body, to consist of companies, to be made up out of the several townships, under the following association, which is declared to be the Association of Westmoreland County."



Lord Dunmore's Little War of 1774: His Captains and Their Men Who Opened Up Kentucky & the West to American Settlement (2002), by Warren Skidmore with Donna Kaminsky, published by Heritage Books, Inc. (Westminster, Maryland), 2002. Pages 42, 53-54, 66-67.



Page 20


Pennsylvania had been founded as a Quaker pacifist colony, and as such, Pennsylvania did not have a military organization. This was probably one of the reasons Virginia was able to establish control of Pittsburgh and the surrounding region during the boundary disputes. Therefore, early in 1775, certain localities organized volunteer companies called "military associations." On June 30, 1775, the Pennsylvania Provisional Assembly gave official recognition to the Military Associations and grouped their companies into battalions . It wasn't until March 17, 1777, that Pennsylvania passed an act that provided compulsory enrollment by the constables of all able-bodied white males between the ages of eighteen and fifty-three, which established a militia system similar to that in the other colonies.

In the fall of 1775, the Seventh Virginia Regiment was organized by Colonel William Crawford. Many of the men who joined were residents of the Monongahela country. Although Crawford had been an official of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania before Dunmore's War, he was now an established partisan of Virginia, although he lived at Stewart's Crossing on the Youghiogheny River. Most people living west of the Monongahela River believed they were Virginians and within the jurisdiction of Augusta County, Virginia. Therefore, the Seventh Virginia Regiment consisted of men who were residents from areas which later became Washington County, Pennsylvania and men who would later be residents of that part of Westmoreland County which later became Fayette County. This regiment entered service with the Continental army in the east, where it served for many years. In the latter part of the War, the Seventh served in the Western Department under the command of Colonel John Gibson, with headquarters at Fort Pitt.

The Thirteenth Virginia regiment known as the "West Augusta Regiment," was raised with recruits from the same region as those who served in the Seventh Virginia Regiment. After a short period as the regimental commander of the Seventh, Crawford was made commander of the Thirteenth Regiment. This regiment served in the west with detachments stationed at Fort Pitt and other places on the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers.

At this early stage of the war, Westmoreland County raised a company that served under Captain Joseph Erwin, then was merged with the Thirteenth Pennsylvania under Colonel Samuel Miles, and later was incorporated into the Second Pennsylvania. This regiment eventually discharged at Valley Forge January 1, 1778, by reason of completion of the terms of their enlistment.

One last Pennsylvania Regiment was formed during these early years of the conflict between (1775 and 1777). This was the Eight Regiment of Pennsylvania, that had recruits from Bedford County forming one company and seven companies recruited from Westmoreland County. This regiment was assigned the task of defending the western frontier, being garrisoned at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, and Kittaning.

At the beginning of the war, Colonel John Neville was in command of a Virginia militia unit comprised of men from the Monongahela and Ohio River settlements. With the assistance of Colonel George Morgan, Congressional Agent of Indian affairs in the West, Neville attempted to pursue a peaceful policy towards the Indians. This failed with all of the tribes accept the Delaware. On June 7, 1777, Fort Henry [formally Fort Fincastle] at Wheeling was garrisoned by 50 Virginia militia who were apparently residents of the region between the Ohio and Monongahela Rivers. The commander of the Fort was Captain Samuel Meason. Reporting to Meason was Captain Van Meter, a resident living near Catfish Camp and Captain Brice Virgin, a resident from the region which later became Greene County, Pennsylvania. By then, General Edward Hand, an officer of the Continental establishment, had replaced Neville and was the regional commander with his headquarters at Fort Pitt [formally Fort Dunmore].

In January 1778, General George Rogers Clarke, a Virginia officer, raised one hundred and fifty men from the vicinity of the upper Monongahela River. They built and launched boats on the Monongahela River near Redstone Fort, departing down river in May. They recruited reinforcements as they floated down the river to the Ohio; eventually capturing British posts west of the Wabash River. In February, General Hand led an expedition of about five hundred men into the region west of the Ohio, which resulted in one Indian warrior and one squaw being killed and one squaw being taken prisoner. Hand's losses were one captain killed and one man drowned. This action, by reason of the results, was referred to as the "Squaw Campaign."

In May of 1778, General Hand was succeeded as Commander of the Western Department by Continental Brigadier General Lachlin McIntosh, who arrived with a small force from the Continental Line. At about this time, due to the many attacks by Indians on the frontier, both Pennsylvania and Virginia took measures to raise forces for the protection of their communities. The Continental Congress had also become aware of the problems on the frontier and authorized an expedition to be led by General McIntosh to attack and capture the British post at Detroit.

In obedience to his orders, McIntosh moved down the Ohio River with a force comprised of his small detachment of Continental soldiers, a battalion of Virginians, and several companies from Pennsylvania. They disembarked at the Beaver River and erected Fort McIntosh; however, by the time the fort was completed the expedition against Detroit was abandoned for lack of funds. McIntosh's orders were then modified, allowing him to carry out attacks against the Wyandot towns on the upper Sandusky River at his discretion. Leaving a small number of men to garrison the fort, McIntosh proceeded only as far as the Muskingum River, where he again halted and erected another defensive stockade that he named Fort Laurens and suspended further operation for the season.

Departing Fort Laurens in November or December, he left one hundred and fifty men to garrison the fort with Colonel John Gibson in command. Gibson had succeeded Colonel William Crawford as commander of the Seventh Virginia. Therefore, it is likely the men left behind to garrison the fort were from this unit. In January 1779, the fort came under siege by a force of eight hundred and fifty Indians. After six weeks and following extensive negotiations, the siege was lifted, leaving Gibson with fourteen fatalities, two taken prisoner, and a large number of sick men . On believing the Indians had ceased hostilities, Gibson ordered Colonel Clarke (not the above General Roger Clarke) with fifteen men to escort the invalids to Fort McIntosh. They were ambushed by the Indians and all were killed or taken prisoner except Clarke and three others.




Page 21


During the siege, Colonel Gibson sent word to McIntosh that unless he promptly received reinforcements, he would be forced to surrender. Messengers were immediately dispatched to the settlers in the region of the Monongahela requesting aid and provisions. They quickly responded with volunteers for a relief expedition, provisions, and pack horses to move the supplies. With a new force of seven hundred men, McIntosh departed Fort Pitt, arriving at Fort Laurens a few days after the Indians had departed, which would have been about the middle of February 1779. McIntosh then departed Fort Laurens for Fort Pitt, leaving a new garrison of men under the command of Major Frederick Vernon. By spring, both Fort McIntosh and Fort Laurens were abandoned. The troops utilized in this series of operations under the command of General McIntosh, with the exception of the small Continental force, were, in Boyd Crumrine words, "... made up almost exclusively of men from the country between the Laurel Hill and the Ohio River, the territory which afterwards became Washington County furnishing its full share."

In 1779, General McIntosh was replaced by Colonel Daniel Brodhead. His orders provided him with discretionary powers to order out the militia of the western counties through their county lieutenants. Early in 1780, between forty and fifty men, women, and children were killed or captured in the regions west of the Monongahela River. Colonel Brodhead attempted to organize troops for an expedition to carry the attack to the Indians. He ordered Colonel Joseph Beelor [County Lieutenant for then Yohogania County, Virginia] to draft men who lived in the region that later became Washington County, Pennsylvania; but Brodhead had problems procuring provisions and the draft of men was stopped May 20, 1780 and the expedition was abandoned f or lack of supplies.

Most of these problems throughout 1780 were the result of the boundary dispute and uncertainty as to which state had jurisdiction over the region. When the Delaware Indians became hostile late in the year — Brodhead was able to finally launch an expedition in the spring of 1781. According to Crumrine: "Being unable to obtain any troops by draft from the militia of Westmoreland, he (Brodhead) called for volunteers, and the call was responded to, principally by men from the territory of the newly-erected (though not organized) county of Washington."

Three hundred men answered the call, of which about half were volunteers. They mustered at Wheeling (Fort Henry) and began a march to the Muskingum River, arriving at a place near present day Coshocton, Ohio on April 19, 1781. After attacking and destroying several Delaware villages, Brodhead returned to Fort Pitt, arriving before or about May 22, 1781. At about this time, Washington County was created and was officially declared to be within the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania.


Bibliography - The Revolutionary War Years


History of Washington County, Pennsylvania with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men, Edited by Boyd Crumrine. Published in Philadelphia by L. H. Everts and Co., 1882.


Stark Brothers Participation In Revolutionary War

The above historical account summarizes many of the military organizations formed in Washington County from 1775 to 1781, and describes several campaigns. The Stark brothers were probably not members of the Continental Line detachments originating from Pennsylvania or Virginia during these years. Boyd Crumrine (page 85) summarized these years: "Other than the military organizations which have already been mentioned, viz.: the Eight Pennsylvania Regiment, the company which joined Miles' Rifles, the Seventh and Thirteenth Virginia Battalions, and the detachment of Westmoreland militia, no other troops were raised in the Monongahela country for regular service in the Revolutionary armies, though many were afterwards raised for the various Indiana campaigns and expeditions. From that time forward to the close of the war the able-bodied men west of the Monongahela were kept constantly on guard, if not on actual duty , against Indian incursions and massacre along the frontier; and it could not be expected that they would leave their families and homes defenseless to serve in the armies operating hundreds of miles away across the mountains." This assessment would most likely apply to the Stark brothers. Much of their duty probably consisted of garrison duty in small companies of about 50 men or less, probably manning forts and blockhouses. The companies participating in this garrison duty were probably rotated on a regular schedule.

The publication entitled Pennsylvania Archives,", 3rd Series, Volume 23, has a list of "Rangers of the Frontier" who were paid for active service between the years 1777 to 1783. On page 214 will be found George Sharp and Francis Vinyard. On page 215 will be found Christopher Stark, Captain Abner Howell, Daniel Stark, John Vinyard, and Thomas Vineyard. On page 216 will be found Captain Abner Howell, Daniel Starks, James Vinyard, Captain Abner Howell (appearing twice on this page), John Vinyard, Thomas Vinyard, Daniel Starks (appearing twice on this page), and James Vinyard (appearing twice on this page). On page 217 will be found James Stark, Captain Abner Howell, and James Stark (appearing twice on this page). Therefore, men from the Stark, Howell, and Vineyard families appear to have served between 1777 and 1783, although the precise times of service is not known from this publication.

In the Pennsylvania Archives," 6th Series, Volume 2, will be found additional entries for these surnames. Page 118 begins the Class Roll of Captain Abner Howell's Company. On page 119, Daniel Stark was listed as 2nd Sergeant; Francis Venin (probably Vineyard) and Christopher were on the 1st Class Roll; on the 2nd Class Roll was John Venard (probably Vineyard); on the 4th Class Roll was Elisha Lacock. On page 120, William Venerd (probably Vineyard) was on the 5th Class Roll; on the 7th Class Roll was John Stark and Joseph Stark; and on the 8th Class Roll was James Veneard (probably Vineyard) and Isaac Lacock.


Page 22







Figure 7: 1780 Survey Map Sugar Camp Run

Source: History of Washington County, Pennsylvania: with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men, Edited by Boyd Crumrine. Illustrated. Philadelphia: L. H. Everts and Co., 1882. Page 192 & 193, Illustration.




Page 23


The following men with the surname Stark were reported in the 1783 Washington County Tax List:[1]



Amwell Township: Stark, Joseph, 240 acres, 2 horses, 2 cows / Stark, John, no land, 2 horses, 2 cows, 6 sheep.


Fallowfield Township: Stark, James, 140 acres, 2 horses, 3 cows, 4 sheep / Stark, Jonathan, no land, 1 horse, 2 cows / Stark, Daniel, no land, 2 horses, 2 cows, 3 sheep / Stark, Christopher, no land, 3 horses, 3 cows.


The following men and their relationship to the Stark brothers were reported on the same tax list:[1]



Amwell Township:


Lacock, Joseph, 140 acres, 2 horses, 2 cows, 7 sheep / Uncle who was brother of Sarah (Lacock) Stark[2]


Lacock, Isaac, no land, 1 horse / Single / Cousin who was son of Joseph Lacock.[3]


Lacock, Elisha, 100 acres, 2 horses, 2 cows, 1 sheep / Cousin who was son of Joseph Lacock.[3].


Lacock, William, 125 acres, 4 horses, 5 cows, 16 sheep / Uncle who was brother of Sarah (Lacock) Stark.[2]


Vineyard, Stephen, no land, 2 horses, 1 cow / Brother-in-law of Christopher Stark.[4]


Vineyard, Thomas, no land, 1 horse / Brother-in-law of Christopher Stark.[4]


Vineyard, William, 100 acres, 1 horse, 2 cow / Brother-in-law of Christopher Stark.[4]


Vineyard, John, 150 acres, 3 horses, 8 cows, 17 sheep / Brother-in-law of Christopher Stark.[4]


Vineyard, James / Single / Brother-in-law of Christopher Stark.[4]


Vineyard, Francis / Single / Brother-in-law of Christopher Stark.[4]

Fallowfield Township:

Wood, William, No land, 3 horses, 6 cows, 8 sheep / Brother-in-law married to sister, Sarah Stark.


The tax list suggests Jonathan [the younger], Daniel, and Christopher Stark were living in Fallowfield Township, most likely near or with William Wood and their brother James Stark. However, Somerset Township was created April 3, 1782, from parts of Fallowfield, Nottingham, Strabane, and Bethlehem. The Washington County Somerset Township Warrantee Map in the Pennsylvania Archives places William Wood's property within this township with its eastern boundary on the line between Somerset and Fallowfield Townships. The above suggested location [see Figure 7] of the James Stark property became part of the Robert Morrison patent issued September 14, 1789 [Series P, Vol. 15, p. 130]. John Baldwin was issued a patent January 9, 1788 for the William Wood property [Series P, Vol. 11, p. 538]. Residents of Amwell Township were Joseph and John Stark, most likely living together. Although the location of the Joseph Stark property in Amwell Township is not known with certainty, they could have been living near the Lacock families. The 1783 tax list provides the best documented evidence of the place of residence in 1783 of the men with the surname Stark and suggests their probable place of residence prior to that year.

In 1786, James Stark, Jonathan Stark, Daniel Stark, Christopher Stark, Joseph Stark, and John Stark were reported on the Nelson County, Virginia (later became Kentucky) tax list.[5] Reverend William Wood moved his family from Pennsylvania (departing from Devore's Ferry on the Monongahela River, about halfway between Redstone and Pittsburgh), down the Ohio River, landing at Limestone, Fayette County, Virginia (later Kentucky), around noon on December 31, 1784. The Limestone Baptist Church, with the Reverend William Wood as minister, was organized early in 1785. The charter members were William Wood, Sarah Wood, James Turner, John Smith, Luther Colvin, Priscilla Colvin, Charles Tucker, Sarah Tucker and Sarah Stark.[6] Charter member Sarah (Lacock) Stark was the mother of Sarah (Stark) Wood. Other members of this Church had been residents of Washington County — some living near Pigeon Creek.



Raymond Martin Bell, Washington County, Pennsylvania Tax Records 1783. Paper by this title stamped R. M. Bell, 1506 1st Ave. N. Apt. 3, Coralville, IA, 52241-1125.


Calendar of New Jersey Wills, Vol. III, 1751-1760. Calendar of New Jersey Wills, 1670-1760. [database online] Provo, UT, 2000.


The Lacock Family of Washington County, Pennsylvania, by Raymond Martin Bell & Irene Putnum Lignian, Washington, Pennsylvania, 1986.


Letter from Walter O. Shriner addressed to Mrs. Lynn Vineyard, Wharton, Texas. Signed Walter O. Shriner, Terre Haute, Indiana. Dated March 12, 1971. Quote: "The 6 sons of Francis Vineyard were: (1) John, born not later than 1745), (2) Francis, (3) Stephen, (4) Thomas, (5) William, and (6) James, undoubtedly the youngest. There were at least two daughters (1) Martha, who married Christopher Stark, and (2) Sarah, who married John Clevenger."


URL: http// TAXLIST Nelson County Tithes 1785-1791, Nelson County, Kentucky. Transcribed by Mary Yoder,; Date 11 Oct 2000.


Unpublished Lyman C. Draper Manuscript notes, Series 8BB. These notes provide interviews and letters by Christopher Stark Wood, John G. Wood and the sons of their brother William, and other relatives. Contributed by Debbie Nordyke File,



Page 24


The move to Nelson County probably was prompted by events related to settlement of the boundary dispute. Claims of land ownership in Washington County came from warrants issued by Pennsylvania in 1769 thru 1776. Conflicting with these claims were certificates issued by the Virginia authorities in 1779 and 1780 to per sons — thinking they were living within the jurisdiction of Virginia — had made bona fide settlements (a corn crop or one year's residence) before January 1, 1778. William Wood's property was one of many surveys conducted by Yohogania County, Virginia related to these certificates of ownership.[1]

The land office of western Pennsylvania closed December 2, 1776 and did not reopen until July 1, 1784. At that time, Pennsylvania began issuing warrants for two types of applications; those made through regular Pennsylvania channels; and those made by virtue of the Virginia certificates. By 1785, most persons seemed satisfied for they now knew which state had jurisdiction.[1] However, one must presume not all of the property claims were settled to the satisfaction of the land owners, which was probably the case for William Wood. Five months after the land office opened, William Wood departed from Washington County, bound for Kentucky, leaving in December along with many others living near Pigeon Creek who had received certificates of ownership from Virginia. One can only speculate; but there departures were probably due to the Virginia certificates not being accepted by Washington County, although the deed description of 1786 probably would have named the Wood property until a new warrant was issued. This theory would seem to be supported, for there are no land records in Washington County reporting William Wood, James Stark, or Joseph Stark sold the property reported in the 1783 tax list.

If many of the Virginia certificates were nullified, then it would seem probable this was also true for James and Joseph Stark. The area which later became the state of Kentucky in 1792 was within the jurisdiction of Virginia in 1785 and the families probably moved to that region to claim land grants they had lost in Pennsylvania as a result of the boundary dispute settlement.


Summary of Chapter 1

In 1783, the Supply Tax List for Washington County, Pennsylvania reported six men with the surname Stark. Living in Fallowfield Township was James Stark, owning 140 acres of land. Living close by but not owning land were Daniel Stark, Christopher Stark and Jonathan Stark. Living on property sharing a border with the property of James Stark was Reverend William Woods, his 349 acres bordered by Sugar Camp Run, a tributary of Pigeon Creek. Living in Amwell Township was Joseph Stark, owning 240 acres, and John Stark, owning no property. These six men were brothers and Reverend William Woods was their brother-in-law, married to their sister, Sarah Stark. In the the year 1783, the mother of this Stark family, Sarah Lacock, was probably living with her daughter, Sarah (Stark) Woods.

James Stark, Daniel Stark, and Christopher Stark participated in Dunmore's War and were paid for their efforts at Fort Pitt in October of 1775. From 1781 to 1783, all of their names were listed on the Muster and Class Rolls for Washington County after its creation in March of 1781. James, Daniel, and Christopher were reported to be members of the "Rangers of the Frontier" from 1777 to 1783, although they may have actually been serving in the Washington County militia after the county was created in 1781. All of the men named in the 1783 tax list participated in the Revolutionary War along with others with the surnames Howell, Vineyard, and Lacock.

These men with the surname Stark were all born in New Jersey and were living in Sussex County from 1750 to 1765. Except for Jonathan Stark, they were residents of Loudoun County, Virginia by 1767. While Jonathan continued to remain in New Jersey until 1777, his brothers had departed from Loudoun County by 1772. They may have been living near the Monongahela River as early as 1774, near or with William Wood. We have provided Genetic evidence descendants of five of the Stark brothers of Nelson County, Kentucky were descendants of Aaron Stark [1608-1685] of Groton, New London County, Connecticut. Based on the above presented material — we can say with confidence — they were sons of Jonathan Stark and Sarah Lacock of Sussex County, New Jersey; grandsons of William Stark (Junior) and Experience Lamb; great-grandsons of William Stark (Senior); and great-great-grandsons of Aaron Stark of Groton, New London County, Connecticut.

 Volume 1: The Aaron Stark Chronicles / The First Three Generations has biographies for the following (Click on the item to go to the web page):


Chapter 2: The Life & Times of Aaron Stark [1608-1685]

Chapter 6: The Life & times of William Stark, Sr. [1664-1730]

Chapter 10: William Stark, Jr. Timeline




URL: The Pennsylvania-Virginia Boundary Controversy, by Raymond M. Bell. Published July 1997.


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Other than that work created by other acknowledged contributors or sources, the articles presented were authored and edited by Clovis LaFleur and the genealogical data presented in this publication was derived and compiled by  Pauline Stark Moore; Copyright © 2003. All rights are reserved. The use of any material on these pages by others will be discouraged if the named contributors, sources, or Clovis LaFleur & Pauline Stark Moore have not been acknowledged.


This publication and the data presented is the work of Clovis LaFleur & Pauline Stark Moore. However, some of the content presented has been derived from the research and publicly available information of others and may not have been verified. You are responsible for the validation of all data and sources reported and should not presume the material presented is correct or complete.