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Volume 4: Descendants of Jonathan Stark & Sarah Lacock; the Kentucky Stark Families
Chapter 2: The Kentucky Years - A Narrative
Chapter 2 Appendix:  The Stark Families & The Kentucky Emancipation Ministers 
 

 

 

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Chapter 2

The Kentucky Years - A Narrative

Copyright © August 2006; by Clovis LaFleur, with Editorial Assistance by Donn Neal

Major contributors: Pauline Stark Moore & Gwen Boyer Bjorkman

 

 

Figure 1

The location of the Tithable District of James Rogers in 1785. This map shows Nelson County after it was divided to create Bullitt County. Before this division, The Salt River, running through the middle of Bullitt County would have been part of the northern boundary of Nelson County in 1785.

 

 

 

 

Figure 2

Present day map of the region near Bardstown showing James Rogers Tithable district boundary ( and location of Rogers Station). Shaded region approximate area where the Brothers lived from 1785 to 1792. Rogers Station was located west of Bardstown at the present day junction of US Highway 62 and Ben Irvin Road.

 

 

 

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Chapter 2

The Kentucky Years – A Narrative

 

Introduction

David Hall wrote the following in an article entitled: "Rogers Station Grew from Early Land Deal." [Published in The Kentucky Standard, April 17, 1985.]

"William BARD put together one of the earliest real estate deals in what is now Nelson County. In 1779, probably the summer months, Bard led a party out from the Falls of the Ohio to view some improvements grouped around the Buffalo Creek area. He was offering these land claims for sale. Among the group was Col. James Rogers .... In the spring of 1780 Col. James Rogers took permanent possession of the preemption west of Buffalo Creek, a part of that area then called Bard’s Flat. Rogers Station rose in the wilderness and quickly provided temporary shelter for many settlers pouring into Nelson ... The original Rogers Station, with a picket wall and tiny cabins within, stood somewhere near the junction of Hwy 62 and Ben Irvine Road west of Bardstown ... The hewn log house on the Murphy farm (torn down in 1959) was too large and sophisticated to be the original Station but was probably built by one of the Rogers in the later 1780's when Indians were still a threat. It may well have been on the site of the first Fort enclosure. Desirable land all about it gave Rogers Station instant importance. Areas such as Bard’s Flat just opened up by building of a Station attracted land hungry settlers with warrants to fill. The family man left wife and children protected at the Station while going miles distant to survey and locate land claims ... Some families lived in Stations for several years before chancing lonely cabins far removed from the support of friends."

James Rogers was one of the 1st magistrates and tallied a tithable list of residents in his district in 1785 described as "on all the waters north of the Rolling and Beech Forks up to the mouth of Buffalo Creek and its waters. Total 126." (See Figure 1) Reported on the James Rogers List were James Stark and his son William Stark, about 15 years of age. James and his family were recent arrivals in the region, temporarily locating at Roger's Station for protection from Indian attacks. [The region and location of Rogers Station is shown in Figure 2.] The present State of Kentucky was under the jurisdiction of the State of Virginia during these years. In an effort to better organize the region, Nelson County was created and officially began operation as a County on January 1, 1785.

Joseph Stark and John Stark were reported on the Nelson County tithable list of David Cox in 1785. Joseph was on line 39 of the list and John was on line 40 indicating they were living close together or on the same property. John Stark, about 30 years old in 1785 and newly married with two small children, was the younger brother of Joseph. David Cox's District was described as "on all the waters of Cox's Creek, Simpton Creek Easterly to the County Line northerly of Chaplins Fork." This provides a clue to where they may have been living. "Simpton Creek "was present day Simpson Creek, a tributary of the Salt River lying to the east of Cox's Creek.

James Rogers district ran north from the Buffalo Creek junction with Beech Fork to the junction forming the "Y" in present day Sympson Lake. (See Figure 2) Being on the tithable list of David Cox suggests Joseph and John were living east of Buffalo Creek and north of Bardstown. Deed records report they were probably living on or near either Cox Creek, Froman Creek (a tributary of Cox Creek), or Rogers Run (probably named Samuel’s Creek on today's maps).

Jonathan Stark [the younger] was reported on the Nelson County tithable list of Thomas Helms in 1785. His district, as best as can be understood, was south of Rolling Fork and Beech Fork, the probable location near present day Elizabethtown. (See Figure 1) Christopher Stark and Daniel Stark were not reported on the tithable list in Kentucky in 1785 and remained in Washington County, Pennsylvania with their families.

James had moved from Rogers Station by the time the tithable list was compiled in 1786; for he and his son William were on the tithable list of David Cox in 1786. David Cox's district in 1786 was described as "from where the County road crossed Salt River on the north side of said road including all the waters of Cox’s Creek." Therefore, James was living somewhere north of the County Road, east of or on Cox's Creek and south of the Salt River. John, James, and Joseph were all reported living next to each other on this list and living with or near them was Christopher Stark. They may have all been living on the same property where John and Joseph were recorded in 1785, being a large enough family group to provide each other with mutual protection against Indian attacks.

In 1787, all of the brothers were reported living in Nelson County for Daniel Stark and his son, Jonathan D. Stark were reported on the tithable list of James Rogers. James and Christopher were on the tithable list of David Cox, his district approximately in the same location as the previous years, probably northern Nelson County and the southern part of present day Spencer County. Apparently, Joseph had moved further south, most likely down Froman Creek towards Bardstown. He appears on the 1787 tithable list of Gabriel Cox, his district located immediately north of Bardstown.

 

 

 

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Why Did The Brothers Move From Pennsylvania to Kentucky?

Many families living in Washington County, Pennsylvania who had been Virginia adherents during the boundary dispute years, migrated to the tributaries of the Salt River (located south of present day Louisville, Kentucky). There could have been many motivations for this migration. However, the following were the most likely reasons the Stark Families and many of their Pennsylvania neighbors moved to Kentucky.

• Many moved because their Virginia Certificates, issued under the authority of Virginia from 1779 to 1782, were probably not recognized by the Washington County, Pennsylvania courts or land office (which opened July 1, 1784). Because no record of sale of the properties of James, Joseph, or William Wood, have been found, this would could have been the reason the Stark families moved.

• In 1782, the Washington County Court issued criminal indictments against several individuals for assault and battery. These men, on the authority of the Virginia officials acting within the boundary of Pennsylvania, used violence to forcibly draft men for service in General George Rogers Clark’s expedition down the Ohio in 1781. These men were acquitted of these charges in 1782, primarily because the Virginia adherents were in the majority at the time the court met. By 1784, the Virginian majority began to weaken and these same men could have feared they may be prosecuted again by the Pennsylvania courts. There is a remote possibility some of the Stark men participated but the charges were brought against higher ranked men in the Militia.

• Others may have simply been taking advantage of the Virginia Certificates of Settlement and Preemption warrants being issued on the tributaries of the Salt River from 1779 to 1792; while others moved to take advantage of newly passed resolutions by the Continental Congress in 1784 and 1785 that created the Northwest Territory and new opportunities to become landowners. This could have been a reason for the Stark families to move, especially if they were denied ownership of their Pennsylvania properties.

• Washington County was within the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania (officially on September 23, 1780). On March 1, 1780, the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed an act which provided for the gradual abolition of slavery within its boundaries. Because many Virginians owned slaves, they probably removed from Washington County to take up residence within the jurisdiction of Virginia where the institution of slavery would continue. No evidence has been found the Stark brothers were slave owners. Quite to the contrary, as we will see, they were active emancipationist in Kentucky.

For whatever reason, many of the Stark brothers Pennsylvania neighbors moved to Nelson County after 1784 and the brothers joined this exodus from Washington County. Why would the Pennsylvania authorities not recognize the Virginia Certificates?

 

The Virginia Certificates in Washington County, Pennsylvania

In May of 1779, Commissioners appointed by Virginia and Pennsylvania began meeting in Baltimore to resolve the boundary dispute. In that same month, the Virginia Assembly appointed "land-title commissioners" for the purpose of adjusting and settling titles of claimants to un-patented lands in the counties of Yohogania, Monongalia, and Ohio. The commissioners were given the authority to grant certificates to claimants after hearing proof of settlement within the disputed regions.

August 31, 1779, the Baltimore commissioners signed an agreement which extended the Mason and Dixon line due west from its ending point by five degrees of longitude as computed from the Delaware River, which moved the southern boundary of Pennsylvania about 23 miles further west. From the western extension of this Mason-Dixon line, a meridian was drawn due north which was to be the western boundary of Pennsylvania. This agreement brought into existence the south and west boundaries of the region that would become Washington County in March of 1781.

On November 19, 1779, the Supreme Executive Council and the Assembly of Pennsylvania: "Resolved, unanimously, That this House do ratify and finally confirm the agreement entered into between the commissioners from the State of Virginia and the commissioners from this State, which agreement is in the following words [quoting the agreement of August 31, 1779.]"

However, Virginia did not act on the commissioners' recommendations until the summer of 1780 and during the intervening time continued to exercise her authority over the Washington County region. The Virgina "land-title commissioners" arrived in Yohogania, Monongalia, and Ohio counties in November of 1779 and began granting Virginia Certificates — allowing the claimed property to be surveyed. By issuing these certificates, the seeds of discontent were being sowed for later litigation as everyone within the region awaited Virginia's acceptance of the Baltimore commissioners agreement.

November 29, 1779, Thomas Scott expressed his indignation regarding the certificates when he wrote to the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, of which he was a member "respecting the State of Virginia empowering commissioners to sell lands within the bounds of this State, particularly in the county of Westmoreland." On the next day, upon receipt of this correspondence, Joseph Reed, the president of the Pennsylvania Council, requested the Pennsylvania delegates to the Continental Congress introduce a resolution suggesting neither party in the boundary dispute should disturb the possessions of any person living in the disputed region. December 27, 1779, the Continental Congress passed a resolution which requested both parties discontinue granting warrants or certificates to any part of the disputed land, or to disturb the possession of any persons living thereon, and to avoid every appearance of force until the dispute could be amicably settled.

On the very next day, Joseph Reed issued a proclamation given to Thomas Scott on December 29th which quoted the Baltimore Agreement; re-stated Pennsylvania's ratification of that decision; and stated the above reported resolution of Congress. Reed closed his proclamation by issuing orders requiring all officers, civil and military, and other subjects of Pennsylvania, pay due obedience and respect to the resolution of Congress. In a side note to Mr. Scott, who was to deliver the proclamation to the western frontier, Reed wrote: "We have sent you an attested Copy of the Resolution of Congress, that you may communicate it to the Commissioners (of Virginia) if they are yet with you, and we would desire you to do it in form, demanding of them whether they will yield Obedience thereto, and transmitting to us their Answer so Authenticated that, if necessary, we may lay the same before Congress. We shall also remonstrate with the Government of Virginia."

 

 

 

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Meanwhile, some of the Virginia "land-title commissioners" were sitting at Redstone and Fort Cox, surveying properties that would later be within the bounds of Washington County, Pennsylvania. Colonel William Crawford was the county surveyor for Yohogania County, Virginia (claiming jurisdiction over parts of Washington County) and copies of his "Record Book of Surveys" are still available for inspection. Some of the earliest entries were made in February of 1780 and the greatest number of these were located on Pigeon Creek and its tributaries.

On January 20, 1780, the Virginia "land-title commissioners" received Joseph Reed's proclamation and his request the commissioners yield obedience to the Continental Congress resolution. The next day the commissioners answered in part as follows from Cox's Fort: "We do not conceive an immediate application to us (on the resolution of Congress) consistent with the rules of propriety; we rather think such applications ought to be made to the Governor of Virginia, under whose commission we act. Until that is done and we receive directions to the contrary we think ourselves obliged to continue to act under our commission."

After many resolutions and belligerent declarations, issuance of Virginia certificates were halted. However, these certificates would later be challenged by the Washington County, Pennsylvania Courts. This would have included the certificate of William Wood (granted June 8, 1780) and those of many of his neighbors.

September 23, 1780, the General Assembly of Pennsylvania grudgingly ratified the Virginia boundary agreement; and yet, Virginia continued to issue certificates as late as June 3, 1782 in Washington County. Based on the above, once the Pennsylvania Land Office opened on July 1, 1784, it is quite probable many of these certificates issued from November of 1779 to June of 1782 were challenged and rejected. Claims of James Stark and Joseph Stark (not documented to have had Virginia Certificates recorded) could have been rejected because of a prior claim as stated in the conditions set forth in Virginia's resolution accepting the Baltimore Agreement.

Crumrine's "History of Washington County," on page 237, provides evidence of the land title complications created by the conditions set by Virginia:

"In the first year of the court's (Washington County Court) existence there were two hundred and eighty-five causes, of which fifty-seven were contentions about land titles. The great source of these contentions, it will readily be surmised, was the conditions attached by Virginia, on June 23, 1780, to her ratification of the Baltimore agreement of Aug. 31, 1779 ... "On Condition that the private property and rights of all persons acquired under, founded on, or recognized by the laws of either Country previous to the date hereof, be saved and confirmed to them ... and that in the decision of disputes thereupon preference shall be given to the elder or prior right whichever of the said states the same shall have been acquired under..."]... Hence it followed that to determine which was the prior right, acquired under one State or the other, a suit at law was necessarily unavoidable, and the Virginia jurisdiction having been terminated the land-title contentions were left to be decided in the Pennsylvania courts, the greater part of them in Washington County."

The Virginia Certificates of the Stark men and their neighbors were nullified by the courts. Opportunity to obtain new lands in Kentucky under the authority of Virginia would seem to a logical reason for these families to leave Washington County.

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Bibliography - Virginia Certificates in Washington County, Pennsylvania

• Boyd Crumrine, History of Washington County, Pennsylvania with Biographical Sketches of many of its Pioneers and Prominent Men, Philadelphia L. H. Everts and Co., 1882, pages 192 thru 195.

 

Virginia Certificates on the Tributaries of the Salt River

Under the Virginia Land Law passed in May of 1779, residents of the Kentucky District [created December 1, 1776] could purchase Certificates of Settlement and Preemption Warrants if they met certain residency requirements. Persons in Kentucky County prior to January 1, 1778, who had made an improvement and planted a crop of corn, were eligible for 400 acre Certificates of Settlement for the land they had improved. They could purchase an additional 1000 acres, adjoining the Settlement tract, under a Preemption Warrant. Anyone in Kentucky County, Virginia, after January 1, 1778 and before May 1779 (when the Land Law was written) were eligible for a 400 acre Preemption Warrant for the tract on which they had made an improvement and planted a corn crop.

A Land Commission was appointed to hear testimony from Kentucky County residents and their witnesses; the Commission then decided who qualified for 400 acre warrants and / or 400 and 1000 acre Preemption warrants. The Commission conducted their hearings in Harrodsburg, St. Asaph (Logan's Fort), Boonesborough, Bryants Station (near Lexington), and the Falls of Ohio (Louisville). The Salt River and its tributaries were within the Kentucky District until it was abolished June 30, 1780 and divided into Fayette, Jefferson and Lincoln counties. Jefferson County, created on this date, now had the Salt River and its tributaries within its jurisdiction after the effective date of it's existence on November 1, 1780. Nelson County was created October 1, 1784 from Jefferson County and the effective date of the new County's existence was January 1, 1785.

 

 

 

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From the text of the act creating Nelson County: "BE it enacted by the General Assembly, That from and after the first day of January next, the county of Jefferson shall be divided into distinct counties by Salt River; and that part of the said county lying south of the said river shall be called and known by the name of Nelson, and all the residue of the said county shall retain the name of Jefferson." Therefore, all of the southern tributaries of the Salt River were within the jurisdiction of Nelson County beginning January 1, 1785.

Among those receiving Virginia Certificates before November 1, 1780 were David Cox, Isaac Cox, Thomas Bullitt, James Rogers, Paul Froman and many others. All had certificates granted by the District of Kentucky. Isaac Cox and his brothers are of particular interest for they were all brothers of Gabriel Cox. All had lived in the region which became Washington County, Pennsylvania.

Cox's Station was founded by Isaac Cox in April of 1780, which was located in Nelson County north of Bardstown on the middle branch of Cox Creek, just east of the present day community of Cox Creek. Isaac Cox, with his brothers, Gabriel and David, grew to manhood in what is now Hampshire County, West Virginia. In 1775, Isaac married Mary Enoch in Hampshire County and then moved with his new bride northeast to the Monongahela River country where other members of the Cox and Enoch clans had moved several years earlier. During the boundary dispute between Pennsylvania and Virginia, the Cox Clan had bitterly resisted the inclusion of the region within the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania.

Isaac Cox received his Kentucky County preemption warrant certificate April 26, 1780; stating he had erected improvements in 1776 "lying on Cox Creek that empties into the Town fork of Salt River and about four miles from the Rolling fork of Salt River." The warrant for this certificate was required to be entered with the county surveyor on or before the 26th of June 1780. On June 29th, 1780, Isaac Cox paid 400 pounds to the Common Wealth of Virginia. The receipt stated: "We the Publick Auditors of the Commonwealth of Virginia, do certify that Isaac Cox hath delivered to us the Treafurer's Receipt for Four hundred Pounds paid into the Treafury of Virginia, and that he the faid Isaac Cox his Heirs or Affigns, are entitled to One Thousand Acres of Wafte or unappropriated Lands within this Commonwealth, purfuant to an Act entitled 'An Act for eftablifhing a Land Office, and Afcertaining the Terms and Manner of granting wafte and unappropriated Lands.' - Given under our hands this twenty ninth day of June 1780."

The property was surveyed March 28, 1781 and on June 1, 1782, Isaac Cox received his grant from Benjamin Harrison, the governor of the Virginia Commonwealth. The above is an example of the process of becoming a land owner after obtaining a certificate of settlement or preemption warrant. This was the case for all of the properties along the tributaries of the Salt River which suggests all of this land was initially granted to the assignees by the Commonwealth of Virginia. No Revolutionary War warrants appear to have been issued in this region for it was most likely outside the acreage set aside for the Virginia Revolutionary War soldiers, located further west.

None of these properties appear to have been granted to potential buyers by land speculators like the Transylvania Land Company, although the region would have been within the boundaries of Transylvania, purchased from the Cherokee Indians March 17, 1775. The purchase of the Transylvania Land Company was later declared null and void by the legislature of Virginia and in 1795, the Henderson Company investors were awarded 200,000 acres lying at the mouth of the Green River as compensation for money and other things which were given to the Indians when the initial purchase was made. For all practical purposes, the Virginia Commonwealth assumed control of the property purchased by the Transylvania Land Company and allocated land according to the above certificates of settlement and preemption warrants.

The Land Ordinance of 1785, passed by the Continental Congress May 20, 1785, established the Northwest Territory, all of which lay to the north of the Ohio River and most likely had little if any impact on the allocation of properties on the tributaries of the Salt River. Virginia continued to issue certificates of settlement and preemption in the region until 1792, the year Kentucky achieved Statehood.

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Bibliography - Virginia Certificates on the Tributaries of the Salt River

• URL: <http//sos.ky.gov/land/>. Kentucky Land Office Web Site.

• David Hall, Colonel Isaac Cox Moves West. Published Kentucky Standard, 1985.

• Alexander S. Withers, Chronicles of Border Warfare, or A History of the Settlement by the Whites, of North-Western Virginia and of the Indiana Wars and Massacres, In that Section of the State; with Reflections, Anecdotes, &c. Published by Joseph Israel, Clarksburg, Virginia, 1831, pages 141-144 / pages 190-196.

 

 

 

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Enacted by the Confederation Congress on July 13, 1787, the Northwest Ordinance established the basic framework of the American territorial system and established the boundaries of a region known as the Northwest Territory. This region was eventually divided into the present States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. The Ordinance allowed these subsequent divisions a measure of self-government until their populations exceeded sixty thousand; at which time they could then draft a constitution and summit an application for Statehood. Of significance to this discussion was Article VI — which prohibited Slavery in the newly formed Northwest Territory north of the Ohio River. The Southwest Ordinance was passed in 1790 and allowed Slavery south of the Ohio River. With the enactment of these Ordinances, Kentucky was allowed to become a Slave State while the eventual States of Ohio and Indiana would become "free" States.

The Kentucky Baptist were of two minds on the issue of slavery — many congregations approving while others disapproved. In these early years in Kentucky, the abolition of slavery was championed by Reverend Joshua Carman and Reverend Josiah Dodge — their Churches becoming members of the Salem Baptist Association; which included Cox Creek Baptist Church (organized in April of 1785). As early as 1789, these two men were outspoken in their opposition to slavery. Were the Stark families sympathetic to this cause?

Josiah Dodge was a member of the congregation at Severn's Valley Baptist Church and no doubt his views of slavery were influenced by his association with Joshua Carman. Dodge was a preacher at Severn's Valley, but his qualifications as a minister were questioned by that church. In 1791, Severn's Valley requested the Salem Association have him examined by competent preachers. The ministers chosen for the examination were James Garrard, William Wood, William Taylor, and Baldwin Clifton. Reverend William Wood of Mason County was the brother-in-law of the Stark brothers — married to their sister, Sarah Stark. The examination took place at Cox Creek Baptist Church. These men declared they were satisfied with Josiah Dodge's qualifications and recommended he be ordained. It was most unusual for a Church within an Association to make such a request — this request perhaps made because of the Reverend's condemnation of the institution of slavery — for Dodge was among the first Baptist ministers in Kentucky to refuse fellowship to slave owners.

While living in Nelson County, the Stark Brothers were members of one or more of the Churches belonging to the Salem Association and could have been in agreement with the views of Carman and Dodge. Their brother-in-law, William Wood, had recommended Dodge be ordained in 1791, suggesting he may have believed in ownership of slaves — although there was also a shortage of qualified ministers in Kentucky at the time.

From 1788 thru 1791, James, Daniel, Joseph, Christopher, and John are reported on the tithable list of Joshua Hobbs, his district described as the same general area as that of David and Gabriel Cox. Jonathan Stark [the younger] continued to live near Elizabethtown until late 1791 or early 1792, when he apparently removed to the Cox Creek region.

Kentucky was declared a State June 1, 1792 and was no longer under the authority of the State of Virginia. In June, the Kentucky legislature decided to reorganize the State, creating new Counties as a result. Among those previous Counties to be divided was Nelson County and Jefferson County. Washington County was created from the eastern part of Nelson while Hardin County was created from the southern and western parts. Shelby County was created from the eastern part of Jefferson. The Salt River was the northern border of Nelson County; this border shared with both Jefferson County and Shelby County. September 1, 1792 marked the effective date Shelby County and Washington County began operation as new Counties in the new State of Kentucky. (See Figure 3)

Shortly after attaining statehood, the Kentucky General Assembly approved legislation (effective July 1, 1792) establishing Permanent Revenue. Tax rates were set and under this Act, the number of commissioners within a county was determined by the legislature. The commissioners were required to make alphabetical lists; the tax documents to be distributed to the commissioners by the last day of October (annually). [Source: Littell's Statute Law of Kentucky, Vol. I, Chapter X, pgs. 63-75, pub. 1809]

 

 

Figure 3

 

 

 

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James Stark was a resident of Nelson County, appearing on the Nelson County tax list of Gabriel Cox in 1792 — the list compiled in November of 1792. Reported was James with 142 acres and one male over 21 living in the home. February 11, 1792, a bond was made in Nelson County for Jonathan J. Stark — son of James — to marry Rachel Stark (daughter of Daniel Stark). The consent of both fathers was required and a witness was Jonathan D. Stark; a brother of Rachel and son of Daniel Stark. Therefore, both of these families were still living in Nelson County as late as February of 1792.

 

 

Figure 4

Sometime between February of 1792 and November of 1792, Joseph, Daniel, and his son, Jacob, moved within the shaded region, perhaps living between Elk Creek and Wolf Creek, a branch of Brashears Creek that passes near Yoder. This would have been within the jurisdiction of the newly formed Shelby County. Today, this region is within the boundary of present day Spencer County. (From 1999 map of Spencer County.)

Joseph Stark, Daniel Stark, and his son Jacob appear on the 1792 tax list of Shelby County. Because all of Nelson County was south of the Salt River before and after the formation of Shelby County, these families evidently had moved to a location in Shelby County which is north of the Salt River. The 1794 Shelby County tax list of Thomas Shannon Esq. reveals Joseph Stark owned 398 acres on are near Elk Creek and a later deed reports this property had boundaries on Elk Creek and Wolf Creek — a tributary Brashears Creek with a western branch that came near Elk Creek north of Taylorsville. This may have been where Joseph and Daniel moved and, as we will see, were later joined by James, Christopher, and John. (See Figure 4.)

James Stark was on the Nelson County 1793 tax list of Gabriel Cox, as was Jonathan Stark [the younger]. Christopher Stark reported he owned 150 acres and had 2 males over 21 years of age. The other male over 21 may have been his son, James Vineyard Stark. These families were still living on or near Froman Creek, a tributary of Cox Creek in 1793.

A deed dated June 20, 1798, made by Christopher, reports he sold 137 acres to Adam Wells located "on Roger's Run, Froman's Branch of Cox's Creek." Several months later, Jonathan Stark [the younger] sold 20 acres to David Wells described as on Froman Creek, a branch of Cox Creek. November 5, 1799, Joseph Stark sold 148 acres to William Burkit, described as on Rogers Run, Cox Creek. This last property adjoined the property of Adam Wells purchased in June of 1798 from Christopher Stark. "Rogers Run," — which cannot be found on a modern map — may have been the creek presently referred to as "Samuel’s Creek," a western tributary of Froman Creek. (See Figure 2 in the shaded area.)

Between early 1793 and late 1794, James Stark and Christopher Stark moved from Nelson County to Shelby County. Listed on the 1794 Shelby County tax list were James, Christopher, Daniel, John, and Joseph Stark. Jonathan Stark [the younger] was reported on the Nelson County tax list from 1792 to 1797, indicating he continued to live in the region of Froman Creek in Nelson County and did not move to Shelby County. Jonathan Stark [the younger] later sold all of his interest in Nelson County and had moved to western Kentucky by 1800. His descendants would later move into Missouri, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Texas.

 

 

 

 

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While living in Nelson County, the Stark brothers had formed an association with Reverend Joshua Carman. This was to continue in Shelby County. In J. H. Spencer’s, "A History of Kentucky Baptist," can be found these comments ( Volume 1, pages 283 & 284):

"ELK CREEK church is the oldest in Spencer county (then Shelby County), and the oldest in Long Run Association, except Cedar Creek, at first known as Chenowiths Run. It was gathered by Joshua Morris, then pastor of Brashears Creek church in Shelby county, and was constituted of ten members, April 27, 1794. It was at first called Buck Creek and was received into Salem Association the same year it was constituted. It soon afterwards took the name of Buck & Elk -- perhaps in consequence of the removal of its location, and the constituting of another church in 1799, in an adjoining neighborhood, which took the name of Buck Creek. Salem Association met with Buck & Elk church in 1798. Joshua Carman appears to have been its first pastor. In 1803, Buck & Elk, with 23 other churches, formed Long Run Association. At that time it was the largest church in the new fraternity, except Buck Creek, and contained 149 members. In 1823, it changed its name to Elk Creek. This name is derived from a small tributary of Salt River, on which the church is located. "

Just how much influence did Reverend Carman have over the Stark Families? Elisha Stark — a son of Reverend Abraham Stark and grandson of Daniel Stark — named one of his sons Joshua Carman Stark; and Jonathan J. Stark — a son of James Stark — also named a son Joshua Carman Stark. These two children, having been named after Reverend Carman, would imply he was held in high esteem by these families and they embraced and supported his position on the issue of slavery.

Now living in Shelby County between Elk Creek and Wolf Creek, the five remaining brothers would live in this region until 1799. James was on the Shelby County Tax list that year and would remain in Shelby County until he died in 1821. On June 1, 1799, Henry County began operation as a new County, created from the northern portion of Shelby County. Beginning in 1800, the following men with the surname Stark appeared on the Henry County Tax Lists.

• Joseph Stark appeared in the record from 1800 through 1807. He apparently was deceased before the tax list was compiled in 1808, for his widow, Hannah, appears on the list in 1808 and again in 1809. There son Abner, achieving the age of 21 in 1805, is recorded through 1809. Reuben Stark was of age in 1803 and is reported through the 1809. Another son, Philip appears in the record in 1809, suggesting this may have been the year he reached the 21 years of age.

• Christopher Stark is recorded as a resident of Henry county from 1800 through 1808. His spouse, Martha Vinyard, was deceased probably deceased before June of 1798, having died in Shelby County. Christopher died in 1808 after the tax list was compiled; for on November 9, 1807, he passed his property to his son Benjamin and Abraham. A son, Elisha, was reported in the 1805 and 1806 census, was absent or not reported in 1807, and appears in the record again in 1808. Stephen Vinyard Stark was first reported in 1809 and doesn’t appear in the record again.

• Daniel Stark was first reported as a resident of Henry County in 1800 and was on the tax list every year through 1809. His son, Abraham, appears with Daniel in the 1800 and 1801 record; is absent or not reported in 1802 and 1803; reappears in 1805; was again absent in 1803 through 1807; and was a resident again in 1808. Another son, Charles Stark, was reported as a resident in 1802, probably the year he reached the age of 21; and was reported every year after through 1809. Daniel Stark (Junior) was reported: 1800; 1801; ----; 1803; 1804; ----; ----; ----; 1808; being absent or not reported as shown. David Stark was reported: 1800; 1801; ----; 1803; 1804; 1805; 1806; 1807; 1808; 1809. Jacob Stark was reported: 1801; 1802; 1803; 1804; 1805; 1806; 1807; 1808. Jonathan D. Stark was reported: 1800; 1801; ----; 1803; 1804; ----; ----; ----; ----; ----.

• John Stark was living in Henry County in 1800 and reported as a resident through 1809. His son, Benjamin, was first reported in 1803; was absent or not reported in 1804; and was reported as a resident from 1805 through 1808.

• Jonathan J. Stark was a son of James Stark who moved with other family members to Henry County. He was first reported as a resident in 1800 and continued to be reported through 1806; was absent or not reported in 1807; and reappeared in 1808.

In 1800, Joseph, Daniel, Christopher, and John were reported living on the patent of John Craig, located on Floyd's Fork. A later deed further suggests all of these men were living in approximately the same location near or on Floyd's Fork.

"10 Jan 1808 Charles Lynch to Daniel Smith for $400 … land in Henry Co. on the waters of Floyds Fork 146 1/2a part of a 1350a patented to Dr. John Knight bounded as follows …corner to John Stark … with Daniel Stark's line … corner to Joseph Stark … Jno Starks corner … Signed by Chs. Lynch by Wm. Taylor atto. in fact for sd Lynch … Ack by Will Taylor attorney in fact for Charles Lynch …" [Source: 1808 Henry County, Kentucky; Deed Book 3, page 474]

The tax list clearly reveals Joseph, Christopher, Daniel, and John were residents of Henry County after October of 1799 — the last year they appeared on the Shelby County, Tax List. The 1808 Deed provides proof Joseph, Daniel, and John were living in close proximity to each other in that year. As we will learn, Christopher Stark was deceased before the date of this deed. Where could they have been living on Floyd's Fork?

These families — four of them being the Kentucky Stark brothers being discussed — were living in Henry County by 1800. The reminder were their male adult children. Joseph and Christopher died in Henry County, and as will be revealed later, Daniel and John were not listed in the 1810 Kentucky census.

 

 

 

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Henry County was created from the northern portions of Jefferson and Shelby Counties. Floyd's Fork is a tributary of the Salt River, running through Jefferson County and Bullitt Counties today. When Henry County was created, a small portion of Floyds Fork was in the southwestern portion of Henry County, near the junction of the boundaries of the three counties. Today, this region is still within the boundary of Henry County near Smithfield. (See Figure 5)

 

 

Figure 5

Southwestern Region of Henry County Today. The Stark Families were probably living on either Floyds Fork or the Eastern Fork of Floyds Fork.

 

The 1810 census reported the following men with the surname Stark living in Shelby, Bullitt, and Henry Counties. There were no men with the surname Stark reported living in Nelson County.

 

Henry County

• Abner, Phillip, & Reuben, sons of Joseph and Joseph’s widow, Hannah).

• John (Senior) and sons Benjamin & John (Junior).

• David (Senior); son of Daniel.

• Elisha; Son of James.

• Stephen; Son of Christopher.

• [Source Citation: Year 1810; Census Place, Henry, Kentucky; Roll 6; Page 357; Image 372.00.]

 

Shelby County

• James Stark

• [Source Citation: Year 1810; Census Place, Shelby, Kentucky; Roll 8; Page 202; Image 192.00.]

 

Bullitt County

• Aaron, Daniel, & William; All were sons of James Stark.

• [Source Citation: Year 1810; Census Place, Bullitt, Kentucky; Roll 5; Page 350; Image 187.00.]

 

Before and after 1810, descendants of the brothers began to remove to the Indiana Territory. Why the exodus from Kentucky? By 1800, it became obvious Reverends Carman and Dodge could not bring any considerable number of Kentucky Baptist to their emancipationist view; this resulting in a decline in their influence within the Kentucky Baptist Associations. Both moved to Ohio between 1800 and 1805, becoming ministers in the Miami Baptist Association in Greene County, Ohio — their primary reason for moving probably due to the slavery issue. Reverend William Wood continued as pastor of the Limestone Church in Mason County until a disagreement in 1798 arose between him and one of the brethren. The pastor, refusing to make satisfactory concessions, was declared "not one of us." Although Reverend Wood’s initial move to Green 

County, Ohio may have been prompted by his removal from the Limestone Church, it is also possible he moved to Ohio because of his anti-slavery sentiments.

The Stark families had an association with these men over the years and may well have been Kentucky Baptist emancipationist. [See Chapter 2 Appendix] It is quite possible that when the anti-slavery questions were again introduced in the Baptists Associations from 1805 to 1807 — and rejected in it’s finality by those bodiesmany members of these associations decided they could not live with neighbors who owned slaves; thereby moving across the Ohio River into the Northwest Territory where by law, the institution of slavery was not permitted. Most certainly, it was at about this time the Stark families began to migrate into the Indiana Territory. Most had moved to regions north of the Ohio River by 1820, located only a distance of 25 to 50 miles from their homes in Kentucky. Let us now turn to each brother, their families, and descendants.

 

 

 

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Rogers Station was located west of Bardstown at the present day junction of US Highway 62 and Ben Irvin Road. Photograph was taken by Donn Neal in May of 2008 in the approximate area where Rogers Station stood.

 

 

Froman Creek

Photo by Donn Neal May 2008

 

 

Samuels Creek

Photo by Donn Neal May 2008

 

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Cox Creek Junction with Froman Creek

Photo by Donn Neal May 2008

Most Likely Roger's Run Mentioned in the Historical Records

Photo by Donn Neal May 2008

 

 

 

 

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Figure 4

Sometime between February of 1792 and November of 1792, Joseph, Daniel, and his son, Jacob, moved within the shaded region, perhaps living between Elk Creek and Wolf Creek, a branch of Brashears Creek that passes near Yoder. This would have been within the jurisdiction of the newly formed Shelby County. Today, this region is within the boundary of present day Spencer County. (From 1999 map of Spencer County,)

 

Elk Creek near the communities of Elk Creek and Normandy

Photo by Donn Neal May 2008

Near Elk Creek and Normandy

Photo by Donn Neal May 2008

 

Near Elk Creek and Normandy

Photo by Donn Neal May 2008

 

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Page 1

 

Chapter 2 Appendix: The Stark Families & The Kentucky Emancipation Ministers 

By Clovis LaFleur, June 2010

 

Introduction

Enacted by the Confederation Congress on July 13, 1787, the Northwest Ordinance established the basic framework of the American territorial system and established the boundaries of a region known as the Northwest Territory. This region was eventually divided into the present States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. The Ordinance allowed these subsequent divisions a measure of self-government until their populations exceeded sixty thousand; at which time they could then draft a constitution and summit an application for Statehood. Of significance to this discussion was Article VI which prohibited Slavery in the newly formed Northwest Territory north of the Ohio River. The Southwest Ordinance was passed in 1790 and allowed Slavery south of the Ohio River. With the enactment of these Ordinances, Kentucky was allowed to become a Slave State while the eventual States of Ohio and Indiana would become “free” States.

The Kentucky Baptist were of two minds on the issue of slavery  many congregations approving while others disapproved. In these early years in Kentucky, the abolition of slavery was championed by Reverend Joshua Carman and Reverend Josiah Dodge  their Churches becoming members of the Salem Baptist Association  which included Cox Creek Baptist Church (organized in April of 1785). As early as 1789, these two men were outspoken in their opposition to slavery. Were the Stark families sympathetic to this cause?

 

The Emancipation Ministers

Cox Creek Baptist Church,  Severn's Valley Baptist Church, and Rolling Fork Baptist Church organized the Salem Baptist Association between 1785 and 1790 with these Churches among the first members. Reverend Joshua Carman began as minister of Severn's Valley in 1787, but soon after taking that position, organized the Rolling Fork Church in 1788. He was replaced at Severn's Valley by Josiah Dodge. Both Churches were in the Southwestern part of Nelson County before Kentucky became a State.

In October of 1789, The Rolling Fork Church sent a letter to the Salem Baptist Association which ask the following question: "'Is it lawful in the sight of God for a member of Christ's Church to keep his fellow-creatures in perpetual slavery?" The association replied, "'The Association judge it improper to enter into so important and critical a matter at present." While the answer was unsatisfactory, the Rolling Fork Church continued to address the issue until the congregation withdrew from the Association in 1796.

Josiah Dodge was a member of the congregation at Severn's Valley Baptist Church and no doubt his views of slavery were influenced by his association with Joshua Carman. Dodge was a preacher at Severn's Valley, but his qualifications as a minister were questioned by that church and in 1791, Severn's Valley requested the Salem Association have him examined by competent preachers. The ministers chosen for the examination were James Garrard, William Wood, William Taylor, and Baldwin Clifton. Reverend William Wood of Mason County was the brother-in-law of the Stark brothers married to their sister, Sarah Stark. The examination took place at Cox Creek Baptist Church. These men declared they were satisfied with Josiah Dodge's qualifications and recommended he be ordained. It was most unusual for a Church within an Association to make such a request this request perhaps made because of the Reverend's condemnation of the institution of slavery   for Dodge was among the first Baptist ministers in Kentucky to refuse fellowship to slaveholders.

 

The Stark Brothers and Slavery

While living in Nelson County, the Stark Brothers were most likely members of one or more of the Churches belonging to the Salem Association and could have been in agreement with the views of Carman and Dodge. Their brother-in-law, William Wood, had recommended Dodge be ordained in 1791, suggesting he may have believed in emancipation, although there was also a shortage of qualified ministers in Kentucky at the time. Elisha Stark  a son of Reverend Abraham Stark  named one of his sons Joshua Carman Stark; and Jonathan J. Stark  a son of James Stark  also named a son Joshua Carman Stark. Giving the name of Joshua to two Stark children would seem to imply these particular Stark families most likely embraced Reverend Carman’s position on the issue of slavery. On examining the 1810 census for Kentucky, none of the families who were descendants of Jonathan Stark and Sarah Lacock were reported to be slaveholders, further suggesting owning slaves may have been contrary to their beliefs.

By 1800, it became obvious Reverends Carman and Dodge could not bring any considerable number of Kentucky Baptist to their view resulting in a decline in their influence within the Kentucky Baptist Associations. Both moved to Ohio between 1800 and 1805, becoming ministers in the Miami Baptist Association in Greene County, Ohio  their primary reason for moving most likely due to the slavery issue. Reverend William Wood continued as pastor of the Limestone Church in Mason County until in 1798, a difficulty arose between him and one of the brethren. The pastor, refusing to make satisfactory concessions, was declared "not one of us." Although Reverend Wood’s initial move to Green County, Ohio may have been prompted by his removal from the Limestone Church, it is also possible he moved to Ohio because of his anti-slavery sentiments.

The Stark families had an association with these men over the years and may well have been Kentucky Baptist emancipationist. It is quite possible that when the anti-slavery questions were again introduced in the Baptists Associations from 1805 to 1807  and rejected in it’s finality by those bodies  many members of these associations decided they could not live with neighbors who owned slaves and moved across the Ohio River into the Northwest Territory. Most certainly, it was at about this time the Stark families   descendants of Jonathan Stark and Sarah Lacock began to migrate into the Indiana Territory. Most had moved to these regions north of the Ohio River by 1820, a distance of only 25 to 50 miles from their homes in Kentucky.

__________

Bibliography

Spencer, John H., A History of Kentucky Baptists from 1769 to 1885. 2 Volumes. (Cincinnati: J. R. Baumes, 1886). Volume 1, pages 67 & 68; pages 162 & 163;  pages 187 & 188; and pages 283 & 284. [Scroll down for excerpts from Volume 1 relative to Joshua Carman, Josiah Dodge, John Sutton, and William Wood.]

 

 

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Excerpts From "A History of Kentucky Baptists from 1768 to 1885."

Following are relevant excerpts from "A History of Kentucky Baptists from 1769 to 1885." By John H. Spencer (Published in Cincinnati by J. R. Baumes, 1886). Consists of two volumes. All of the following quotes are from Volume 1.

Reverend Joshua Carman

In 1787, Joshua Carman became pastor of Severn’s Valley Baptist and soon afterwards became pastor of the Rolling Forks Church, organized in 1788. In J. H. Spencer‘s “A History of Kentucky Baptist,” can be found these comments ( Volume 1, pages 162 & 163):

 

"Rolling Fork Church was located in the southern part of Nelson County. It was constituted in 1788, and united with the Salem Association the same year. It was probably gathered by Joshua Carman, an enthusiastic Emancipationist. This church sent with its letter to the Association (in October, 1789), the year after it obtained admission into that body, the following query: 'Is it lawful in the sight of God for a member of Christ's Church to keep his fellow-creatures in perpetual slavery?' (Answer) 'The Association judge it improper to enter into so important and critical a matter at present.' This answer was unsatisfactory. The church continued to agitate the subject of slavery, till, in 1796, it withdrew from the Association.

JOSHUA CARMAN, who appears to have been the founder and first pastor of Rolling Fork, was probably a native of Western Pennsylvania. He was among the early settlers of Nelson County, Kentucky. For a number of years he was an active minister in the bounds of Salem Association, and was several times appointed to preach the introductory sermon before that body. He was regarded a man of good ability, and was much beloved by the brethren. But, becoming fanatical on the subject of slavery, he induced Rolling Fork church to withdraw from the Association, in 1796, and declare non-fellowship with all slave-holders. He attempted to draw off Cedar Creek church, of which, according to tradition, he was pastor at that time. But, failing in this attempt, he collected the disaffected members from that church, Cox's Creek and Lick Creek, and, with the assistance of Josiah Dodge, constituted an Emancipation church, about six miles north-west of Bardstown. This church soon withered away, and Rolling Fork church returned to Salem Association. The exact date of constituting this Emancipation church, or the name it bore, is not now known, but it is supposed to have been the first organization of the kind in Kentucky. Mr. Carman, finding himself unable to bring any considerable number of Baptists to his views, moved to eastern Ohio (1801), where it is said he raised up a respectable church, and preached to it till the Lord took him away.”

 

According to Spencer, Joshua Carman was the first minister of a Church organized April 27, 1794 on or near Elk Creek . Spencer presented the following brief history of this Church (pages 283 & 284).

 

“ELK CREEK church is the oldest in Spencer county, and the oldest in Long Run Association, except Cedar Creek, at first known as Chenowiths Run. It was gathered by Joshua Morris, then pastor of Brashears Creek church in Shelby county, and was constituted of ten members, April 27, 1794. It was at first called Buck Creek and was received into Salem Association the same year it was constituted. It soon afterwards took the name of Buck & Elk -- perhaps in consequence of the removal of its location, and the constituting of another church in 1799, in an adjoining neighborhood, which took the name of Buck Creek. Salem Association met with Buck & Elk church in 1798. Joshua Carman appears to have been its first pastor. In 1803, Buck & Elk, with 23 other churches, formed Long Run Association. At that time it was the largest church in the new fraternity, except Buck Creek, and contained 149 members. In 1823, it changed its name to Elk Creek. This name is derived from a small tributary of Salt River, on which the church is located.“

 

These events occurred while the Stark families were living on Cox Creek and later on Elk Creek. What is the relevance of Joshua Carman to the Stark Families? Elisha Stark  a son of Reverend Abraham Stark  named one of his sons Joshua Carman Stark; and Jonathan J. Stark  a son of James Stark  also named a son Joshua Carman Stark. Giving the name of Joshua to two Stark children would seem to imply these particular Stark families most likely embraced Reverend Carman’s position on the issue of slavery.

 

Reverend Josiah Dodge

When Joshua Carman left Severn’s Valley Baptist Church in 1788 to become the pastor of Rolling Fork Church, he was replaced by Josiah Dodge. Spencer had these remarks concerning Reverend Dodge (pages 187 & 188):

 

“JOSIAH DODGE was among the first preachers in Kentucky, who refused to fellowship slaveholders. He was set apart to the ministry, at Severns Valley church in Hardin county. Joshua Carman, a brief sketch of whose life has been given, was called to the care of that church in 1787. He was a zealous emancipationist, and under his ministry, doubtless, Mr. Dodge imbibed his sentiments on that subject. Mr. Carman preached but a short time to this church. When he resigned, Josiah Dodge became its preacher, being a licentiate. In 1791, Severns Valley church sent Mr. Dodge to Salem Association, at Cox's Creek, with a request that the Association would appoint competent preachers to examine him, with respect to his ministerial qualifications. For this purpose the Association appointed James Garrard (afterward governor of Kentucky), William Wood of Mason county, William Taylor and Baldwin Clifton. These brethren reported that they were entirely satisfied with his qualifications. The Association "resolved that brother Josiah Dodge be ordained." This was a singular proceeding for a Baptist Association. But the scarcity of ministers, at that time, rendered it expedient. The Association was careful to state in their minutes that their action in this case was at the request of the church of which Mr. Dodge was a member.”

 

Reverend William Wood of Mason County was the brother-in-law of the Stark brothers married to their sister, Sarah Stark.

 

 

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Reverend John Sutton

John Sutton arrived in Kentucky in 1790 and settled in Woodford County. Spencer had the following comments related to the life of Reverend Sutton (pages 187 & 188). 

 

“JOHN SUTTON was the next preacher who agitated the subject of emancipation with any considerable effect, in Kentucky. He was a native of New Jersey. In early life he went to Nova Scotia as a missionary. He was in that province, as early as 1763. After remaining there till 1769, he started to return to New Jersey. But on his way, he visited Newport, Rhode Island. Here he accepted an invitation to preach to the first church in that town. After remaining there six months, he went on his journey to New Jersey. After his arrival, he was called to succeed Samuel Heaton in the pastoral care of Cape May church.

Here again, his stay was brief. After this he spent a brief period in Virginia, and was pastor a short time, of Salem church located 36 miles south-west of Philadelphia. Then he spent a time in the Redstone country (southwestern part of Pennsylvania), from whence he came to Kentucky. He settled in Woodford county, and became a member of Clear Creek church, not far from the year 1790. Here he commenced a warfare against slavery, and became so turbulent that he was arraigned before the church for his abuse of the brethren. But having won Carter Tarrant, pastor of Hillsboro' and Clear Creek churches, to his views, they led off a faction from each of these bodies and formed New Hope church of "Baptists Friends of Humanity." This was the first abolition church within the bounds of Elkhorn Association.”

 

Sutton moved to the Redstone Country from New Jersey at about the same time as Reverend Henry Crossley, the same minister who was a witness to the Joseph Lacock Will in New Jersey in 1760. Therefore, Sutton was well known to the Stark family.

 

Reverend William Wood

Living in Reverend Wood’s home was the mother of the Stark Brothers, Sarah (Lacock) Stark, spouse of Jonathan Stark [the elder]. Early in 1785, Reverend Wood organized the Limestone Baptist Church in Washington in Mason County at the request of Simon Kenton who promised William good land for a cheap price. Spencer wrote the following about Reverend William Wood and Limestone Baptist Church (pages 67 & 68):

 

WILLIAM WOOD appears to have been a man of culture and considerable ability. He was among the early settlers of Mason county, and was probably from New York. He purchased a thousand acres of land on which the town of Washington in Mason county now stands, and, in 1785, he and Arthur Fox laid off that town. The same year, he gathered Washington church, to which he ministered as pastor till 1798. In this year complaint was made against him in the church, on account of some business transactions. Failing to give satisfaction to the church, he was excluded from its fellowship. After this we hear no more of him….

LIMESTONE CHURCH (now Washington) was another body of the kind organized on the soil of Kentucky in 1785. It was gathered by William Wood. It was constituted of nine members whose names were as follows: "William Wood, Sarah Wood, James Turner, John Smith, Luther Calvin, Priscilla Calvin, Sarah Starks, Charles Tuel, and Sarah Tuel."1 The church was located at or near the present town of Washington in Mason county. This was the oldest settlement in this region of the State. It is claimed that Simon Kenton raised a crop of corn here, in 1775, the same year that Boonesboro and Harrodsburg were settled, and the town of Washington was laid off ten years later, by Elder William Wood and a man of the name of Arthur Fox.

 

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Copyright

Other than that work created by other acknowledged contributors or sources, the articles presented were authored and edited by Clovis LaFleur and the genealogical data presented in this publication was derived and compiled by  Pauline Stark Moore; Copyright © 2003. All rights are reserved. The use of any material on these pages by others will be discouraged if the named contributors, sources, or Clovis LaFleur & Pauline Stark Moore have not been acknowledged.

Disclaimer

This publication and the data presented is the work of Clovis LaFleur & Pauline Stark Moore. However, some of the content presented has been derived from the research and publicly available information of others and may not have been verified. You are responsible for the validation of all data and sources reported and should not presume the material presented is correct or complete.

 

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