Transcribed by Suezan James-Elliott, September, 2000
Breage is a parish in the Western Division of the county, hundred of Kerrier (west), Helston Union and county court district, rural deanery of Kerrier, Cornwall archdeaconry, and Exeter Diocese, 3 miles west from Helston, and 7 east from Marazion, on the road between towns, and near the sea coast.
The church of St Breage is an ancient building in the perpendicular style, and consists of chancel, nave, aisles, and transept, with embattled tower, surmounted by four pinnacles, and containing 2 bells and clock: there are several mural monuments, and two stained glass windows. The register dates from the year 1558. The living is a vicarage, with which is united the vicarage of the adjacent parish of Germoe, yearly value £760, with residence and 5 acres of glebe, in the gift of the crown, and held by the Rev. Edward Morris PRIDMORE M.A., of Claire College Cambridge.
A school board was established in 1871, and consists of 5 members There is a branch of the Cornwall and Devon Miners Association. Bible Christians and Wesleyans each have a chapel here. Footes charity, of £10 yearly, is distributed as follows: £2 10s to the school, and £2 10s to the poor, and £5 to the parish of Germoe; there is also £7 16s for poor widows of this parish.
The Inhabitants are chiefly supported by mining. The Duke of LEEDS and Charles TRELAWNEY Esq., are lords of the manor, and principal landowners. the soil is light; subsoil, granite. The chief crops are wheat, Barley and Oats. The area is 7,161 acres including 105 of water gross estimated rental, £9146; rateable value, £8,244 the population in 1871 was 4,450.
Rinsey is a village 2 miles south-west; Trew 1 mile north; Carleen 1.5 miles north; Keneggie 4 miles west; Pengerick 3 miles west, and Ashtown 1 mile west from Breage.
Letters through Helston, arrive at 11.35 a.m.; dispatched at 1.30 p.m. Helston is the nearest money order office.
CROWAN is a township and parish, 4 miles south from Camborne, in the western division of the county, Penwith hundred, Helston union and county court district, rural deanery of Penwith, Cornwall archdeaconry, and Exeter diocese.
The church of Saint Crewena, which was thoroughly restored in 1872, at a cost of upwards of £2,000, is a handsome Gothic building, has chancel, nave, aisles and a tower with 6 bells, and will accommodate about 400: the north aisle contains several monuments to the St. AUBYN family: the cost of restoring the chancel was defrayed by the patron of the living, the Rev. St-Aubyn H. MOLESWORTH-ST. AUBYN: over the chancel is a handsome stained glass window, representing the Ascension, which was given by Mrs Hender ST. AUBYN, in memory of her husband: also another at the end of the south aisle, representing the Ascension which was given, in memory of his wife, by George Hickman JOHNS Esq., of the Indian Civil service, son of the present vicar.
The earliest register in existence dates from the year 1689. The living is a vicarage, yearly value £470, with residence and 40 acres of glebe land, in the gift of the Rev. St Aubyn Hender MOLESWORTH-ST AUBYN, and held by the Rev. John White JOHNS M.A. of St. Johns College, Cambridge.
There are two schools for boys and girls, capable of accommodating 400 children; also a Sunday School. There are chapels for Wesleyans and Bible Christians. The chief pursuit of the inhabitants is mining. Clowance is the seat of the Rev. St-Aubyn H. MOLESWORTH-ST. AUBYN. The Rev St Aubyn Hender MOLESWORTH-ST AUBYN, who is lord of the manor, and the Duke of LEEDS, are the chief landowners.
The soil is loam; subsoil, principally granite. The chief crops are wheat, barley, oats and roots. The area is 6,437 acres; gross estimated rental, £8.537; rateable value £7,755.10s; and the population in 1861 was 4,131, and in 1871 was 3,464.
PRAZE is a considerable village three-quarters of a mile north, with a yearly fair for cattle, held in October, and a pleasure fair held on the 15th July; there is also a feast held here on the nearest Sunday to Candlemas (2nd February) A mutual improvement society has recently been established here, of which the Rev. John White JOHNS is president.
Letters arrive, through Camborne, at 11.45 a.m.; dispatched at 1.25 p.m. The nearest money order office is at Camborne.
St ERTH is a parish and village, 2 miles south from Hayle, in the western district of the county, Penwith Hundred, Penzance Union and county court district, rural deanery of Penwith, Cornwall archdeaconry, and Exeter diocese, situated on the Hayle river and estuary.
The St Ives Road station on the West Cornwall railway is in the parish, which includes a portion of the town of Hayle. The church of St-Erth, dating from around the 15th century, is a building in the Perpendicular style, and was extensively repaired in 1798; it is now about to undergo a thorough repair, with considerable alterations: It has chancel, nave, aisles, tower, porch and three bells, and contains some brasses, monuments of considerable interest of the DAVIES, GIDDY and GILBERT families, and old register chest.
The register dates from the year 1563. The living is a vicarage, yearly value, tithe rent charge £288, with residence and 105 acres of glebe land, in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, and held by the Rev. Alfred Wilson MILLS M.A. of Lincoln college, Oxford. There is a national school for boys and girls, endowed with £7 in St. Erth, and a school chapel licensed by the Bishop, on the estate of Bosworgie, and supported by the present vicar; and a Sunday School is held at the school-room. There is a chapel for Wesleyans and school for boys and girls in connection therewith. The poor have £1 5s yearly, distributed in bread.
Francis Hearle RODD, esq., who is lord of the manor, Sir J St-AUBYN bart., Esq. and the Hon Mrs GILBERT are chief landowners. The soil is various: the subsoil is killas and ironstone; there is a stratum of sand, used in moulding by ironfounders. The chief crops are wheat, barley and oats and green crops. The acreage is 4,092 gross estimated rental, £9,193; rateable value, £7,882; and the population in 1871 was 2,317.
Letters forwarded by foot from Hayle, arriving at 10 a.m.; dispatched to Hayle at 2.45 p.m. Hayle is the nearest money order office.
GERMOE is a township, parish and village, 6 miles north-west from Helston, and 4 from Marazion, in the Western district of the county, hundred of Kerrier, Helston Union and county court district, rural deanery of Kerrier, Cornwall Archdeaconry, and Exeter diocese, situated on the high road from Helston to Penzance.
The church of St. Germoe is an old building, in the Perpendicular style, with portions of earlier date, has a square embattled tower containing 3 bells, a porch ( over which is a crucifix) a nave, aisles, chancel, and transepts; the pews are most irregular, each owner having adopted his own plan; there are several mural monuments. In the churchyard is a stone seat, called the arm-chair of St Germoe, or King Germocus, the carved head of the figure, in granite being surmounted by a Saxon crown; beneath is supposed to be a burial vault.
The register dates from the year 1682, the living is a vicarage, consolidated with Breage, joint yearly value £760, with residence, in the gift of the crown, and held by the Rev. E. Morris PRIDMORE, M.A. of Clare College, Cambridge, who resides at Breage vicarage.
The national school for boys and girls is endowed with £10 from the Duke of LEEDS; a Sunday school is held at the church. There is a chapel for Wesleyans. Foote's charity provided £2 10s for the school and £2 10s for the poor; £3 from an unknown donor is for poor widows. the Leeds and St. Aubyn Consols, and Great Consols mines are in this parish. The Duke of LEEDS, Rev St Aubyn H MOLESWOTH ST-AUBYN, and William BULLER esq., are the chief landowners. The soil is loamy; the subsoil is granite. The chief crops are wheat, barley, oat, turnips and broccoli.
The acreage is 1,287 acres; gross estimated rental, £1,915; rateable value, £1, 623; and the population in 1871 was 953.
Letters through Helston, arrive at 12 a.m. dispatched at 1 p.m. Helston is the nearest money office.
HALESTOWN is an ecclesiastical parish, formed in 1846 out of the parish of St-Ives, in the Western division of the county, hundred of Penwith, Penzance Union and county court district, rural deanery of Penwith, archdeaconry of Cornwall, and diocese of Exeter, 1 mile west of St-Ives.
The church of St John (now St Johns in the Fields) is a beautiful Gothic structure of granite: it consists of chancel, nave, aisles, south porch, and turret containing one bell: it was built in 1858, and will seat 500 persons.
The register dates from the year 1860. The living is a vicarage, yearly value £180, with residence and small glebe, in the gift of the Rev. Frederick HICHENS, of Speldhurst, Kent, and held by the Rev. William Hinton DRAKE, M.A. of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.
There is a National school for both sexes, supported by Government grand and children's pence. There are also chapels for Wesleyans and Bible Christians. The soil is light; subsoil, granite. The crops are oats, barley, wheat and roots. The principal landowners are Messrs. BOLITHO and Earl Cowley the POPULATION IN 1871 was 1,810.
Letters through St-Ives, arrive at 11 a.m. There is a letter-box in the wall of the Wesleyan Chapel. St Ives is the nearest money order office.
ILLOGAN or St. Illogan, is a large and populous mining parish, 2½ miles north from Redruth railway station, and 1½ north-east from Camborne in the western division of the county hundred of Penwith, Redruth union and county court district, rural deanery of Penwith Cornwall archdeaconry, and Exeter diocese, situated on the Bristol Channel.
Illogan contains the villages of Pool, Portreath and Illogan Church Town. At Pool is a station on the West Cornwall railway, and several good shops. The rebuilt church of St. Illogan is in the perpendicular style, has chancel, nave, porch, organ, 6 bells, and contains brasses to the Basset family, some monuments and sedilia. The tower of the former building is still standing in the churchyard, but at some distance from the present church.
The earliest register dates from the year 1539. The living is a rectory, yearly value,£670, with residence and 77 acres of glebe land, in the gift of Gustavus Lambert BASSET Esq., and held by the Rev. James Gee WULFF M.A. of Trinity College Dublin. There are two chapels of ease one at Trevenson, near Pool, and the other at Portreath; also there are chapels for Wesleyans and Reform Methodists.
There are six parish schools, placed under the control of the School Board, There are two Sunday Schools, one at Church Town, the other at Pool. In this parish is Carnbrea Hill, 700 feet above the level of the sea; it is supposed to have been the central place of Worship for Druids in this part of the county; there are many huge rocks, one called the Sacrificing Rock: On this hill is a loft monument, of Pyramidical form, with the following inscription "The County of Cornwall to the Memory of Francis Lord De DUNSTANVILLE & BASSET A.D. 1836"
At Nance farm, overlooking Portreath, is an ancient encampment. Tehidy the seat of Gustavus Lambert BASSET Esq., is an ancient and substantially built mansion. Gustavus Lambert BASSET., Esq., who is lord of the manor and Lord ROBARTES are the chief landowners.
Trevenson is the residence of Charles William REYNOLDS, Esq., J.P.
The soil is loamy; subsoil, principally clay. The chief crops are wheat, barley and oats. The area is 8,010 acres; gross estimated rental £22,818; rateable value £19,165; the population in 1871 was 9,748, which includes the inhabitants of the district parishes of Tuckingmill and Mount Hawke, part of each which are taken from the parish of Illogan, and which can be found under separate headings.
PORTREATH is a small village and seaport in this parish, and is used as a shipping place by the numerous miners in the district; there is a small dock which belongs to Williams Portreath Company. BRIDGE and NANCKUKE are villages. CARNKIE is a Hamlet. Highway, Park Bottom, Loscoombe, Blowing House, Tregajoran, Towan, Roscroggan, Brea, Tolskithey, Carnarthen and Tolvaddon are places here.
Letters through Redruth, arrive at 10.40 am; dispatched at 2.15 pm.
NEWLYN or Newlyn East, with a part of the hamlet of Mitchell, is a large parish, 8½ miles north from Truro, 8 south-west from St Columb, and 8½ north west from Grampound Road station, in the Western division of the county, hundred of Pydar, Cornwall Archdeaconry and Exeter diocese. The village is situated in an elevated part of the parish, and commands a fine prospect over a large portion of the county.
The church of St Newlyn is a venerable cruciform structure, measuring within its walls about 45 feet in breadth: it consists of a chancel, nave, south aisle, two transepts, porch and a lofty square tower, with battlements and pinnacles at each of the angles, and containing a peal of 5 bells: the church was re-roofed about 1846: in the interior is a large vault, wherein many of the baronial family of ARUNDELL are interred: against the wall above stands a handsome marble monument, bearing the bust of Lady Margaret ARUNDELL, the family arms, with supporters, and on a shield of pretence the arms of Acland. The register dates from the year 1560.
The living is a vicarage, gross yearly value £471, with residence and about 11 acres of glebe land, in the gift of the Bishop of Exeter, and held by the Rev Thomas Hopkins BRITTON M.A. of Exeter College, Oxford.
There is a parochial school for boys and girls; also chapels for Wesleyans and Bible Christians. The poor house and land produce £95 yearly. A fair is held at Newlyn on the 8th of November for cattle, sheep, and grain. The baronial mansion of Trerice was formerly the seat of Lord John ARUNDELL who was present with Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury, and bravely defended Pendennis Castle, at the advanced age of 80: the old lordly edifice was erected in 1572; a large portion is still standing, but the rooms on the north side having become dilapidated have been pulled down, to the great disfigurement of the mansion.
The estate of Degembris was purchased from the TREGIANS, of Golden, in the Reign of James I, by the ARUNDELLS from whom it has since passed, with other estates, into the possession of Sir Thomas Dyke ACLAND.
Tresillian house the handsome seat of Richard Gully BENNET, Esq., J.P. was purchased from DAVIES by a Mr GULLY, from whose family it passed in marriage to an ancestor of the present inheritor. The manor of this parish was formerly vested in the ARUNDELLS of Lanherne and afterwards became the property of Lady Augusta CLIFFORD.
The manor of Cargoll, was according to the doomsday survey, formerly attached to the prior of Bodmin, and it is supposed, by Mr WHITAKER, to have been one of those which the Bishop of Exeter is said to have taken from the monastery, as it is known to have belonged to the religious establishment in the time of Edward 2nd. The Bishop Of Exeter had formerly a palace here. The present lords of the manor and the principal landed proprietors in this parish are Sir Thomas Dyke ACLAND, bart., M.P. Viscount
FALMOUTH, the Bishop of Exeter, and Christopher Henry Thomas HAWKINS Esq., John Heywood HAWKINS Esq., is the lay impropriator of the rectorial tithe rent charge, commuted at £757, and of 111 acres of rectorial glebe.
The soil varies, and is applied to the cultivation of wheat, barley and turnips. The area is 8.010 acres; gross estimated rental £8,380; rateable value, £7.742: and the population in 1871 was 1,688. The ancient borough of Mitchell or St Michael, lies partly in this parish and partly in St Enedor, particulars of which are given under the latter heading.
Letters arrive From Grampound road at 10.45 a.m. and are dispatched thereto at 2.30 p.m. per messenger. Grampound Road is the nearest money order office.
PENPONDS is an ecclesiastical district, formed in 1846 from Camborne parish, in the Western division of the county, hundred of Penwith, Redruth Union, Redruth County Court district, rural deanery of Penwith, archdeaconry of Cornwall and diocese of Exeter, 1 mile from Camborne.
The church of the Holy Trinity is in the early English style and consists of chancel, nave, north aisle, south porch, and bell turret containing 1 bell.
The living is a vicarage, yearly value £150, in the gift of the crown and Bishop of Exeter alternately and held by the Rev William Wright BUTLIN B.A. of Sidney Sussex College of Cambridge. There is a school here for boys and girls. The principal Land owners are Gustavus Lambert BASSET, esq., Mrs PENDARVES, and the Rev. St. Aubyn H. MOLESWORTH-ST-AUBYN. The chief crops are wheat, barley, oats and roots. The area is 1,956 acres; and the population in 1871 was 1,930.
Letters through Camborne, which is the nearest money order office.
Perranzabuloe or St Pirin in the Sands, is a large township and parish on the sea coast, 6 miles north west from Truro, 14 south-west from St-Columb, and 8 north-east from Redruth, situated on the road from Truro to Perranporth, and from Redruth to St-Columb, in the western division of the county hundred of Pyder, Truro union and county court district, rural deanery of Pyder, Cornwall archdeaconry, and diocese of Exeter.
The parish is greatly overblown with sea sand, and in several places the earth is much burrowed by the number of rabbits which breed in the adjoining hills. Shipwrecks were formerly very common on the rocks which skirt this desert waste, a place at all times full of danger to the mariner. In the midst of this scene of desolation there formerly existed a monastery, which, in the reign of Henry I., consisted of a dean and canons, and was endowed, having the privilege of a sanctuary; few of the ruins are now visible, and those only to be perceived as the sands shift. About a quarter of a mile further east are the remains of a church of much antiquity, but equally desolate, being deprived of its roof, pillars, window frames, and tower, the whole representing a scene of melancholy confusion, the interior of this ruinous pile being filled with the sand from the sea.
The present church of St. Piran is situated at Lambourne, in the centre of the parish: it consists of a chancel, name both and south transepts, porch, and at the west end a square tower containing 3 bells; in the north transept is a tablet of white marble and underneath is the following inscription:- "The first stone of this parish church was laid in the year 1804, after two former ones had been successively overwhelmed with the sand of the desert in which they were imprudently built." It was finished, and together with the surrounding burying-ground consecrated in the following year. The land was given to that intent by Francis GREGOR esq., a member of parliament for this county; John THOMAS esq., the high lord of the fee, consenting; and Mark OATES esq., contributing his leasehold interest therein. The greater part of the expense was defrayed by the liberal subscription of the persons whose names and principal benefactions are here recorded, by the contributions of others to a less amount - some zealously gave their labour, and the remainder by church rates.
The seats, except the open ones at the west end of the church, and the vicars in the chancel, are appropriated, and according to the grant of the land, are to be held by those who erected them, and their respective heirs and assigns for ever, being inhabitants, and keeping them in repair. Here is also a tablet to the memory of John THOMAS esq., formerly resident in this parish. The Registers date from the year 1630 , but are imperfect up to 1780. The living is a vicarage, yearly value £265 in the gift of the Dean and chapter of Exeter, and held by the Rev John PERRY M.A. of Balliol college, Oxford. The National school room is situate adjoining the church, and a Sunday school is held in the school room. There are chapels for Wesleyans at Bolingey, Rose and Callestock, and for Bible Christians at Penhallow and [?]Goonhavern.
The inhabitants of this parish are chiefly employed in mining and agriculture, and live in detached cottages, indiscriminately scattered over the open commons. At Bolingey, on the northern side of the parish, is a pleasing valley filled with houses. Cleathers charity is of £2 yearly, £1 for poor widows and £1 for a sermon. This parish is said to have been the birthplace and residence of St Piran, the patron saint of tinners; an old church, the shrine which contained his relics, was greatly resorted to by pilgrims for the purpose of making oblations to the departed saint. Near the manor house of Tywarnhayle is a small island, on which formerly stood a chapel called Engarder, the ruins of which ere visible in 1733. St Pirans Well distant half a mile north-east from the church, is situated in the tenement of Karnkief, and is enclosed with granite walls. North of the well is St Pirans round, or amphitheatre; it is 130 feet in diameter, is composed of turf, and rises in 7 steps: exhibitions of miracle plays were formerly held here.
Chiverton, in this parish, the handsome modern seat of John Thomas Henry PETER esq., J.P. is probably so called from an ancient and noble family now extinct. The lords of the manor are Viscount FALMOUTH, Sir Richard VYVYAN bart., F. Gilbert ENYS esq., and the Rev. St Aubyn H. MOLESWORTH-ST AUBYN, who with William HODGE esq., of Truro, John Thomas Henry PETER esq., of this parish and Mr William Chapman, of Engilleys are the chief landed proprietors. The soil varies greatly; the subsoil is shelf and spar. The chief crops produced are wheat, barley, oats and turnips.
The area is 11,340 acres, of which 385 are water; gross estimated rental, £6,488; rateable value, £5,691; and the population in 1871 was 3,661.
PERRANPORTH about 1.5 miles north-west from the church, is a village on the coast, much frequented in the summer months as a bathing-place, on account of its fine sandy beach. The chapel of ease, erected and opened in 1872, a handsome building in the Early English Style, having chancel and nave. Pilchard fishing is carried out here.
The following are small hamlets, with their distances from the church: BOLINGEY 1 mile north; CALLESTOCK 1 mile south, PENHALLOW ¾ mile south west, PERRANCOMBE 2½ miles north-west, ROSE 2 miles north-east and VENTONGIMPS 1 mile south-east.
Post Office - Perran-Porth Letters arrive from Truro at 11.30 a.m.; dispatched at 1 p.m. per messenger. St-Agnes is the nearest money order office.
Post Office - Callestock- Letters arrive from Truro at 9.30 a.m. dispatched at 2 p.m. per messenger.Truro is the nearest money order office.
PHILLACK or St Felack, is a parish in the western division of the county, hundred of Penwith, union and county court district of Redruth, rural deanery of Penwith, archdeaconry of Cornwall, and diocese of Exeter, 6 miles south-west of Camborne, on the shore of St. Ives bay. This parish contains a large portion of the town of Hayle.
The church of St. Felicitas was rebuilt , with the exception of the tower, in 1856; it is in the middle pointed or decorated style, has chance, nave, aisles, south porch, vestry, organ and tower with three bells.
The register dates from the year 1560. The living is a rectory, with the chapelry of Gwithian annexed; tithes commuted at £522 with residence and 3.5 acres of glebe land, in the gift of , and held by, the Rev. Frederick HOCKIN,M.A. of St Johns College, Cambridge.
A new ecclesiastical parish was formed out of the western part of this parish in 1870, called St Elwyn of which the Rev. William HORSBURGH B.A.., of Trinity College Dublin, is the incumbent, and the rector of Phillack the patron. There are three National and Sunday schools for boys and girls. The principal landowners are F.G. Gregor, Esq., Lord ROBARTES, Sir John St. AUBYN. bart., M.P. GREGOR Esq., Mrs TYRINGHAM, and the family of the late Rev. Wm. HOCKIN.
The soil is sand and killas; subsoil, sand and granite in parts of the parish. The chief crops are Barley and Oats, with considerable pasturage. The area is 2,907 acres, of which 209 are water and sand hills, on the coast, locally called Towans, gross estimated rental of £11,435; rateable value £9,544 and the population in 1871 was 4,854.
For Postal Arrangements see Hayle.