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Patrick Hurley (1829-1887): Biography

Note: This biography was composed during July and August 2008, by W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah, utilizing all of the currently known documents and resources relative to the life of Patrick Hurley. A bibliography of sources appears at the end.

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Having already spent nearly a half century in gathering information about the beclouded life of Patrick Hurley, at last, in recent years, obscure bits of important documentation are beginning to come to light. As a result, although there is still much that remains unknown and undiscovered about him, his activities can now be more fully chronicled. Accordingly, based upon the facts currently available and buttressed by other known contemporary happenings, four phases of his life will be discussed in this biography: ancestry and early years, military career, marriage and family, and terminal events.

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Along with the oft times spotty nature of Irish records in general, one major challenge which has continued to complicate research efforts on Patrick is the fact that he used three different spellings for his surname. For example, his military account book, listing personal information at the time he first enlisted in the Royal Artillery, on the 29 September 1858,…in Dublin,…at the age of 27 years… indicates that he was Roman Catholic,…a draper,… and was born in the Parish of Patrick Street,… Cork. The document lists him as Patrick Hearlihy; but, he signed his name as P. Herlihy. 1 His discharge certificate from the 8th Battery, 3rd Brigade, Royal Regiment of Artillery two decades later, dated 12th March 1878, again under the name of Patrick Hearlihy, records the same information. 2 On the other hand, family traditions state, among other things, that he was born Patrick James Hurley, about 1830, in Dublin, Ireland, into a wealthy family which included three siblings, an older brother and two sisters. His father, John, was a linen draper. However, after a severe misunderstanding with his parents in which he was disowned, the traditions state that he ran away from home, lied about his age, joined the British Army under an assumed name, and subsequently legally changed his surname to Herlihy. 3 Thus, there were a number of conflicting suppositions that required resolution.

Consequently, supported by presumed hard facts and information from the military documents coupled with various clues from the family traditions, a major breakthrough occurred a few years ago, in Cork. For decades, diligent, but unsuccessful searching had been pursued in the various Cork and Dublin Catholic Church parishes, utilizing the services of local vicars. However, in 2001, during an on-site visit by an astute professional Utah genealogist, it was finally realized that the Cork City ecclesiastical and civil boundaries overlapped. This then led to other investigations, which at long last proved productive.

From concluding comments in the resultant research report to the family, it was reported:

We have proven Patrick Hurley, a linen draper, was the son of a John Hurley, Linen Draper, of Cork City. The only John Hurley who was a linen draper in Cork City lived at #21 and #22 North Main, within the Civil Parish of Holy Trinity. The civil parish included the Roman Catholic parishes of St. Peter and St. Paul, St. Finbars South, and other churches.
We have also proven that the successor to John Hurley was a Catherine Hurley….
We [searched] the christenings of St. Finbars South {P. 4778}. We started in the year 1834, and searched the christenings from there to 1825. The following was found:

-Daniel, son of Patrick Herlihy & Margaret Donovan, chr. 30 Oct 1830. Sponsors: Daniel Sweeney and Mary Crowley.
-Patrick, son of John Hurley and Catherine Crawley, chr 22 March 1829. Sponsors: Denis Crowley and Allen Grady.
-Mary, daughter of John Hurley and Catherine Crowley, chr. 16 July 1826. Sponsors: Mathew Brian and Rebecca Sheridan.
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Other useful information was identified during this insightful research trip, but the salient facts which finally emerged were the following: Patrick Hurley was christened in Cork, Ireland, 22 March 1829; his sister Mary was christened in Cork, 16 March 1826; and Patrick’s parents were firmly established as John Hurley, a linen draper, and Catherine Crawley/Crowley, his wife, residing at #21 & #22 North Main Street, in Cork City.

Unfortunately, the birth, marriage and death dates of Patrick’s parents still elude us, but using the information at hand and searching the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints’ extraction record data base, a third child, Patrick’s older brother, has been found: John Hurley, christening: 24 Feb 1824, St. Finbar South, Cork, Cork, Ireland; father: John Hurley; mother: Catherine Crowley. 5 Moreover, according to the previously mentioned family traditions, there may yet be another undiscovered sister, as well.

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We have no further firm information about Patrick’s life before he enlisted in the Royal Artillery in Dublin, in 1858, under his assumed name and falsified age. However, there are some helpful comments on the tenor of the times in Ireland, found in a book, Cork’s Industrial Revolution, 1780-1880: Development or Decline? by Andy Bielenberg 6, which offer good understanding, as follows:

Linen was the most important industry in Ireland during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries….During the eighteenth century a number of landlords in the Cork region invested large amounts of capital in trying to establish the linen industry on their estates. In the long run, this was an important factor in the development of the industry in the region, since many of those who became involved in the cultivation of flax and the manufacture of linen had insufficient capital resources to enter the industry. (p. 8)

By 1823….the total number of people employed in the cultivation of flax and the manufacture and finishing of linen in the Cork region was about 60,000. (p. 10)

By the early 1850’s the output of the industry was hardly a fifth of what it had been in the early 1820’s….The critical factor was … mechanization. (p.18)

The cotton industry was introduced to the Cork area in the mid-eighteenth century....Over the next few decades cotton yarn was increasingly incorporated as a cheap weft in a mixed cloth with linen warp….The successful mechanization of the carding and spinning process in England facilitated a decline in the price of cottons. This broadened the market base and made cottons most competitive with linens and woolens. (p. 21)

The Cork manufacturers were not investing in new spinning machinery. This made it difficult for them to compete with the rising productivity of manufacturers in England and other parts of Ireland… (p. 25)

In 1824 there were fifteen cotton manufacturers working on the South Main Street. While some of the town’s weavers would have worked in the loom shops of these master manufacturers, the bulk of the weaving was put out to weavers working in their own cottages. Nearly all the houses off the main streets had looms in them… (p. 27)

The 1825-6 industrial depression in England was a major set-back to [Cork’s] cotton industry. British manufacturers dumped low-priced cottons on the Irish market in order to alleviate some of their excess stock. (p. 28)

The social dislocation caused by the deindustrialization of the…industry was obviously enormous…. Many of the younger and more able weavers immigrated to English cities…. Others immigrated to America. Another common escape was to enlist with the British army, for during this period the town became the best depot for recruiting soldiers in the whole of the south of Ireland. (p. 29)

The failure of the manufacturers to fully mechanize the industry was the critical factor in the demise of the industry. (p. 30)

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Whatever Patrick’s reasons for enlisting in the Royal Regiment of Bengal Artillery on 29 September 1858, at Dublin, in any case, from his military account book, we do have his physical description at the time: size: 5 feet 6 3/8 inches; complexion: fresh; eyes: blue; hair: black; marks: nil. Furthermore, from this same document, we also learn that he served for nine and a half years in the Bengal Artillery, East India: he embarked for India on 4 October 1858, and arrived back in England on 20 April 1868. 7 As to what he did while stationed in exotic, far-off India, we have no exact record. Nonetheless, it is interesting to review what generally transpired there during this time frame.

Bengal, an ancient region on the NE Indian Peninsula, in 1947, was divided into West Bengal (part of modern-day India) and Bangladesh (formerly East Bengal). Having very low-lying topography, which averages 33 meters in height, it is estimated that 10% of the general area would be under water if the sea rose 1 meter. Indeed, with the periodic, seasonal monsoon rains, many parts of the region are often sites of severe flooding.

The region has other remarkable features, too: huge, sprawling Calcutta is its capital city, the sacred Ganges River is contained within its borders, the largest mangrove forest in the world is found there, and the region is the natural habitat for Bengal tigers.

In the mid part of the nineteenth century, the East India Company had a strong foothold on both the commerce and various governments of the region. Moreover, securely established in Bengal, the British Monarchy sought further expansion northward into present day Assam and Bhutan. 8 For these and other reasons, a number of conflicts were spawned during the decade in which Patrick was stationed in Bengal, from 1858-1868—the same time-frame, by the way, in which the American Civil war was raging on the other side of the world. These conflicts included: The Indian Mutiny (1857-58); North-West Frontier-Umbeyla (Mountain) Expedition (1863-64); Bhutan Frontier Campaign (1865-66); and North-West Frontier-Black Mountain Troubles (1867-68). 9

This was also a unique period for artillery innovation:

Then in 1859-60 came the greatest step in progress to occur throughout the whole course of the Royal Artillery’s existence. Wrought iron, built-up, rifled breech-loading [loaded from behind, rather than from the muzzle, in front] ordnance were adopted for the first time. (The term ‘built-up’ means the construction of the gun barrel by shrinking wrought iron coils on to an inner tube.) The genius behind this step was a Mr. W.G. Armstrong, a Tyneside engineer. His principles were applied to several calibers, but in field artillery they resulted in the 12pr Rifled Breech Loading (RBL) Armstrong gun. 10

Certainly Patrick, as a gunner in the Royal Bengal Regiment of Artillery at the time, would have been involved with this revolutionary new weapon. But, on the other hand, we have no way of knowing, at present, whether he was actually involved in any of the above-mentioned campaigns, even though the Royal Artillery fought in them all.

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According to his military account book, after returning from India to England, in 1868, Patrick was stationed at a number of military outposts throughout England and Wales for varying lengths of time. 1-doc In addition, one of these assignments is further confirmed by the 1871 English census, which shows Patrick Hearlihy as a soldier stationed at North Fort Barracks, Weymouth, Dorset, England. 11 The same 1871 English Census for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis in Dorset, England shows his future wife, Susan Pearce, living in Melcombe Regis, employed as a general servant. 12

English census records were evidently taken in April of each census year. We have no idea how Patrick and Susan first met, but they married two months later in Weymouth, Dorset, 26 June 1871, in the Church of the Holy Trinity, according to rites and ceremonies of the Established Church. 13

Interestingly, the Established Church mentioned on their marriage certificate was actually the Church of England, a protestant church, rather than the Roman Catholic Church, the faith into which Patrick had been born in Ireland. Certainly, this fact might well suggest that he had been thinking about religion for some time, and had become more open in his religious views. (We’ll note more of these sentiments in his final letter to Susan Jane before his death—discussed a bit later in the biography.) At any rate, further supportive of this supposition, one of his daughters, Annie Hurley Howells, my grandmother, observed the following, in her memoirs:

First, I would like to state that I was born a catholic, my father being born in Ireland of Roman Catholic parents, one of a family of four, two boys and two girls. My mother was of the Church of England. Eventually, and in respect to my father’s wishes, she joined the catholic faith, inasmuch as a family was in prospect and it was father’s wish that the children should be of one faith until we should reach an age when some other religion might appeal to our more mature judgment and inspire us more with hope for the future or hereafter. Eventually, and in respect to my father’s wishes, she joined the catholic faith. Before my father died in 1887, he called us all to his bedside and told us that it was not his wish that we follow the catholic faith. But he wanted us to follow some form of religion and always try to be honest and upright all our lives. Eventually, we all fell away from the catholic faith. 14

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Between them, over the next fourteen years, they had seven children, as follows: The first child was John Herlihy, born 22 April 1872, in Alverstoke, Southampton, England. 15 (He married Mary Ann Chivers, 3 June 1894, in Woolos Monmouth, England 16, and died 17 February 1939, in San Francisco, San Francisco, California. 17)

Their second child was Annie Matilda Herlihy, born 27 July 1874, in Newhaven, Sussex, England. 18 (She married John Francis Howells, 26 March 1896, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah 19, and died 12 December 1959, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah. 20)

Ellen Jane Herlihy was third. She was born 4 April 1876, in Charlton/Dover, Kent, England. 21 (She married twice, marrying her first husband, George Sollis, 21 February 1898, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah, 22 After George’s death, she married her second husband, Earl G. Griggs, on 22 February 1908, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah. 23 She died 26 November 1960, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah. 24)

Susan Rachel Herlihy was fourth-born. She was born 21 April 1878, in Godmanstone/Dorchester, Dorset, England 25, but died 18 months later, of convulsions, on 13 October 1879, in Bristol City, Bristol, England. 26

The fifth child and fourth daughter was Susan Emma Herlihy, born 9 April 1880, in Bristol City, Bristol/Gloucester, England. 27 (She married Henry Francis Williams in Farmington, Davis, Utah, 29 July 1903 28, and died 24 August 1962, at age 61, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah. 29)

The sixth child and second son was Harry Hurley, born 18 May 1882, in Bristol City, Bristol/Gloucester, England. An actual birth certificate for him has never been located. However he is mentioned in Patrick's final letter to Susan Jane, dated 22 Novemberr 1886 (see below), and appears on the 1891 Wales Census as Henry, age 7 stepson of his remarried mother, Sarah [Susan] Jane Harris. 30 Moreover, at age ten, his baptismal certificate confirms the above birth date. 31 (He married Jane Skelton in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah, 5 March 1905 32, and died 29 June 1927, in a traffic accident, at age 45, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah. 33)

The last child born to Patrick and Susan Jane was Rose Mary Herlihy. She was born in Cardiff, Glamorgan/Monmouth, Wales, on 28 March 1885. 34 (She also married twice. She married her first husband, James Elmer Griggs, on 24 October 1903, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah. 35 Following his death in 1937, she married William R. Middleton in Las Vegas, Clark, Nevada, on 26 November 1953. 36 She died 31 January 1976, at age 90, in North Las Vegas, Clark, Nevada. 37)

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Patrick was officially discharged from the military on 12 March 1878, having served a total of 21 years and 49 days 38, and, by virtue of this service, qualified for a small, lifelong government pension, evidently administered through Her Majesty’s Royal Hospital at Chelsea. The official pension document, Chelsea Number 56116 a, besides listing the per Diem rate of his out-pensioner’s pay, also listed his vital statistics upon discharge: age: 48; stature: 5’ 7”; hair: grey; eyes: blue. 39

Additionally, at the time of his discharge, there were two nice commendation notations which were written about him by his commanding officers:

His conduct has been very good. He is possessed of three good conduct badges, and a second class school certificate. 40

Patrick Herlihy, about to receive his discharge from the Royal Artillery, bears a good character. He is a man of good education (with a 2nd class certificate of education) & is a good accountant. 41

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At the time of his military discharge, Patrick and Susan Jane were already underway with their family. I’ve already noted their various places of residence while he was still a soldier. However, it is interesting to note the several other places in which they lived after he completed his military career. Part of this may have been due, at least in part, to the subsequent occupation which he pursued, namely that of commercial traveler. Interestingly, this new career must have begun almost immediately upon his release as a soldier in March 1878, for he is so listed at the time that his daughter, Susan Rachel, was born in April, only one month later. 42

A commercial traveler would probably be comparable to a traveling salesman or a manufacturer’s representative in today’s parlance. And, embarking on such an enterprise as he left the military most likely would have seemed very promising to Patrick, now looking for new opportunities by which to support his young family.

Certainly, too, this was an era of rare economic promise. One recent paper noted:

The period from 1870 to 1914 represented the high water mark of 19th century globalization, which… had been developing since the end of the Napoleonic Wars…. Nineteenth century globalization involved increasing transfers of commodities, people, capital and ideas between and within continents….

[Between 1870 and 1913]… international trade grew for many reasons. International freight rates declined steadily as a result of constant technical improvements and the growth in the usage of faster and more regular steamships, especially after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 (which could only be used by steamships)…. Development of railways…. Peace between the main powers between 1871 and 1914 …. Reduction of trade barriers…. Falling transport costs…. Meanwhile, the gradual spread of the gold standard dampened exchange rate fluctuations and reduced uncertainty in trade. 43

Concerning the push for new globalization in our own times, in the Twenty-first century, another author has written:

We’re still not back to where we were 100 years ago…. In those days, passports were unnecessary and people could travel freely from one country to the next, to visit or to work….In many ways, … 19th-century globalization worked better than today’s. It’s very hard to recapture the successes of the earlier period… but it is worth a try. 44

Thus, based on his pre-military occupation as a linen draper, coupled with the educational skills and military experience acquired in India, Patrick, transitioning to a commercial traveler in this emerging new era of globalization, was prepared to become part of something far larger than himself. Of course, we have no record at this time of what he actually did, whom he represented, to where he traveled, or whether he remained solely in the British Isles. Nevertheless, it is intriguing to speculate.

It is of interest, too, as mentioned previously, to take note of the several places in which the family then lived, for one reason or another, after Patrick left the military, in 1878. Most likely these various residences had some relationship to his employment:

March 1878, at the time of Patrick’s discharge, the family lived in Dorchester, Dorset, England (the exact address is not known) 45, in the vicinity of the birthplace of his wife, Susan Jane Pearce. 46

April 1878, at the time of daughter, Susan Rachel’s birth, 21 April 1878, the address listed was: Godmanstone, Dorchester, Dorset, England. 47

April 1880, at the time of daughter, Susan Emma’s birth, 9 April 1880, the new address listed was 8 Fern Street, Ashley, Barton Regis, Bristol, Gloucester/Bristol, England. 48

May 1882, at the time of son, Harry’s birth, 15 May 1882, the family evidently still resided at the same location in Bristol. 49

March 1885, at the time of daughter, Rose Mary’s birth, 28 March 1885, the new address listed was 25 Daniel Street, Roath, Cardiff, Glamorgan/Monmouth, Wales. 50

May 1887, two years later, at the time of Patrick’s death, 3 May 1887, his home address was still listed as 25 Daniel Street, Roath, Cardiff, Glamorgan/Monmouth, Wales. 51

Again, we don’t have full details concerning his work, travels or experiences, only that, following discharge from the military in 1878, he evidently pursued the profession of commercial agent for nearly a decade prior to his death, in 1887.

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In late 1886, Patrick was admitted to a hospital, the Bristol Infirmary, in Bristol, England, for evaluation and treatment of progressive swelling at the angle of his lower jaw. He subsequently underwent surgery on Thursday, 25 November 1886 52, at which time the diagnosis of a parotid (salivary) gland tumor was made. 53 We don’t have all of the particulars concerning his condition. But, apparently, based on what later took place, the tumor was malignant.

Malignant tumors of the parotid gland are quite rare, and usually slow growing. They typically present, at first, by the patient noting swelling at the angle of the lower jaw. But, with progression and involvement of nearby, important nerves, significant local pain often results, as well. In time, further spread to nearby structures within the head and neck (as well as distantly) can occur, which then causes impairment in breathing, eating and swallowing. 54 Of course, today treatment of such tumors is multidimensional and generally successful. 55

However, in Patrick’s day, such was not the case. Nonetheless, the age of anesthesia had arrived by the end of the 19th century 56, and surgery, even though not as sophisticated as what can be performed today, could be done.

Why was he treated at a medical facility in Bristol, when he lived in Cardiff? We don’t know. Perhaps the physicians in Bristol were more experienced with parotid tumors. Perhaps his out-pensioner medical coverage demanded such. There may have been other reasons. At any rate, just prior to the operation, he wrote a very revealing letter to Susan Jane, in which we learn something about his hopes, concerns, and overall condition at this important juncture in his life:

Bristol Infirmary
November 22, 1886

Dear Sue:

I am really surprised at you not answering my letter before this time and letting me know how all the family are getting on. As for my part I wish to let you know the full particulars of everything. I am going under an operation on Thursday next, and I am almost certain that I will never come out of it. By what I can hear, as they say, it is the most dangerous one they ever had to do with. So if anything happens, put your trust in God, and He will look after you and the family. Put your trust in Jesus and ask Him to be a father to your family and you will find He will not forsake you.

I would like dearly to be able to see all the little ones before I am operated upon, but I suppose I will not be able; and there’s one thing certain, they cannot come to see me, as your funds will not admit of it. Therefore, I have only to leave you and family my blessing and the blessing of the Almighty God to attend you all, and beg Jesus to be a father to the little family, and I hope you will bring them up in the fear and love of God, is the last request of your affectionate husband—P. Hurley, No. 11 Ward, Bristol Infirmary.

With kind love to John, Till, Nelly, Harry, Susan and Rosey and not forgetting you dear wife, who has been always a good wife to me, for which the Almighty I hope, will reward you. I am almost certain this will be the last from your affectionate husband, P. Hurley. Write to me at once to P. Hurley, No. 11 Ward, Bristol Infirmary. Kisses for all: xxxxxx. Keep up your spirits and trust in Jesus. P. H.

Written crosswise on the back of the letter, on top of the initial writing, is the following:

With kind love to Rev. Mr. Maddoe and Mr. Carr, and may God prolong their lives to good to their fellowmen, the same as they have done for me and family, and may Jesus keep them in His holy keeping, is the last wish of their humble servant. P. Hurley.

The letter was transcribed by his granddaughter, Evelyn Hurley Howells Nelson, at the end of which, she placed this additional note:

I have written this exactly as it is in his letter regarding spelling. I may have added a comma, but that is all. I can faintly remember mother [Patrick’s daughter, Annie Matilda Hurley Howells] talking about her father’s illness, many years ago before I married. She said he had a brain tumor and that grandma walked from Cardiff where they lived, I’m sure I’m right about the city, through a tunnel that had just been completed, to Bristol, to see him. I just add this as an addition to the history. 57

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Some reflections on the letter:

First of all, it is interesting that at this late date in his life, Patrick reverted back to the original spelling of his name, Hurley, rather than Herlihy or Hearlihy, which forms he had used throughout most of his life.

Secondly, clearly anticipating an early demise, he manifested a very religious inclination, a love and trust in God and Jesus and service to mankind—seemingly, much more of a Protestant or evangelical persuasion than Roman Catholic, the faith into which he had been born. Furthermore, as far as is known, he never heard about the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints during mortality.

Thirdly, he demonstrated sincere love for his wife and children. He showed obvious concern for their temporal welfare; indeed, they appeared to be struggling financially. However, he expressed an even more fervent concern for their eternal, spiritual welfare.

Regarding the tunnel connecting Cardiff and Bristol, through which Susan Jane walked to visit Patrick in the Bristol Infirmary, it must most certainly have been the Severn Tunnel. Traversing “The Shoots,” the narrowest part of the estuary separating Cardiff from Bristol, it is over four miles in length, actually 2 ¼ miles under the Severn River proper. Construction time was lengthy. This was mainly due to complications from a large fresh water spring, “The Great Spring,” encountered on the Welsh side of the diggings, which, even now, requires constant pumping in order to avoid inundation of the tunnel.

The tunnel was completed during 1885 and a goods train passed through it on January 9, 1886, but regular services had to wait until the pumping systems were complete. The tunnel opened to goods trains in September and to passenger traffic in December 1886 [at the precise time Patrick was in the Bristol Infirmary] nearly 14 years after work had started. Fixed steam engines pumped out the Great Spring and other sources of water until the 1960’s, when they were replaced by electrically powered pumps. 58

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Finally, Patrick obviously survived the dangerous neck operation, in November 1886, about which he had so much trepidation. Moreover, he didn’t pass away until six months later, on 2 May 1887, at his home in Cardiff, Wales, with his wife (and presumably, his children) in attendance. The death certificate lists the cause of death as tumour of the parotid. Undoubtedly, over the intervening months following surgery, the slow growing malignancy spread further through his body, eventually taking his life. 59

It appears to me that he was a good man who tried to do his best. He passed through many rough patches. But although he most likely never had opportunity to hear the full Gospel message preached during his mortal lifetime, nonetheless, in the end, he seems to have prevailed and came to understand what is most important.

The scriptures speak of such people:

Thus came the voice of the Lord unto me, saying: All who have died without a knowledge of this gospel, who would have received it if they had been permitted to tarry, shall be heirs of the celestial kingdom of God;
Also all that shall die henceforth without a knowledge of it, who would have received it with all their hearts, shall be heirs of that kingdom;
For I, the Lord, will judge all men according to their works, according to the desire of their hearts
. 60

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Bibliography:

1. Account Book of Patrick Hearlihy, No. 1721, Royal Regiment of Artillery, printed in London, 1865, p. 22, original in the possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

2. Front page: Discharge Parchment/Certificate for Patrick Hearlihy, dated 12 March 1878. The original is in the possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

3. Based on information gleaned from letters and several personal interviews, 1968-1972, with Patrick’s youngest daughter, Rose Mary Herlihy Middleton (who died 31 Jan 1976), then residing at 1981 Richards Street, Salt Lake City, Utah, by W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

4. From a research trip report prepared by John M. Kitzmiller, II, Research Director, Richard W. Price & Associates, Genealogical Services, 57 West South Temple, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84147, dated 6 August 2001, in the possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

5. http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/search/IGI/individual_record.asp?recid... Source Information: Batch Number: 8015630; Sheet: 22; Source Call No.: 1260704; Type: film.

6. Andy Bielenberg, Cork’s Industrial Revolution, 1780-1880: Development or Decline? Cork University Press, University College, Cork, Ireland, 1991, pp. 8-30.

7. Op. cit.: Account Book of Patrick Hearlihy, No. 1721, Royal Regiment …p. 22…

8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengal

9. http://www.asrmb.org/michaelb/FalkRecentWars.html

10. http://rapidttp.com/milhist/vol024dh.html

11. www.Ancestry.com Database: 1871 English Census Detail; Class: RG10; Piece: 2004; Folio: 64; Page: 3; GSU Roll: 831752.

12. www.Ancestry.com Database: 1871 English Census Detail; Class: RG10; Piece: 2001; Folio: 77; Page: 23; GSU Roll: 831751.

13. Certified Copy of an Entry of Marriage, MA 799598, No. 141, solemnized at the Church of the Holy Trinity, in the Parish of Weymouth, in the County of Dorset, 26 June 1871, between Patrick Herlihy, age 38, bachelor, gunner Royal Artillery, and Susan Jane Pearce, age 26, spinster… in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

14. Annie Matilda Hurley (1874-1959): Autobiographical Sketch, found on this website.

15. Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, BC 582744, No. 54, born in Alverstoke, in the County of Southampton, on the 22 April 1872, John, son of Patrick Herlihy and Susan Herlihy, formerly Pearce… in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

16. Certified Copy of an Entry of Marriage, MA 918331, No. 293, solemnized at the Parish Church, in the Parish of S. Woolos, in the County of Monmouth, 3 June 1894, between John Herlihy, age 22, bachelor, grocer’s assistant, and Mary Ann Chivers, age 18, spinster… in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

17. Standard Certificate of Death, State of California Department of Public Health, #39-012882-1378. John Herlihy, age 66, salesman of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, died 17 February 1939, secondary to suicide (hanging), copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

18. Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, BC 582743, No. 230, born in Newhaven, in the County of Sussex, on the 27 July 1874, Allie [Annie] Matilda, daughter of Patrick Herlihy and Susan Herlihy, formerly Pearce… in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

19. Marriage Certificate, Territory of Utah, County of Salt Lake: This certifies that John F. Howells… and Annie M. Hurley… were joined together in Holy Matrimony…at Salt Lake City…on the 26th day of March 1896… copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

20. Utah Certificate of Death, State File No. 59-18-2819. Annie Matilda Hurley Howells, age 85, died … 12 December 1959… in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah… of cerebral thrombosis, left… copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

21. Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, BC 582753, No. 304, born in Charlton/Dover, in the County of Kent, on the 4 April 1876, Ellen Jane, daughter of Patrick Herlihy and Susan Herlihy, formerly Pearce… in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

22. Marriage License, the People of the State of Utah, County of Salt Lake, No, 7207. You are hereby authorized to join in Holy Matrimony George Sollis…and Ellen Hurley… issued 21st day of February 1898… copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

23. Marriage License, State of Utah, County of Salt Lake, Application No. 5855. You are hereby authorized to join in Holy Matrimony Earl G. Griggs…and Ellen J. Sollis… issued 22nd February 1908… copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

24. Utah Certificate of Death, State File No. 60-18-2706. Ellen Jane Hurley Griggs, age 84, died … 26 November 1960… in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah… of hypertensive cardiovascular renal disease… copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

25. Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, BC 657203, No. 173, born in Godmanstone/Dorchester, in the County of Dorset, on the 21 April 1878, Susan Rachel, daughter of Patrick Herlihy and Susan Herlihy, formerly Pearce… in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

26. Certified Copy of an Entry of Death, DA 541337, No. 306, died in Bristol, in the County of Bristol, on the 13 October 1879, Susan Rachel, daughter of Patrick Herlihy and Susan Herlihy, formerly Pearce… of convulsions… in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

27. Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, BX 339347, No. 271, born in Bristol, in the Counties of Gloucester/Bristol, on the 9 April 1880, Susan Emma, daughter of Patrick Herlihy and Susan Herlihy, formerly Pearce… in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

28. Marriage License, the People of the State of Utah, County of Davis, No, 207. You are hereby authorized to join in Holy Matrimony Henry F. Williams…and Susan E. Hurley… performed 29th day of July 1903… copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

29. The State of Utah, Department of Public Health, Certificate of Death, State File No. 62-18-4385-1965. Susan Emma Hurley Williams died 24 August 1963, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah, at age 61, from liver failure due to intrahepatic biliary duct stricture of unknown cause.

30. www.Ancestry.com Database: 1891 Wales Census Detail; Class: RG12; Piece: 4393; Folio: 61; Page: 9; GSU Roll: 6099503.

31. Baptismal Certificate for Henry Hurley, baptized and confirmed a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Cardiff, Glamorgan, Great Britain, 5 September 1892. His birthdate is listed as 18 May 1882. A photocopy of the original document is in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

32. Marriage License, the State of Utah, County of Salt Lake, License No. 210. You are hereby authorized to join in Holy Matrimony Harry Hurley… and Jane Skelton… marriage performed 5 March 1905, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah… copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

33. State of Utah—Death Certificate, State Board of Health File No. 1120-640. Harry Hurley, age 45, died instantaneously, 29 June 1927, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah, due to a skull fracture sustained in an automobile accident… copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

34. Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, BC 583218, No. 181, born in Cardiff, in the Counties of Glamorgan/Monmouth, on the 28 March 1885, Rose Mary, daughter of Patrick Herlihy and Susan Herlihy, formerly Pearce… in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

35. Marriage License, the State of Utah, County of Salt Lake, License No. 13565. You are hereby authorized to join in Holy Matrimony J. Elmer Griggs… and Rose Hurley… marriage performed 24 October 1903, in Salt Lake City, Salt Lake, Utah… copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

36. Marriage Certificate, State of Nevada, County of Clark, No. 259201, Book 104, Page 191. William R. Middleton and Rosemary Griggs were married 26 November 1953, in Las Vegas, Clark, Nevada… copy in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

37. State of Nevada, Department of Human Resources, Division of Health, Vital Statistics, State File No. 76-000295-241. Rosemary G. Middleton, age 90, died 31 January 1976, in North Las Vegas, Clark, Nevada, of a cerebral vascular hemorrhage and acute intestinal obstruction. A copy is in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

38. Op. cit.: Front page: Discharge Parchment/Certificate for Patrick Hearlihy, dated 12 March …

39. Out-pensioner Certificate for Patrick Hearlihy, Chelsea Number 56116 a, dated 12 March 1878, original in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

40. Op. cit.: Front page: Discharge Parchment/Certificate for Patrick Hearlihy, dated 12 March …

41. Letter of Recommendation issued to Patrick Herlihy, at Pendemmis Castle, Falmouth, 14th January 1878, just prior to his discharge from the Royal Artillery, original in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

42. Op. cit.: Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, BC 657203, No. 173…Susan Rachel

43. www.ofce.sciences-po.fr/pdf/dtravail/WP2008-17.pdf: Daudin, Morys, and O’Rourke, from an abstract Europe and Globalization, 1870-1914.

44. www.globalpolicy.org/globalize/econ/19cent.htm: Nicholas D. Kristoff, A Better System in the 19th Century? New York Times, 23 May 1999.

45. Back page: Discharge Parchment/Certificate for Patrick Hearlihy, dated 12 March 1878. The original is in the possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

46. Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, 10 Mar 1845, given at the General Register Office, Somerset House, London, BX 563631, PAS 135426/68/44, No. 248, Susan Jane, girl, to Henry Pearce, labourer, and Rachel Pearce, formerly Caddey, of Sandpitt, Broadwinser, Beaminster, Netherburg, in the County of Dorset. The certified copy is in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

47. Op. cit.: Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, BC 657203, No. 173… Susan Rachel

48. Op. cit.: Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, BX 339347, No. 271…Susan Emma

49. Op. cit.: www.Ancestry.com Database: 1891 Wales Census Detail… Harry

50. Op. cit.: Certified Copy of an Entry of Birth, BC 583218, No. 181…Rose Mary

51. Certified Copy of an Entry of Death, DX 061654, No. 426, died in Cardiff, in the County of Glamorgan, on the 2 May 1887, Patrick Hurley, male, 27 [57], agent, of tumour of parotid… S. Hurley, widow of the deceased, present at the death, 25 Daniel Street, Roath… in possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

52. Letter from Patrick Hurley, then a patient in the Bristol Infirmary, Bristol, England, to his wife, Susan Jane, in Cardiff, Glamorgan, Wales, dated 22 November 1886. A copy of the letter is in the possession of W. Bart. Christenson, Jr., Provo, Utah.

53. Op. cit. Certified Copy of an Entry of Death, DX 061654, No. 426…Patrick Hurley

54. www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/salivary_gland_tumors.jsp

55. www.emedicine.com/Med/topic2789.htm

56. http://neurosurgery.mgh.harvard.edu?History/gift.htm

57. Op. cit.: Letter from Patrick Hurley, then a patient in the Bristol Infirmary…

58. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severn_Tunnel

59. Op. cit.: Certified Copy of an Entry of Death, DX 061654, No. 426…Patrick Hurley

60. Doctrine & Covenants 137:7-9.

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