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Genealogy Resources

Donations and Bargains

Lemon Heritage

Request DNA Test Kit

DNA Testing Explained

Setting the Public Switch at FTDNA

YSearch & MitoSearch

What’s a Haplogroup?

Family Summaries

DNA Results

Family Trees


The Lemon Family DNA Project seeks to use DNA analysis to enable Lemon families to determine if they share a common ancestor with other Lemon families.   For ease of developing this page, I have chosen my family name “Lemon” to describe the project.  Please be assured that this project is for all derivatives of the name (Lemon, Lemons, Lemmon, Lemmons, Lemond, Lemonds, Le Mond, Le Mon, etc.)


The project will:


  • Develop a table of genetic patterns of all Lemon Families so that Lemon researchers can determine whether their families have a common ancestor with other Lemon families
  • Encourage Lemon researchers to submit DNA samples.
  • Share the results with all participants in the project and make the results publicly available on the internet with appropriate considerations for privacy of participants


We are a young project and only have no tests submitted at this time.  So as you can see we need representatives from YOUR line.  Please find someone from your tree who qualifies and submit a test as soon as you can!


The project uses high technology DNA analysis to determine whether families share a common ancestor.  The male chromosome is passed down virtually unchanged from father to son.  So, two male Lemon 7th cousins would have virtually the same male DNA pattern.  This scientific fact is useful in genealogy when one does not have documentary records to show a family connection despite circumstantial evidence that suggest a family connection.  If the DNA of the descendants of the branches one is trying to connect do not have the same DNA pattern, then one knows they are not closely related.  If the pattern does match, then there is a common ancestor at some point in the past lineage.  The technology can’t pinpoint how many generations back the ancestor is, but it can tell us if there is a common ancestor.


Participants joining the project are sent a lab kit in the mail.  The kit includes a “Q” tip or toothfbrush type of instrument that one rubs along the inside of one’s cheek with for 30 to 60 seconds.  Then the swab is placed in an envelope and mailed to the lab.  That’s all it takes. 


Within 6 to 8 weeks, results are available for the sample submitted.  When enough samples are collected to make comparisons between branches of the family, a summary sheet will be supplied to each participant indicating which branches were shown to have a common ancestor.


There is another DNA project administered by Steve Laymon that has been running a long time and has over 60 tests done at the Oxford Ancestors lab.  He has a lot of excellent Lemon/Laymon data posted on his website at  He has agreed to allow us to publish his lab results here as well.




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A fellow researcher sent the following page that contains a list of good resources for genealogists.  If you have a good website for that we should list here, let me know.  






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To help the pay the costs of donations FTDNA has funds set up for each project.  If you would like to help defray the cost of tests for other people go to   Be sure to specify the donation is to be given to the “Lemon” project.  Thank you for your generosity!


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We’ve only researched the Lemon family from County Antrim, Ireland that emigrated to Kentucky and then Indiana in the USA.  Those who have more information on the Lemon family are encourage to share it with us.



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The Lemon Family DNA project seeks to include data from the various Lemon DNA projects and incorporate their data.  Family Tree DNA’s (FTDNA) laboratory is recommended.  It is affiliated with Dr. Michael Hammer and the University of Arizona and tests the Y-chromosome for genetic matches between males. Results are placed in FTDNA's Y-DNA database and when 2 people show matching results, the lab will inform both parties (provided both signed the FTDNA Release Form).   Please visit the FTDNA website for more information and an explanation of Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA).


Other projects use other labs, but the results cannot be loaded into the FTDNA database.  However, if you send us the results we will match them with the members data in this project and we will add the results to our display. 


By ordering through FTDNA you receive project group rates, which are less expensive than standard rates.  The following Y-chromosome DNA tests are available.  Please see the FTDNA website for availability of other types of DNA testing.

The 12 marker test is best at ruling out relatedness with another participant, but
is of limited value in genealogy and is not recommended. The 25 marker test is more refined. And FTDNA is now offering the 37 marker test.  Whichever you choose now can always be upgraded later for an additional fee.

Other kits are available for testing Haplogroups.


By ordering the kit through our project you are agreeing to have your results incorporated with other tests and displayed on this site.

Click here, to order a DNA Sample Kit, or email one of the administrators for assistance.   Please note, that when you order your sample kit online you may string other email addresses in the email contact information.  Separate them by a semicolon.  For example:;


You may include anyone you wish, such as anyone who took part in paying for your test.  If you would also append my address as administrator of this project (Cherie Ohlsson -, I would appreciate it.


When you receive the test, you will find a release form.  Please complete it and return it with your sample.  This will make your results (numbers only, no personal information) accessible in online searches of the FTDNA database and will enable FTDNA to notify you of future matches.  However, it does not make your information available to other surname projects or Ysearch.


We strongly encourage all participants to make their results public in the FTDNA database and in YSearch or Mito Search (if you have done a mitochondrial test).  (Information at this link was gratefully obtained from Phillip Hawkins on his excellent Hawkins surname project.


Lastly, if you would email your family tree to us, minus living people, we would really appreciate it, so we can add it to this site.  If you have your data on a website you may send the address for that.  Please let us know if you would be willing to be a coordinator for your specific Lemon line.  If you do we post your name and email address as a contact for anyone wishing to get more information or to find other people in the tree.  The time commitment should be small.


For more information, contact the project co-administrators above.



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Surname Project Public Data


Regarding the Private/public setting that participants may select: This switch, by default, is set to private. A participant may change this to public by going to his Personal Page, and clicking on Update Contact Information. Near the bottom of the new page you will see - “Private  Restrict match notifications to your surname project.” If there is a check in the box your data is being compared only to the LEMON participants. If you uncheck the box, then you will be compared to all the “Public” participants in the Family Tree DNA data bank. If you change to public, you are going to see more matches. I caution that 12/12 matches to a surname other that LEMON is probably of no significance in our highly populated R1b haplogroup, however, if you show a 23/25 match (or higher) with a different surname, you probably should correspond with that individual. There might be a case of one of the ancestors being adopted or the result of a non-wedlock birth.


The following, a message copied from GENEALOGY-DNA-L, highlights the preceding.


“66% of records have this flag checked, so that a search for matches can only view 1/3 of the database. The flag is set to Private by default, and I can't help but wonder if people realize the significance of this setting. (Unchecking doesn't mean that your results become "public" in the sense that anyone can see your record. It means that your record will be included when the whole database is searched for matches.)” Ann Turner GENEALOGY-DNA-L Administrator.



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YSearch & MitoSearch


Please upload your information to Ysearch, if you have not already done so (some LEMON members have not done this).  Doing this will not compromise any security that you desire to protect.


Family Tree DNA participants:  Go to your Personal Page and simply click the “ysearch” link at the top, to automatically upload your Y-DNA results to Ysearch.  If you then upgrade your Y-DNA test, such as from 25 Markers to 37 Markers, the Upload selection will reappear on your Personal Page, as a reminder to upload the additional Markers.


Also Ysearch ( has been enhanced so that the location for your most distant male ancestor can be entered using latitude and longitude coordinates.  It is important to update your Ysearch record with this information.  For Europe, the latitude and longitude coordinates will give your ancestor a pin on the HaploMap.  Please take a moment now and add this information.  Follow the directions at Ysearch, which include a link to a site to look up the latitude and longitude coordinates.


Also, you may now upload your family file (.ged).


If you tested with Family Tree DNA, but have not yet established a record at, go to your Personal Page, and click "Upload to Ysearch."


If you tested at another vendor, here is the link to first create a record for your result
at  Remember that the different labs have different formulas and results for some markers.  Conversion routines can be found at the following address in Y-Search:



If you have also taken a mitochondrial test you may update your data to MitoSearch which is similar to Ysearch.  The link will appear at the top of your personal page.  Mitochondrial markers are passed from mother to child, but are only passed along by the daughters.  Since mitochondrial tests are maternal markers they are not associated with a surname.


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John Blair has an excellent explanation of the DNA process on his Blair Surname Project.  Basically there are 43 DNA Markers which are passed from father to son and remain the same generation to generation with an occasional mutation.  This is why only males can do this test.   All Y-DNA tests allow you to identify your ethnic and geographic origins (Haplogroup), both recent and far distant on your direct male descending line. Among others, you will be able to check your Native-American or African Ancestry as well as for the Cohanim Ancestry.  A description of Haplogroups follows this section.


A wonderful set of videos describing DNA testing and how it can help you in your genealogy research is provided on the Family Tree DNA website at 


FTDNA also has an explanation of the genetic distances (when the markers are different) and what it means at   Basically out of 25 markers tested, if you mismatch on:


0 markers – you are related

1 marker – you are related

2 markers – you are probably related

3 markers – you are probably not related, but more tests need to be done

4. markers – you are not related but it is vaguely possible.

5 markers – you are not related but possibly shared an ancestor over 2000 years ago.

6 markers – you are not related but possibly shared an ancestor over 5000 years ago.

7 (or more) markers – you are not possibly related.



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FTDNA Y-DNA tests allow you to identify your ethnic and geographic origins (Haplogroups), both recent and far distant. Among other features, this test will also be able to indicate your Native-American Ancestry and which of the 5 major groups that settled in the Americans you are most likely to be descended from.  It can also describe African Ancestry as well as other ethnic origins. 


Y-DNA Haplogroup Descriptions:


The following Haplogroup Descriptions are from the website which was the testing company used to determine the nearest Haplogroup assigment based on the individual's haplotype results from the Y-DNA test. These verbatim Haplogroup Descriptions and/or excerpts are copyrighted by and all rights to these descriptions are claimed by These descriptions have been printed here with the permission of These descriptions cannot be used elsewhere without the written permission of


Please note that people in different Haplogroups cannot be related within many thousands of years, and that each male test result provides a prediction of the Haplogroup currently about 90% of the time. If your Y-DNA matches suggest that you belong, for example, to Haplogroup R1b, you may confirm that by ordering a Y-DNA SNP test for the R1b clade.


In general the following rule of thumb may be used: R1b = Western Europe, R1a = Eastern Europe, I = Nordic, J2 = Semitic, E3b = Semitic, Q3 = Native American.

Haplogroup B is one of the oldest Y-chromosome lineages in humans.


Haplogroup B is found exclusively in Africa. This lineage was the first to disperse around Africa. There is current archaeological evidence supporting a major population expansion in Africa approximately 90-130 thousand years ago. It has been proposed that this event may have spread Haplogroup B throughout Africa. Haplogroup B appears at low frequency all around Africa, but is at its highest frequency in Pygmy populations.


Haplogroup C is found throughout mainland Asia, the south Pacific, and at low frequency in Native American populations. Haplogroup C originated in southern Asia and spread in all directions. This lineage colonized New Guinea, Australia, and north Asia, and currently is found with its highest diversity in populations of India.


Haplogroup C3 is believed to have originated in southeast or central Asia. This lineage then spread into northern Asia, and then into the Americas.


Haplogroup D2 most likely derived from the D lineage in Japan. It is completely restricted to Japan, and is a very diverse lineage within the aboriginal Japanese and in the Japanese population around Okinawa.


Haplogroup E3a is an Africa lineage. It is currently hypothesized that this haplogroup dispersed south from northern Africa within the last 3,000 years, by the Bantu agricultural expansion. E3a is also the most common lineage among African Americans.

Haplogroup E3b is believed to have evolved in the Middle East. It expanded into the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene Neolithic expansion. It is currently distributed around the Mediterranean, southern Europe, and in north and east Africa.


Haplogroup G may have originated in India or Pakistan, and has dispersed into central Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often in Europe and the Middle East.


Haplogroup H is nearly completely restricted to India, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan.


Haplogroups I, I1, and I1a are nearly completely restricted to northwestern Europe. These would most likely have been common within Viking populations. One lineage of this group extends down into central Europe.


Haplogroup I1b was derived within Viking/Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into southern Europe where it is present at low frequencies.


Haplogroup J is found at highest frequencies in Middle Eastern and north African populations where it most likely evolved. This marker has been carried by Middle Eastern traders into Europe, central Asia, India, and Pakistan.


Haplogroup J2 originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations. The Cohen modal lineage is found in Haplogroup J2.


Haplogroup Q is the lineage that links Asia and the Americas. This lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations as well as native Americans. This lineage is believed to have originated in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai/Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas.


Haplogroup Q3 is the only lineage strictly associated with native American populations. This haplogroup is defined by the presence of the M3 mutation (also known as SY103). This mutation occurred on the Q lineage 8-12 thousand years ago as the migration into the Americas was underway. There is some debate as to on which side of the Bering Strait this mutation occurred, but it definitely happened in the ancestors of the Native American peoples.


Haplogroup R1a is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas. This lineage is believed to have originated in a population of the Kurgan culture, known for the domestication of the horse (approximately 3000 B.C.E.). These people were also believed to be the first speakers of the Indo-European language group. This lineage is currently found in central and western Asia, India, and in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.


Haplogroup R1b is the most common Haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand years ago. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype (HG1).



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These are some of the lines that have tested (mostly in another DNA project shared with us):


  1. Joseph Laymon (b ?, abt 1730; d probably Clermont Co., OH aft 1820); 
  2. Benjamin Layman (b abt 1720/30; d 1788, Shenandoah Co., VA); 
  3. Nichous Lehman (b. Hunpach, Alsace, @1700);
  4. Alexis/Electius Lemmon (b. Ireland/Scotland/England, 1718; d. Baltimore Co., MD, 1786, father is John Lemmon); 
  5. Jacob Lehman (b Germany or Switzerland; d Lachen, Germany, 1710); 
  6. Nichlaus Leheman (b Niederhorbach, Germany; d bef. 1741); 
  7. William Lemons (b abt 1736 - lived on Troublesome Ck., Rockingham Co., NC); 
  8. John Lemons (b abt 1738; d Rockingham Co., NC, 1810);  
  9. William Lemmons Sr. (b abt 1765; d 1818, Harrison Co., KY); 
  10. Johannes/Jean Michel Lehmann (b abt 1738; d Schirrhein, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France);
  11. Joseph Lemon (b 1718; d 1792, Sussex Co., NJ);
  12. William Lemon (b abt 1670); 
  13. John Laymon (b abt 1810; d abt 1840); 
  14. William Lemond/Lamond (b ?, abt 1730; d Cumberland Co., PA, 1769); 
  15. Robert Lemmon b. ca1730 in Ireland;
  16. James Lemon, born about 1710, County Tryone, Ireland, died – PA, USA.
  17. Peter Leman/Laman (b Switzerland, abt 1666; d Lancaster Co., PA, 1741); 
  18. John Laymance/Lemmons/Leamon (b. MD?, 1760/70; d. Morgan Co., TN, 1837) (his earlier children were born in SC); 
  19. John Lemmon Sr. (b PA?, abt 1740; d Greene Co., KY, probably lived in York Co., PA, lived in Rockingham Co., VA and Washington Co., TN.  Father possibly was Rudolph Lemen); 
  20. John Layman who settled in Carroll Co., TN; 
  21. John Layman (b 1750/60; d 1849, Hamilton Co., TN; md Nancy Gann; 
  22. George Allen Laman (b 1795, TN; d 1892, Otero Co., NM); 
  23. Jacob Laman (b 1805, PA; d 1850, Allen Co., OH); 
  24. David Lamon (b abt 1744; d 1829, Washington Co., TN.  Father probably was Rudolph Lemen); 
  25. Isaac Lemon Sr. (b abt 1753; d 1833, Franklin Co., VA); 
  26. Hans/John Lehman (b abt 1700, Switzerland; d 1771, Rapho Twp., Lancaster Co., PA, probably arrived in Philadelphia on Adverture Galley 2 Oct 1727 from Rotterdam); 
  27. Jacob Lemon (b abt 1787); 
  28. Henry Lemmon (b ?; d ?)
  29. Clemens/Clement Lehmann (b. Germany, 1688; d. Greene Co., NY, bef. 1754); 
  30. Uli Leemann (uff dem Kaff, Canton Bern, Switzerland)
  31. Abraham Leming (b?; d?)
  32. Mordaci Lamons from Scotland; 
  33. Hans Lehman (b abt 1702, Canton Schaffhausen, Germany; d Feb 1776, Lancaster Co., PA; md Maria Hedge;  immigrated from Germany to PA on the 'James Goodwill' 1727); 




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