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Calumet County, Wisconsin Genealogy & History
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New York Indian Timelines


Preliminary Draft

Contents

Whites and All Indian Tribes

White

Pequot

Mohegan

Wappinger

Naragansett

Montaukett

Delaware

Brothertown

Mohican

Stockbridge

Iroquois

Oneida

Sources

Whites and All Indian Tribes


Date-----Historical Event

1100--Iroquois construct longhouses

1300--Iroquois begin growing maize

1524--Giovanni da Verrazano (Italian navagator in French service) enters New York Harbor, meets Indians

1535--Jacques Cartier explores St. Laurence river

1570--1570 or earlier: Iroquois League established

1609--Henry Hudson sails up the Hudson River to encounter the Mohicans

1609--Henry Hudson explores Delaware Bay and Hudson River

1609--French attack Mohawks near Lake Champlain; emity between French & Iroquois for 150 years +

1610--Fort Nassau established

1613--Dutch arrange peace between Mohawk and Mahican

1614--Adriean Block establishes trading arrangements with Indians in NY, CT and RI

1615--1615-1664 amicable relations between Dutch and Iroquois

1617--war between Mohawks and Mohicans

1618--Dutch arrange peace between Mohawk and Mahican

1618--Covenant Chain allows Iroquois to represent neighboring tribes in negotiating with Whites

1620--Pilgrams land at Plymouth Rock, MA

1624--1624-28: Mohawks push Mohican east of Hudson river

1624--Fort Orange established near present Albany NY with 30 families

1626--Dutch buy Manhattan Island: Fort Amsterdam established on Manhatten Island NY

1628--Mohawks gain power compared to Mohicans 1628-1675

1630--Puritans begin settlement of Massachusetts Bay (Boston); 2000 Puritans arrive at Boston Harbor

1632--Beaver Wars 1632 - 1700: Iroquois war over beaver trade with Hurons and others backed by French

1633--1633-1635 small pox kills thousands of Indians in southern New England

1633--Boston traders reach Connecticut river

1633--Dutch governor of New Amsterdam buys land & constructs fort at what is now Hartford, CT

1633--Plymouth traders erect trading house at what is now Windsor, CT

1634--Frenchman Jean Nicolet is first White to reach Wisconsin; WI comes under French control

1636--Roger Williams establishes Providence RI

1636--Thomas Hooker leads MA settlers to CT; they found Hartford, Windsor & Wethersfield on CT river

1637--Pequot War: Pequots killed and enslaved by English with Mohegans, Niantics & Narragansetts

1637--about 80 Pequots assigned to Narragansetts leave to establish community at what is now Westerly, CT

1637--after 1637, Uncas, Miantonomi, Ninigret & Wyandanch vie for influence with English colonies

1638--New Sweden established on lower Delaware river

1638--John Davenport leads MA settlers to found New Haven CT

1639--New Dutch governor replaces peacemaking with harassment and extermination of Indians

1640--colonial population = 25,000

1642--Montreal established

1643--Pequots assigned to Mohegans move to Nameaug (New London & Waterford)

1643--Pequots assigned to Mohegans move to Noank (Grotan) under Cassasinamon

1643--Pavonia Massacre: Mohawks and then Dutch massacre 80 Wappingers

1643--1643-1645 Wappinger (Governor Kieft's) War: 1600 Wappingers killed, others put under Mohicans

1644--Sep 1644 meeting of United Colonies, a confederation of MA Bay, Plymouth, CT& New Haven

1644--Sep 1644 Hartford treaty

1645--Iroquois nearly exterminate the Erie

1648--Dutch population in NY = 2000

1649--1649-50: Iroquois conquer Hurons

1649--tolerant John Winthrop dies, succeeded by bigoted John Endicott

1650--Iroquois conquer Neutrals, Susquehannock, Tionontati ; Iroquois adopt 7,000

1650--Pequots receive 500 acres at Noank

1651--Iroquois expell Neutrals from Niagara Pennisula

1651--CT gives back some Noank land to Mashantucket Pequots

1651--Natick, a MA praying town was established by John Eliot

1652--war between England and Holland

1653--1653-56; Iroquois practically exterminate Erie

1653--Pequots assigned to Niantics locate at Massatuxet Creek

1653--Harmon Garret assumes name Wequash Cook became recognized chief of Pequots

1654--small pox epidemic 1654-1657

1655--Peach War: Dutch war with Delawares

1655--Dutch capture New Sweden

1659--Esophis War 1659-1660

1660--Iroquois attack Ottawa

1660--Iroquois have maximum population of 25,000 including many adoptees

1660--Montauketts devastated by smallpox epidemic 1660, 1663-1664

1660--colonial population = 80,000

1660--Dutch population = 10,000

1660--English civil war ends; colonial policy tightens control of colonies

1663--2nd Esophis War 1663-1664

1664--Mohawks make lasting peace with Mohicans

1664--English conquer New Netherland, New York established which includes Long Island

1664--English fleet captures New Amsterdam, New Netherlands becomes New York

1666--CT puritans found Newark NJ began expanding settlement in NJ

1666--Pequots establish reservation of about 3000 acres at Mashantucket, headwaters of Mystic River

1666--Nicolas Perrot opens fur trade with Wisconsin Indians

1667--Iroquois sign peace treaty with the French

1670--Iroquois conquer the Adirondacks, extending into New England, the SE and west to Mississippi river

1673--Marquet and Jolliet explore a Fox-Wisconsin river water route from Lake Michigan to Mississippi River

1673--Marquette & Joliet reach the Mississippi river

1675--King Philip's War (1675-1676): virtual extermination of Wampanoag, Nipmuc & Narragansett

1675--Pequots allied with colonists in King Philip's War

1676--Iroquois defeat Susquehannock, making Munsee subject to the Iroquois

1676--Over 200 enslaved Indians sold in the Carribean

1680--1680-84: Iroquois attack Illinois & Miami

1681--William Penn establishes Pennsylvania; maintains peaceful relations with Indians

1682--LaSalle claims Louisiana for France

1683--Treaty of Friendship between chief Tammamend & William Penn

1688--Iroquois massacre 1000+ French at Montreal

1688--1688-97: King William's War between Britain and France

1688--PA is first province to protest slavery (Germantown Protest)

1689--many Delawares killed in King Williams War 1689-1696

1689--population of New England & middle colonies = 121,000

1697--Treaty of Ryswick ends King William's War

1700--Sachem Weequehela signs some deed transfers

1700--Iroquois control most of NY, PA, NJ, DE, MD, OH, KY, parts of VA, TN, IN, IL, MI, upper Canada

1700--population: Mohawk 3000, Oneida 1000, Onondaga 3000, Cayuga 2000, Seneca 7000, total = 16,000

1700--colonial population = 251,000

1701--Iroquois sign peace treaty with the French and their Algonquin allies

1701--British compel many tribes in Ohio Valley to join Covenant Chain allowing Iroquois to represent them

1701--1701-13: Queen Anne's War between Britain and France, fighting mostly in Whites & Maritimes

1702--Delaware established as separate colony from PA

1704--Mason case begins with John Mason and Mohegans asking voiding of land claims since 1685

1721--Pequots obtain clear title to Mashantucket by giving up planting rights at Noank

1722--Tuscarora join Iroquois League as non-voting members

1722--Iroquois incoporate 1,500 Tuscarora as 6th member of league

1727--Sachem Weequehela hanged for murder of Captain John Leonard

1727--Iroquois allow British to build Fort Oswego for trading beaver pelts

1727--1727-1754: about 2000 Germans immigrate a year to PA

1734--William Johnson (Irish) settles in Mohawk Valley, takes Mohawk wife Molly Brant & learns Iroquois

1734--Stockbridge tribe formed at Stockbridge, MA mainly includes Mohicans

1737--Walking Purchase: sons of William Penn cheat Delawares of 1200 square miles

1737--Iroquois in control of Covenant Chain support British Walking Purchase of Delaware lands

1740--Moravian missionaries begin workamong Munsees in Pennsylvania's Wyoming Valley

1740--1000 Mingo (Seneca and adopted Huron, Susquehannock, Neutrals, & Eries) move to OH & western PA

1740--Mohegans become members of David Jewett's Congreational church

1740--The Great Awakening of evangelical Christianity destabilized authority of Congregationist churches

1742--With Iroquois encouragement, Delaware & Shawnee join Mingo in OH

1743--Sachem Andrew Wooley signs treaty

1744--King George's War 1744-1748

1744--Treaty of Lancaster, Iroquois give permission to British to build Fort Pitt

1744--Presbyterian missionaries David & John Brainerd begin proselytizing among Delaware

1744--Treaty of Lancaster, Iroquois permit British to build Fort Pitt

1744--PA & VA interpret Treaty of Lancaster as Iroquois cession of OH to them

1744--1744-48: King George's War between Britain and France

1746--Brainerds move Brotherton community from Crosswicks (Crossweeksung), NJ to Cranbury, NJ

1747--Virginia grants charter to the Ohio Co. to open settment of Ohio Valley west to the Illinois River

1748--2nd Treaty of Lancaster: Pennsylvania urges Iroquois to give up control of Ohio Valley to Delawares

1750--colonia population = 1,250,000

1752--French burn unfinished Fort Pitt, build Fort Duquesne

1754--French & Indian War with English 1754-1763

1754--1754-63: Pequots fight with English in French & Indian War

1755--French defeat Braddock's English forces in defense of Fort Duquesne

1755--1755-1758 Delaware kill many colonists in PA, NJ & NY; succeeding colonists hate Indians

1755--Munsee attack Moravian mission at Gnadenhuetten (Bethleham) PA

1755--Cranbury, NJ settlement disbanded, some return to Crosswicks, NJ

1755--1755-63: French & Indian War between France & England

1756--remaining Wappinger & Munsee permanently flee Esopus Valley

1756--Crosswicks Conference

1757--Lancaster Conference

1758--Stephen Calvin is interpreter for church & schoolmaster for an Indian school near Cranbury, NJ

1758--Tom Store, Moses Tatamy, Stephen Calvin, Isaac Stille, John Pompshire represent Delawares

1758--Reservation founded at Crosswicks (Crossweeksung) on Edgepillock creek

1758--Easton Conference: Delaware not residing in NJ give up all land claims, Edgepillock is last refuge

1758--English capture Fort Duquesne

1759--British capture Fort Niagara

1760--after French & Indian war, some Munsees settle at Goschgosching in northern PA

1760--British capture Montreal, occupy all French Forts in Ohio Valley & Great Lakes

1760--WI comes under British control

1760--William Johnson appointed British Indian Agent in North

1760--population of New England & middle colonies = 878,000

1761--British commander Jeffrey Amherst discontinues French practice of gift-giving, alienating Indians

1761--CT reduces Pequot reservation to 989 acres

1763--Pontiac Conspiracy captures 9 English forts west of Appalachians, but not Pitt, Niagara & Detroit

1763--Ohio Delaware attacked settlements in Juanita, Tuscarora, Cumberland & Wyoming valleys

1763--treatened by mob violence, Moravian & Quaker missions in PA evacuate their converts

1763--British Proclamation bars settlement west of the Appalachians, but ignored by Whites

1763--Pontiac Rebellion inspired by traditionalist Delaware phophet Neolin (Delaware, Shawnee & Mingo

1763--Thomas Gage replaces Jeffrey Amherst and renews gift-giving to Indians

1763--British Proclamation of 1763 halts all new settlement west of Appalachian Mountains

1763--Wisconsin becomes part of British colonial territory

1764--last of PA Delaware leave for OH

1764--almost all Delaware in Susquehanna Valley move west to OH

1764--Charles Langlade estabishes first White settlement in WI

1768--all Indians in Wyoming Valley move north to rapidly shrinking Iroquois homeland in NY

1768--Fort Stanwix treaty cedes Oneida and Mohawk land east of Proclamation Line to white Whites

1770--aft 1770, some Delaware (mostly southern Unami) settled in White River, IN - there to 1818

1772--build 3 missions along Tuscarawas & Muskingum rivers in OH

1773--13 Mar 1773; Indians from 7 communities plan move to NY to establish Brothertown

1773--final rejection of Mason land case in London

1773--15 Jan 1773; Mason case finally officially dismissed

1774--Oneida Council to approve land grant for future Brothertown community

1774--Lord Dunmore's (Cresap's) War destroys 6 Indian villages along the upper Ohio river

1774--50,000 Whites west of the Appalachians

1774--50,000 Whites west of the Appalachian Mountains and more coming

1775--Pittsburg Treaty guarantees Ohio River as western boundary of American nation

1775--1775-83: Pequots support colonists in American Revolution

1775--colonial population = 2,500,000

1775--1775-83: American Revolution

1777--Oneidas & Tuscarora support colonists, Mohawks, Onondagas, Cayugas & Senecas support British

1777--Battle of Oriskany: Colonial & Oneida defeat British, Seneca and Mohawk

1777--St. Leger's army prevented from proceeding east to meet Burgoyne's army

1777--Americans defeat British under Burgoyne at Saratoga NY

1778--Delaware are neutral in Revolutionary War, sign 1st treaty with US at Fort Pitt, immediately broken

1778--Oneidas bring food to Washington's starving army at Valley Forge PA

1778--1778-1783: Both British & Americans in turn devastate Iroquois villages throughout Mohawk Valley

1782--first major group moves to Brothertown, NY

1782--Gnadenhutten OH massacre, Delawares driven out of OH

1783--of 8,000 Iroquois, 3,000 killed and 2,000 move to Canada

1783--1783-1788, Stockbridge community moved to Stockbridge, Madison Co., NY

1783--Sep 1783; American revolution officially ends with Treaty of Paris

1784--second group moves to Brothertown, NY

1784--10 of 27 Mohegans who fought in the continental army arive home after the war

1784--about 30 Montauketts move to Brothertown, NY

1784--Montauketts with surnames Peters, Dick, Hanibal & Charles move to NY

1784--Fort Stanwix Treaty: Iroquois cede much of thier remaining land

1785--12,000 Whites north of the Ohio River

1785--14 Treaties with NY state (1785-1817), including 1788, 95, 98, 5mar1802, 4jun1802, 1810, & 1811

1785--Brothertown name adopted; note that this is different from Brainerd's Brotherton community

1785--1785-1810: More than half of Pequots move to Brothertown NY

1788--Fort Schuyler treaty gives 5,000,000 acres of Oneida land to New York

1788--reduced land base to 250,000-300,000 acres

1789--Fort Harmer Treaty recognize1784 boundary line & conceded compensation to 1768 boundary

1789--Fort Harmer Treaty

1790--General Harmer & 1500 men suffered disaster near junction of St. Joseph and St. Mary rivers

1790--US Trade and Non-Intercourse Act prohibited treaties without a federal representative

1791--General St. Clair defeated & severely punished in November, 1791.

1791--Munsees live among Seneca on the Allegheny River, NY

1791--General Wayne defeats Delawares and allies and ruined their villages and fields

1791--Chief sachem Hendrick Aupaumut interested in moving west

1792--Northern Unami, Munsee, Mahican & others settle at Moraviantown,Thames River, Ontario

1793--at Miami Rapids council (13aug1793) issues proclamation that Delawares will not retreat from OH

1794--Canandaigua (Pickering) Treaty recognizes Oneida sovereignty & promises protection for their lands

1794--due to Oneida warriors participation in Revolution, grants annual annuities

1794--Treaty of Canandaigua grants Stockbridges $4,500

1795--Greenville Treaty denies Munsees to be in OH, they move to White River, IN

1795--Edgepillock group still living on Crosswicks reservation

1796--NY assigns 149 lots to Brothertown Indians; sells remainder to Whites with proceeds to trust fund

1796--1796-1815: with NY financial help, Brothertowns build 2 sawmills, a gristmill & 2 school buildings

1798--1798-1799: John Dean hired as Brothertown schoolmaster & farming instructor

1800--1800-1809: Wisconsin included in Indian Territory

1802--Stephen Calvin and others leave Edgepollick reservation to join Stockbridge NY community

1807--Cayuga sell NY lands & move to join Seneca (Mingo) in OH

1809--1809-1818: Wisconsin included in Illinois Territory

1810--Holland Land Co. sold pre-emption right of purchase of Indian lands in NY to Ogden Co.

1812--1812-14: 100 Oneidas of 650 population fought on American side in War of 1812

1814--Stockbridges join Delaware at White River IN

1816--minister Eleazer Williams appointed to found Episcopal Church among Oneidas

1817--Eleazer Williams organizes First Christian Party; Pagen Party becomes Second Christian Party

1817--Ogden Co. plans to extinguish NY Indian title to almost all NY lands

1818--St. Marys Treaty: Delawares give up IN lands, move to James Fork of White River in southeast MO

1818--missionary Eleazer Williams proposed that Oneidas emigrate to Wisconsin

1818--John Metoxen leads 75 Stockbridges from Stockbridge, NY to White River, IN

1818--Aug 1818 John Sergeant Jr. journal reports 1/4 of tribe & 1/3 of church started for White River, IN

1818--1818-1836: Wisconsin included in Michigan Territory

1819--Episcopal Church built among Oneidas

1821--Menominee and Winnebago tribes grant NY Indians 860,000 acres east of the Fox River by treaty

1821--unauthorized delegation of Oneida (first Christian party) sign treaty with Menominee & Winnebago

1822--Delawares at Stockbridge, NY receive all of money ($3551.23) owed them by NJ

1822--Menominee and Winnebago tribes grant NY Indians an additional 6,720,000 acres

1822--revised treaty made between NY Indians and Menominee Indians

1822--1822-23: 150 Oneidas move to WI

1822--group from White River, IN first to settle at Kaukauna (Grand Cackalin or Statesburg), WI

1822--Treaty with Menominee and Ho-Chunk to grant land in Fox River Valley to Stockbridge Indians

1822--1822-23: 150 Stockbridges move to WI

1823--Brothertown establish small settlement on the Fox River at Kaukauna, WI

1823--a few Oneidas settle in Grand Kau-kau-lin on east side of Fox river

1823--a few Stockbridges settle in Grand Kau-kau-lin on east side of Fox river

1823--a few Brothertowns settle in Grand Kau-kau-lin on east side of Fox river

1823--Stockbridge Brothertown Treaty

1824--1824-86 NY treaties reduced Oneida lands in NY to 32 acres

1824--some Munsees (Delawares) join Stockbridges at Kaukauna

1825--more Oneidas move from NY to WI

1825--Oneidas move from Kaukauna to Fox Creek

1827--Oneida Methodists (Orchard Party) settled on south end of the Duck Creek settlement

1827--Butte des Morts treaty between US & Menominee takes most of Oneida land

1827--Butte des Morts treaty gives US president authority to decide tribal land boundaries

1828--law enables selling Brothertown lots to Whites, giving proceeds to Brothertowns for move to WI

1828--John W. Quinney leads Indians from Stockbridge, NY to Kaukauna, WI

1829--Delawares in southeast MO exchange MO lands for reserve in northeast KS (Kansas City)

1831--Seneca-Cayuga in OH cede land to US & move to Indian Territory

1831--treaty provides NY Indians about 500,000 acres in Fox river valley from Kaukauna toward Green Bay

1831--Chief sachem John Metoxen

1831--About 225 Stockbridges and 100 Delawares (Munsees) living in Kaukauna

1831--US govt treaty gives Stockbridge and Brothertown reservation in Calumet Co., WI

1832--NJ pays $2000 to Brotherton (Raritan) Delawares (Burlington NJ) for some hunting and fishing rights

1832--Bartholomew Calvin negotiates for Brotherton Delwares with NJ

1832--Andrew Jackson'sIndian Removal Act enacted to move all Indians west of the Mississippi River

1832--treaty grants Stockbridge-Munsees & Brothertowns land on east side of Winnebago Lake

1832--During 1832-34, Stockbridge-Munsees move to Calumet Co., WI east of Lake Winnebago

1834--Stockbridges at White River IN join others in WI

1834--Oneida Indians move to Duck Creek area which became Oneida, WI

1834--Stockbridge Indians move to Calumet Co., WI

1836--threatened with removal, Brothertown petition for US citizenship & individual title to tribal lands

1836--Congress creates Territory of Wisconsin, President Andrew Jackson appoints Henry Dodge Governor

1837--majority of Brothertowns have migrated from NY to WI

1837--additional Munsees join Stockbridges in WI

1837--Moravian Munsee from Canada join Stockbridge-Munsee in Wisconsin

1837--Stockbridge-Munsee Constitution and By-laws (written by John Metoxen) approved 18 Nov 1837

1838--confirms cession of land (later defined as 65,430 acres) of 2 previous treaties with Menominees

1838--treaty reduces Oneida lands to about 61,000 acres

1838--600 Oneida living near Green Bay, WI

1838--Treaty

1839--US grants Brothertown US citizenship & individual title to tribal lands

1839--70 Stockbridges & 100 Munsees move, some to KS, others on to OK, a few back to WI

1839--Act of Congress allots Brothertown lands to individuals, grants them citizenship & ends tribal status

1839--Treaty; Land purchased in exchange for Calumet Co. lands

1839--Some Stockbridges move to Kansas and Oklahoma, many died, some stayed, some returned

1839--Munsees join Stockbridge Indians to be called Stockbridge-Munsee

1840--1840s & 1850s: Delawares serve as buffalo hunters and scouts for US army and wagon trains

1840--Stockbridge roll prepared based on Constitution adopted in 1837

1840--Wisconsin population = 30,945

1840--1840s: Citizens and Indian Parties divide Stockbridges

1841--Some Brothertowns still migrate from NY to WI

1842--ct changes all Stockbridge Indians to Citizens

1843--Some Stockbridges relinquish tribal membership to become U.S. citizens

1843--US offers Stockbridges US citizenship in return for surrendering tribal land ownership

1848--ct reverses 1842 Act to change citizens back to Stockbridge Indians

1848--Wisconsin becomes State

1849--Stockbridge surrender title to WI land for $25,000 and unkept promise of land west of Mississippi

1850--Wisconsin population = 305,391

1852--John W. Quinney elected grand sachem

1856--CT sells of all but 213 acres of 989 acre Pequot reservation

1856--Treaty: Stockbridge-Munsee move to Red Springs & Bertelme in Shawano Co., WI

1856--non-citizen Stockbridge-Munsee settle on reservation in Shawano Co., WI

1856--Citizens Act: Eliminates many full blood Stockbridge Indians from roll

1862--170 KS Delawares serve in 6th & 15 KS Volunteer Calvary of the Union Army

1866--most of 1,160 Delaware in KS move to OK, others scatter to join other tribes

1870--Quakers draft a bill to allot the Oneida Reservation

1870--Indian Party (Episcopalian) oppose allotment; Citizen Party (Methodist) support allotment

1870--Oneidas allow the Green Bay & Lake Pepin Railway to construct a railway across their Reservation

1871--Green Bay & Lake Pepin Railroad crosses Oneida Reservation

1871--Act

1874--Dawes Act grants U.S. citizenship to all Indians

1874--Stockbridge Roll

1877--Lyman C. Draper interviews WI Oneidas concerning Oneida participation in Revolutionary War

1877--Wisconsin resolution memorializes US Congress that Oneida Reservation should be alloted

1879--Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle PA founded by Capt. Richard H. Pratt

1879--492 Oneidas attend Carlisle School in PA, others attend Hampton in VA & Haskell in KS

1887--Dawes Allotment Act to end the reservation system, distributing tribal lands to individual Indians

1887--General Allotment Act divided up reservation lands, allotting portions to individual Indians

1888--16 Nov 1888; Indian Agent William Parsons reports investigation of claims of Stockbridge's Old Citizen Party

1889--allotments were made to 1496 Oneidas, census counts 1728 Oneidas

1891--Dawes act applied to Oneida reservation in 1891

1893--Restoration Act

1893--Act requires returning Stockbridges eliminated from roll in 1956, 1971 & 1974

1894--Stockbridge roll is missing

1901--Stockbridge Roll

1906--Burke Act authorized cancellation and sale of allotments to Oneidas who died or were incompetitant

1906--Stockbridge Roll

1906--beginning of taxes levied against Oneida landowners with result that much land is foreclosed

1911--15 Aug 1911; Red Springs (named after color of water) becomes town after separation from Herman.

1920--1920s: Brothertowns pay to pursue NY land claims, lose money when claim dismissed

1930--Oneida land holdings average 10 acres, with 80 acres necessary for sustaining a farm

1931--Stockbridge-Munsee Business Committee formed in Red Springs, WI with resulting political activity

1933--Indian Reorganization Act provides funds for reorganizing tribal govts & retrieving reservation lands

1933--Oneidas receive $2000 from Federal State relief funds

1934--Federal Relief Corporation sends Oneidas 1,500 head of sheep

1934--Indian reorganization act affirms tribe's right to govern its own lands

1934--Constitution makes everyone who received land in 1934 allotment a member & establishes quantum

1935--US government repairs 169 Oneida buildings at cost of $12,501.98

1935--CT reports population of Pequots on reservation = 42

1937--1,270 acres bought and placed in trust for Oneida

1937--18 Nov 1937; present Stockbridge-Munsee Constitution adopted

1938--Stockbridge Tribal Council formed; tribe repurchases 2,250 of original 40,000 acres

1939--WPA interviews over 100 Oneida Elders

1939--1300 of 1500 Oneidas receive various forms of US government assistance

1972--13,000 additional acres placed in trust for Stockbridges

1972--Additional 13,000 acres given to Stockbridge-Munsee

1975--Richard (Skip) Hayward is elected first Manashantucket tribal chairman

1976--Mashantucket Pequot constitution approved; lawsuits begun to regain land sold by CT in 1856

1978--US Dept of Interior establishes guidelines for Indian tribes to regain federal recognition

1983--Mashantucket Pequots receives federal recognition, wins land claim & establishes $900,000 trust fund

1985--Supreme Court ruling entitles all Oneida collectively to a 250,000 land claim in central NY

1986--Mashantucket Pequots opens high stakes bingo

1988--Indian Gaming Regulatory Act provides Indians rights to operate casinos

1990--Native American Graves & Repatriation Act provides for returning cultural articles to tribes

1992--Mashantucket Pequot opens Foxwood Resort Casino

1997--13,270 Oneidas; after 3-4 generations away, many are returning to take Oneida jobs

1998--Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center opens

1999--The Delaware Tribe of Indians in OK obtains BIA recognition

2000--Delaware groups in w. OK, e. OK, NJ, e. PA, w. PA, KS & ID, plus Stockbridge Munsee in WI

2000--3 Ontario reserves: Delaware of Grand River, Moravians of Thames, Munsees of Thames

2000--70,000 Iroquois at about 20 communities and 8 reservations in NY, WI, OK, Ontario & Quebec

2000--11,000 Oneida at Oneida WI, 700 at Oneida NY, 4,600 at Thames and Grand River in Ontario

2000--about 1650 on the Brothertown tribal rolls

2003--133 acres used by Green Bay & Lake Pepin Railway since 1870 returned to Oneida Tribe

2003--Oneida land holdings are 16,689 acres in Brown & Outagamie Co. WI, nearly 25% of original lands

Whites


1524--Giovanni da Verrazano (Italian navagator in French service) enters New York Harbor, meets Indians

1609--Henry Hudson sails up the Hudson River to encounter the Mohicans

1609--Henry Hudson explores Delaware Bay and Hudson River

1610--Fort Nassau established

1614--Adriean Block establishes trading arrangements with Indians in NY, CT and RI

1620--Pilgrams land at Plymouth Rock, MA

1624--Fort Orange established near present Albany NY with 30 families

1626--Dutch buy Manhattan Island: Fort Amsterdam established on Manhatten Island NY

1630--Puritans begin settlement of Massachusetts Bay (Boston); 2000 Puritans arrive at Boston Harbor

1633--Boston traders reach Connecticut river

1633--Dutch governor of New Amsterdam buys land & constructs fort at what is now Hartford, CT

1633--Plymouth traders erect trading house at what is now Windsor, CT

1634--Frenchman Jean Nicolet is first White to reach Wisconsin; WI comes under French control

1636--Roger Williams establishes Providence RI

1636--Thomas Hooker leads MA settlers to CT; they found Hartford, Windsor & Wethersfield on CT river

1637--after 1637, Uncas, Miantonomi, Ninigret & Wyandanch vie for influence with English colonies

1638--John Davenport leads MA settlers to found New Haven CT

1639--New Dutch governor replaces peacemaking with harassment and extermination of Indians

1640--colonial population = 25,000

1642--Montreal established

1643--1643-1645 Wappinger (Governor Kieft's) War: 1600 Wappingers killed, others put under Mohicans

1644--Sep 1644 meeting of United Colonies, a confederation of MA Bay, Plymouth, CT& New Haven

1644--Sep 1644 Hartford treaty

1648--Dutch population in NY = 2000

1649--tolerant John Winthrop dies, succeeded by bigoted John Endicott

1651--Natick, a MA praying town was established by John Eliot

1652--war between England and Holland

1654--small pox epidemic 1654-1657

1655--Dutch capture New Sweden

1659--Esophis War 1659-1660

1660--colonial population = 80,000

1660--Dutch population = 10,000

1660--English civil war ends; colonial policy tightens control of colonies

1663--2nd Esophis War 1663-1664

1664--English conquer New Netherland, New York established which includes Long Island

1664--English fleet captures New Amsterdam, New Netherlands becomes New York

1666--Nicolas Perrot opens fur trade with Wisconsin Indians

1673--Marquet and Jolliet explore a Fox-Wisconsin river water route from Lake Michigan to Mississippi River

1673--Marquette & Joliet reach the Mississippi river

1676--Over 200 enslaved Indians sold in the Carribean

1681--William Penn establishes Pennsylvania; maintains peaceful relations with Indians

1682--LaSalle claims Louisiana for France

1688--PA is first province to protest slavery (Germantown Protest)

1689--population of New England & middle colonies = 121,000

1700--colonial population = 251,000

1701--1701-13: Queen Anne's War between Britain and France, fighting mostly in Whites & Maritimes

1702--Delaware established as separate colony from PA

1727--1727-1754: about 2000 Germans immigrate a year to PA

1740--The Great Awakening of evangelical Christianity destabilized authority of Congregationist churches

1744--1744-48: King George's War between Britain and France

1750--colonial population = 1,250,000

1755--1755-63: French & Indian War between France & England

1759--British capture Fort Niagara

1760--British capture Montreal, occupy all French Forts in Ohio Valley & Great Lakes

1760--WI comes under British control

1760--William Johnson appointed British Indian Agent in North

1760--population of New England & middle colonies = 878,000

1763--Wisconsin becomes part of British colonial territory

1764--Charles Langlade estabishes first White settlement in WI

1775--colonial population = 2,500,000

1775--1775-83: American Revolution

1777--Americans defeat British under Burgoyne at Saratoga NY

1783--Sep 1783; American revolution officially ends with Treaty of Paris

1800--1800-1809: Wisconsin included in Indian Territory

1809--1809-1818: Wisconsin included in Illinois Territory

1818--1818-1836: Wisconsin included in Michigan Territory

1836--Congress creates Territory of Wisconsin, President Andrew Jackson appoints Henry Dodge Governor

1840--Wisconsin population = 30,945

1848--Wisconsin becomes State

1850--Wisconsin population = 305,391

1988--Indian Gaming Regulatory Act provides Indians rights to operate casinos

1990--Native American Graves & Repatriation Act provides for returning cultural articles to tribes

Indian Tribes


Pequot


1637--Pequot War: Pequots killed and enslaved by English with Mohegans, Niantics & Narragansetts

1637--about 80 Pequots assigned to Narragansetts leave to establish community at what is now Westerly, CT

1643--Pequots assigned to Mohegans move to Nameaug (New London & Waterford)

1643--Pequots assigned to Mohegans move to Noank (Grotan) under Cassasinamon

1650--Pequots receive 500 acres at Noank

1651--CT gives back some Noank land to Mashantucket Pequots

1653--Pequots assigned to Niantics locate at Massatuxet Creek

1653--Harmon Garret assumes name Wequash Cook became recognized chief of Pequots

1666--Pequots establish reservation of about 3000 acres at Mashantucket, headwaters of Mystic River

1675--Pequots allied with colonists in King Philip's War

1721--Pequots obtain clear title to Mashantucket by giving up planting rights at Noank

1754--1754-63: Pequots fight with English in French & Indian War

1761--CT reduces Pequot reservation to 989 acres

1775--1775-83: Pequots support colonists in American Revolution

1785--1785-1810: More than half of Pequots move to Brothertown NY

1856--CT sells of all but 213 acres of 989 acre Pequot reservation

1935--CT reports population of Pequots on reservation = 42

1975--Richard (Skip) Hayward is elected first Manashantucket tribal chairman

1976--Mashantucket Pequot constitution approved; lawsuits begun to regain land sold by CT in 1856

1983--Mashantucket Pequots receives federal recognition, wins land claim & establishes $900,000 trust fund

1986--Mashantucket Pequots opens high stakes bingo

1992--Mashantucket Pequot opens Foxwood Resort Casino

1998--Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center opens

Narragansett


1675--King Philip's War (1675-1676): virtual extermination of Wampanoag, Nipmuc & Narragansett

Mohegans


1704--Mason case begins with John Mason and Mohegans asking voiding of land claims since 1685

1740--Mohegans become members of David Jewett's Congreational church

1773--final rejection of Mason land case in London

1773--15 Jan 1773; Mason case finally officially dismissed

1784--10 of 27 Mohegans who fought in the continental army arrive home after the war

Wappinger


1643--Pavonia Massacre: Mohawks and then Dutch massacre 80 Wappingers

Montaukets


1660--Montauketts devastated by smallpox epidemic 1660, 1663-1664

1784--about 30 Montauketts move to Brothertown, NY

1784--Montauketts with surnames Peters, Dick, Hanibal & Charles move to NY

Delawares


1633--1633-1635 small pox kills thousands of Indians in southern New England

1638--New Sweden established on lower Delaware river

1655--Peach War: Dutch war with Delawares

1666--CT puritans found Newark NJ began expanding settlement in NJ

1676--Iroquois defeat Susquehannock, making Munsee subject to the Iroquois

1683--Treaty of Friendship between chief Tammamend & William Penn

1689--many Delawares killed in King Williams War 1689-1696

1700--Sachem Weequehela signs some deed transfers

1727--Sachem Weequehela hanged for murder of Captain John Leonard

1737--Walking Purchase: sons of William Penn cheat Delawares of 1200 square miles

1740--Moravian missionaries begin workamong Munsees in Pennsylvania's Wyoming Valley

1743--Sachem Andrew Wooley signs treaty

1744--King George's War 1744-1748

1744--Treaty of Lancaster, Iroquois give permission to British to build Fort Pitt

1744--Presbyterian missionaries David & John Brainerd begin proselytizing among Delaware

1746--Brainerds move Brotherton community from Crosswicks (Crossweeksung), NJ to Cranbury, NJ

1747--Virginia grants charter to the Ohio Co. to open settment of Ohio Valley west to the Illinois River

1748--2nd Treaty of Lancaster: Pennsylvania urges Iroquois to give up control of Ohio Valley to Delawares

1752--French burn unfinished Fort Pitt, build Fort Duquesne

1754--French & Indian War with English 1754-1763

1755--French defeat Braddock's English forces in defense of Fort Duquesne

1755--1755-1758 Delaware kill many colonists in PA, NJ & NY; succeeding colonists hate Indians

1755--Munsee attack Moravian mission at Gnadenhuetten (Bethleham) PA

1755--Cranbury, NJ settlement disbanded, some return to Crosswicks, NJ

1756--remaining Wappinger & Munsee permanently flee Esopus Valley

1756--Crosswicks Conference

1757--Lancaster Conference

1758--Stephen Calvin is interpreter for church & schoolmaster for an Indian school near Cranbury, NJ

1758--Tom Store, Moses Tatamy, Stephen Calvin, Isaac Stille, John Pompshire represent Delawares

1758--Reservation founded at Crosswicks (Crossweeksung) on Edgepillock creek

1758--Easton Conference: Delaware not residing in NJ give up all land claims, Edgepillock is last refuge

1758--English capture Fort Duquesne

1760--after French & Indian war, some Munsees settle at Goschgosching in northern PA

1763--Pontiac Conspiracy captures 9 English forts west of Appalachians, but not Pitt, Niagara & Detroit

1763--Ohio Delaware attacked settlements in Juanita, Tuscarora, Cumberland & Wyoming valleys

1763--treatened by mob violence, Moravian & Quaker missions in PA evacuate their converts

1763--British Proclamation bars settlement west of the Appalachians, but ignored by Whites

1763--Pontiac Rebellion inspired by traditionalist Delaware phophet Neolin (Delaware, Shawnee & Mingo

1764--last of PA Delaware leave for OH

1764--almost all Delaware in Susquehanna Valley move west to OH

1770--aft 1770, some Delaware (mostly southern Unami) settled in White River, IN - there to 1818

1772--build 3 missions along Tuscarawas & Muskingum rivers in OH

1774--Lord Dunmore's (Cresap's) War destroys 6 Indian villages along the upper Ohio river

1774--50,000 Whites west of the Appalachians

1775--Pittsburg Treaty guarantees Ohio River as western boundary of American nation

1778--Delaware are neutral in Revolutionary War, sign 1st treaty with US at Fort Pitt, immediately broken

1782--Gnadenhutten OH massacre, Delawares driven out of OH

1785--12,000 Whites north of the Ohio River

1789--Fort Harmer Treaty recognize1784 boundary line & conceded compensation to 1768 boundary

1790--General Harmer & 1500 men suffered disaster near junction of St. Joseph and St. Mary rivers

1791--General St. Clair defeated & severely punished in November, 1791.

1791--Munsees live among Seneca on the Allegheny River, NY

1791--General Wayne defeats Delawares and allies and ruined their villages and fields

1792--Northern Unami, Munsee, Mahican & others settle at Moraviantown,Thames River, Ontario

1793--at Miami Rapids council (13aug1793) issues proclamation that Delawares will not retreat from OH

1795--Greenville Treaty denies Munsees to be in OH, they move to White River, IN

1795--Edgepillock group still living on Crosswicks reservation

1802--Stephen Calvin and others leave Edgepollick reservation to join Stockbridge NY community

1814--Stockbridges join Delaware at White River IN

1818--St. Marys Treaty: Delawares give up IN lands, move to James Fork of White River in southeast MO

1822--Delawares at Stockbridge, NY receive all of money ($3551.23) owed them by NJ

1829--Delawares in southeast MO exchange MO lands for reserve in northeast KS (Kansas City)

1832--NJ pays $2000 to Brotherton (Raritan) Delawares (Burlington NJ) for some hunting and fishing rights

1832--Bartholomew Calvin negotiates for Brotherton Delwares with NJ

1834--Stockbridges at White River IN join others in WI

1837--additional Munsees join Stockbridges in WI

1840--1840s & 1850s: Delawares serve as buffalo hunters and scouts for US army and wagon trains

1862--170 KS Delawares serve in 6th & 15 KS Volunteer Calvary of the Union Army

1866--most of 1,160 Delaware in KS move to OK, others scatter to join other tribes

1999--The Delaware Tribe of Indians in OK obtains BIA recognition

2000--Delaware groups in w. OK, e. OK, NJ, e. PA, w. PA, KS & ID, plus Stockbridge Munsee in WI

2000--3 s. Ontario reserves: Delaware of Grand River, Moravians of Thames, Munsees of Thames

Brothertown


1773--13 Mar 1773; Indians from 7 communities plan move to NY to establish Brothertown

1774--Oneida Council to approve land grant for future Brothertown community

1782--first major group moves to Brothertown, NY

1784--second group moves to Brothertown, NY

1785--Brothertown name adopted; note that this is different from Brainerd's Brotherton community

1796--NY assigns 149 lots to Brothertown Indians; sells remainder to Whites with proceeds to trust fund

1796--1796-1815: with NY financial help, Brothertowns build 2 sawmills, a gristmill & 2 school buildings

1798--1798-1799: John Dean hired as Brothertown schoolmaster & farming instructor

1823--Brothertown establish small settlement on the Fox River at Kaukauna, WI

1823--a few Brothertowns settle in Grand Kau-kau-lin on east side of Fox river

1828--law enables selling Brothertown lots to Whites, giving proceeds to Brothertowns for move to WI

1836--threatened with removal, Brothertown petition for US citizenship & individual title to tribal lands

1837--majority of Brothertowns have migrated from NY to WI

1839--US grants Brothertown US citizenship & individual title to tribal lands

1841--Some Brothertowns still migrate from NY to WI

1920--1920s: Brothertowns pay to pursue NY land claims, lose money when claim dismissed

1978--US Dept of Interior establishes guidelines for Indian tribes to regain federal recognition

2000--about 1650 on the Brothertown tribal rolls

Mohicans


1617--war between Mohawks and Mohicans

1628--1628-1675: Mohawks gain power compared to Mohicans

Stockbridge


1734--Stockbridge tribe formed at Stockbridge, MA mainly includes Mohicans

1783--1783-1788, Stockbridge community moved to Stockbridge, Madison Co., NY

1791--Chief sachem Hendrick Aupaumut interested in moving west

1794--Treaty of Canandaigua grants Stockbridges $4,500

1818--John Metoxen leads 75 Stockbridges from Stockbridge, NY to White River, IN

1818--Aug 1818 John Sergeant Jr. journal reports 1/4 of tribe & 1/3 of church started for White River, IN

1822--group from White River, IN first to settle at Kaukauna (Grand Cackalin or Statesburg), WI

1822--Treaty with Menominee and Ho-Chunk to grant land in Fox River Valley to Stockbridge Indians

1822--1822-23: 150 Stockbridges move to WI

1823--a few Stockbridges settle in Grand Kau-kau-lin on east side of Fox river

1823--Stockbridge Brothertown Treaty

1828--John W. Quinney leads Indians from Stockbridge, NY to Kaukauna, WI

1831--Chief sachem John Metoxen

1831--About 225 Stockbridges and 100 Delawares (Munsees) living in Kaukauna

1831--US govt treaty gives Stockbridge and Brothertown reservation in Calumet Co., WI

1832--During 1832-34, Stockbridge-Munsees move to Calumet Co., WI east of Lake Winnebago

1834--Stockbridge Indians move to Calumet Co., WI

1837--Moravian Munsee from Canada join Stockbridge-Munsee in Wisconsin

1837--Stockbridge-Munsee Constitution and By-laws (written by John Metoxen) approved 18 Nov 1837

1838--Treaty

1839--Treaty; Land purchased in exchange for Calumet Co. lands

1839--Some Stockbridges move to Kansas and Oklahoma, many died, some stayed, some returned

1839--Munsees join Stockbridge Indians to be called Stockbridge-Munsee

1840--Stockbridge roll prepared based on Constitution adopted in 1837

1840--1840s: Citizens and Indian Parties divide Stockbridges

1842--Act changes all Stockbridge Indians to Citizens

1843--Some Stockbridges relinquish tribal membership to become U.S. citizens

1843--US offers Stockbridges US citizenship in return for surrendering tribal land ownership

1848--Act reverses 1842 Act to change citizens back to Stockbridge Indians

1849--Stockbridge surrender title to WI land for $25,000 and unkept promise of land west of Mississippi

1856--Treaty: Stockbridge-Munsee move to Red Springs & Bertelme in Shawano Co., WI

1856--non-citizen Stockbridge-Munsee settle on reservation in Shawano Co., WI

1856--Citizens Act: Eliminates many full blood Stockbridge Indians from roll

1871--Act

1874--Stockbridge Roll

1887--General Allotment Act divided up reservation lands, allotting portions to individual Indians

1888--16 Nov 1888; Indian Agent William Parsons reports investigation of claims of Stockbridge's Old Citizen Party

1893--Act requires returning Stockbridges eliminated from roll in 1956, 1971 & 1974

1894--Stockbridge roll is missing

1901--Stockbridge Roll

1906--Stockbridge Roll

1911--15 Aug 1911; Red Springs (named after color of water) becomes town after separation from Herman.

1931--Stockbridge-Munsee Business Committee formed in Red Springs, WI with resulting political activity

1933--Indian Reorganization Act provides funds for reorganizing tribal govts & retrieving reservation lands

1934--Constitution makes everyone who received land in 1934 allotment a member & establishes quantum

1937--18 Nov 1937; present Stockbridge-Munsee Constitution adopted

1938--Stockbridge Tribal Council formed; tribe repurchases 2,250 of original 40,000 acres

1972--Additional 13,000 acres given to Stockbridge-Munsee

Iroquois


1100--Iroquois construct longhouses

1300--Iroquois begin growing maize

1535--Jacques Cartier explores St. Laurence river

1570--1570 or earlier: Iroquois League established

1609--French attack Mohawks near Lake Champlain; emity between French & Iroquois for 150 years +

1613--Dutch arrange peace between Mohawk and Mahican

1615--1615-1664 amicable relations between Dutch and Iroquois

1618--Dutch arrange peace between Mohawk and Mahican

1618--Covenant Chain allows Iroquois to represent neighboring tribes in negotiating with Whites

1624--1624-28: Mohawks push Mohican east of Hudson river

1632--Beaver Wars 1632 - 1700: Iroquois war over beaver trade with Hurons and others backed by French

1645--Iroquois nearly exterminate the Erie

1649--1649-50: Iroquois conquer Hurons

1650--Iroquois conquer Neutrals, Susquehannock, Tionontati ; Iroquois adopt 7,000

1651--Iroquois expell Neutrals from Niagara Pennisula

1653--1653-56; Iroquois practically exterminate Erie

1660--Iroquois attack Ottawa

1660--Iroquois have maximum population of 25,000 including many adoptees

1664--Mohawks make lasting peace with Mohicans

1667--Iroquois sign peace treaty with the French

1670--Iroquois conquer the Adirondacks, extending into New England, the SE and west to Mississippi river

1680--1680-84: Iroquois attack Illinois & Miami

1688--Iroquois massacre 1000+ French at Montreal

1688--1688-97: King William's War between Britain and France

1697--Treaty of Ryswick ends King William's War

1700--Iroquois control most of NY, PA, NJ, DE, MD, OH, KY, parts of VA, TN, IN, IL, MI, upper Canada

1700--population: Mohawk 3000, Oneida 1000, Onondaga 3000, Cayuga 2000, Seneca 7000, total = 16,000

1701--Iroquois sign peace treaty with the French and their Algonquin allies

1701--British compel many tribes in Ohio Valley to join Covenant Chain allowing Iroquois to represent them

1722--Iroquois incoporate 1,500 Tuscarora as 6th member of league

1722--Tuscarora join Iroquois League as non-voting members

1727--Iroquois allow British to build Fort Oswego for trading beaver pelts

1734--William Johnson (Irish) settles in Mohawk Valley, takes Mohawk wife Molly Brant & learns Iroquois

1737--Iroquois in control of Covenant Chain support British Walking Purchase of Delaware lands

1740--1000 Mingo (Seneca and adopted Huron, Susquehannock, Neutrals, & Eries) move to OH & western PA

1742--With Iroquois encouragement, Delaware & Shawnee join Mingo in OH

1744--Treaty of Lancaster, Iroquois permit British to build Fort Pitt

1744--PA & VA interpret Treaty of Lancaster as Iroquois cession of OH to them

1761--British commander Jeffrey Amherst discontinues French practice of gift-giving, alienating Indians

1763--Thomas Gage replaces Jeffrey Amherst and renews gift-giving to Indians

1763--British Proclamation of 1763 halts all new settlement west of Appalachian Mountains

1768--Fort Stanwix treaty cedes Oneida and Mohawk land east of Proclamation Line to white Whites

1768--all Indians in Wyoming Valley move north to rapidly shrinking Iroquois homeland in NY

1774--50,000 Whites west of the Appalachian Mountains and more coming

1777--Oneidas & Tuscarora support colonists, Mohawks, Onondagas, Cayugas & Senecas support British

1777--Battle of Oriskany: Colonial & Oneida defeat British, Seneca and Mohawk

1777--St. Leger's army prevented from proceeding east to meet Burgoyne's army

1778--1778-1783: Both British & Americans in turn devastate Iroquois villages throughout Mohawk Valley

1783--of 8,000 Iroquois, 3,000 killed and 2,000 move to Canada

1784--Fort Stanwix Treaty: Iroquois cede much of their remaining land

2000--70,000 Iroquois at about 20 communities and 8 reservations in NY, WI, OK, Ontario & Quebec

Oneidas


1778--Oneidas bring food to Washington's starving army at Valley Forge PA

1785--14 Treaties with NY state (1785-1817), including 1788, 95, 98, 5 Mar 1802, 4 Jun 1802, 1810, & 1811

1788--Fort Schuyler treaty gives 5,000,000 acres of Oneida land to New York

1788--reduced Oneida land base to 250,000-300,000 acres

1789--Fort Harmer Treaty

1790--US Trade and Non-Intercourse Act prohibited treaties without a federal representative

1794--Canandaigua (Pickering) Treaty recognizes Oneida sovereignty & promises protection for their lands

1794--due to Oneida warriors participation in Revolution, grants annual annuities

1807--Cayuga sell NY lands & move to join Seneca (Mingo) in OH

1810--Holland Land Co. sold pre-emption right of purchase of Indian lands in NY to Ogden Co.

1812--1812-14: 100 Oneidas of 650 population fought on American side in War of 1812

1816--minister Eleazer Williams appointed to found Episcopal Church among Oneidas

1817--Eleazer Williams organizes First Christian Party; Pagen Party becomes Second Christian Party

1817--Ogden Co. plans to extinguish NY Indian title to almost all NY lands

1818--missionary Eleazer Williams proposed that Oneidas emigrate to Wisconsin

1819--Episcopal Church built among Oneidas

1821--Menominee and Winnebago tribes grant NY Indians 860,000 acres east of the Fox River by treaty

1821--unauthorized delegation of Oneida (first Christian party) sign treaty with Menominee & Winnebago

1822--Menominee and Winnebago tribes grant NY Indians an additional 6,720,000 acres

1822--revised treaty made between NY Indians and Menominee Indians

1822--1822-23: 150 Oneidas move to WI

1823--a few Oneidas settle in Grand Kau-kau-lin on east side of Fox river

1824--1824-86 NY treaties reduced Oneida lands in NY to 32 acres

1824--some Munsees (Delawares) join Stockbridges at Kaukauna

1825--more Oneidas move from NY to WI

1825--Oneidas move from Kaukauna to Fox Creek

1827--Oneida Methodists (Orchard Party) settled on south end of the Duck Creek settlement

1827--Butte des Morts treaty between US & Menominee takes most of Oneida land

1827--Butte des Morts treaty gives US president authority to decide tribal land boundaries

1831--Seneca-Cayuga in OH cede land to US & move to Indian Territory

1831--treaty provides NY Indians about 500,000 acres in Fox river valley from Kaukauna toward Green Bay

1832--Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act enacted to move all Indians west of the Mississippi River

1832--treaty grants Stockbridge-Munsees & Brothertowns land on east side of Winnebago Lake

1834--Oneida Indians move to Duck Creek area which became Oneida, WI

1838--confirms cession of land (later defined as 65,430 acres) of 2 previous treaties with Menominees

1838--treaty reduces Oneida lands to about 61,000 acres

1838--600 Oneida living near Green Bay, WI

1839--70 Stockbridges & 100 Munsees move, some to KS, others on to OK, a few back to WI

1839--Act of Congress allots Brothertown lands to individuals, grants them citizenship & ends tribal status

1852--John W. Quinney elected grand sachem

1870--Quakers draft a bill to allot the Oneida Reservation

1870--Indian Party (Episcopalian) oppose allotment; Citizen Party (Methodist) support allotment

1870--Oneidas allow the Green Bay & Lake Pepin Railway to construct a railway across their Reservation

1871--Green Bay & Lake Pepin Railroad crosses Oneida Reservation

1874--Dawes Act grants U.S. citizenship to all Indians

1877--Lyman C. Draper interviews WI Oneidas concerning Oneida participation in Revolutionary War

1877--Wisconsin resolution memorializes US Congress that Oneida Reservation should be alloted

1879--Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle PA founded by Capt. Richard H. Pratt

1879--492 Oneidas attend Carlisle School in PA, others attend Hampton in VA & Haskell in KS

1887--Dawes Allotment Act to end the reservation system, distributing tribal lands to individual Indians

1889--allotments were made to 1496 Oneidas, census counts 1728 Oneidas

1891--Dawes act applied to Oneida reservation in 1891

1893--Restoration Act

1906--Burke Act authorized cancellation and sale of allotments to Oneidas who died or were incompetitant

1906--beginning of taxes levied against Oneida landowners with result that much land is foreclosed

1930--Oneida land holdings average 10 acres, with 80 acres necessary for sustaining a farm

1933--Oneidas receive $2000 from Federal State relief funds

1934--Federal Relief Corporation sends Oneidas 1,500 head of sheep

1934--Indian reorganization act affirms tribe's right to govern its own lands

1935--US government repairs 169 Oneida buildings at cost of $12,501.98

1937--1,270 acres bought and placed in trust for Oneida

1939--WPA interviews over 100 Oneida Elders

1939--1300 of 1500 Oneidas receive various forms of US government assistance

1972--13,000 additional acres placed in trust for Stockbridges

1985--Supreme Court ruling entitles all Oneida collectively to a 250,000 land claim in central NY

2000--11,000 Oneida at Oneida WI, 700 at Oneida NY, 4,600 at Thames and Grand River in Ontario

2003--Oneida Land Holdings are 16,689 acres in Brown & Outagamie Co. WI, nearly 25% of original lands

Sources


J. F. H. Autenrieth, Description of a Short Walking Tour in the Province of New Jersey, 1795, C E. Bohn

T. J. Brasser, Early Indian European Contacts, in Handbook of North American Indians: Northeast, 1978. Smithsonian Institution

Dorothy W. Davids, Brief History of the Mohican Nation: Stockbridge-Munsee Band, 2001, Stockbridge-Munsee Historical Committee

Rick Green, For Early American Colonists, Indians Were a Bloody Enemy and the Spoils of War, 2003

Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation Timeline

Loretta V. Metoxin (ed.), Oneida Land Returned, 2003, Oneida Cultural Heritage Center

Laura J. Murray, To Do Good to My Indian Brother: The Writings of Joseph Johnson, 1751-1776, 1998 University of Massachusetts Press

David Saville Muzzey, A History of Our Country, 1948, Ginn and Company

Oneida Cultural Center, various articles

Jerome R. Reich, Colonial America, 1984, Prentice-Hall

Robert E. Ritzenthaler, The Oneida Indians of Wisconsin, 1950, Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City Of Milwaukee

E. M. Ruttenber, Indian Tribes of Hudson's River: 1700-1850, 1992, Hope Farm Press

Lee Saltzman, a series of histories of different tribes on the internet

John A. Strong, The Montaukett Indians of Eastern Long Island, 2001, Syracuse University Press

Carl Waldman, Atlas of the North American Indian, 1985, Facts on File

Thomas J. Wertenbaker, The First Americans, 1927, Macmillan

C. A. Weslager, The Delaware Indians: A History, 1991, Rutgers University Press

Richard A. Wheeler, The Pequot Indians: An Historical Sketch

Stephen R. Wilk, Weequehela, in New Jersey History, 1993, New Jersey Historical Society

Anthony Wonderly, Brothertown, New York, 1785-1796, in New York History, 2000, The New York State Historical Society

This information was contributed by: Dave Thomas


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