||This ship made several voyages between Rotterdam and Philadelphia, to
bring emigrants out of Rotterdam to the "new World". Each trip was marked by a
stop in an English port (usually Cowes on the Isle of Wight but sometimes other English
ports) to obtain permission to import foreigners. The voyage ending in 1742 was neither
its first nor its last.
The emigration from the Rhineland (then the Electoral
Palatinate) began early in the 18th Century when Queen Anne became concerned for the
plight of the protestant subjects of her cousin, the Elector. At first, the Palatines were
brought to England, but this produced overcrowding and domestic disturbances. In
1709, a group then in England was transported to New York. Subsequently, Palatines were
transported directly to the colonies, most often to Pennsylvania. This met the goals of
settling the colonies & giving relief to those who wished to emigrate.
Demand was strong and a bustling trade in human cargo soon developed. Sometimes,
recruiters would spread out through the Rhine Valley, selling passage on ships. If the
prospective passengers hadn't the money, a contract for indentured servitude would be
accepted. Sometimes, the emigrants made their way down the Rhine to (mostly) Rotterdam and
contacted a ship's captain there.
Before the prospective emigrants could leave, they needed permission from their local
government. Most often, a simple fee of 10-15 pfennigs and vote by the city council would
obtain a "manumission permit". But, if the individual were subject to military
subscription (draft) they wold not be allowed to leave. The journey down the Rhine River
was the next hurdle; this could take weeks on boats or barges. Each time they stopped, the
local authorities might exact another tax.
Yet none of this stemmed the flood of Palatines pouring out of Germany & into the
"New Wrold". In 1727, Pennsylvanians became concerned enough about
unregulated immigration of these "foreigners" (meaning non-British subjects),
that they passed an act requiring registration & loyalty oaths.
From 1727 to 1776 (when the Revolutionary War interrupted immigration) each ship was
required to submit a list of its debarkees, who were then required to take and sign (or
have signed for them, then make their marks) loyalty oaths at City Hall. Three lists of
each group of immigrants were made:
- The "A" list was made by the ship's crew & submitted by
the captain to the port authority. The varying origins of the lists introduce
disparity in the type of information recorded; some lists include women & children,
some do not. Some describe the passengers by age, religion, or place of origin; some
- The "B" list was comprised of the signatures of those taking
the oath. Those that could not write their names had these written by a clerk & then
made their marks.
- The "C" list was similar to the "B" list, but kept
in book form. Names of those who could not write may have been entered by fellow
passengers instead of a clerk.
The passenger & oath lists are best recorded in Ralph Beaver Strassburger's "Pennsylvania
German Pioneers", edited by Wiliam J. Hinke, & initially published in 1934.
The 1934 edition is recommended because it contains "facsimiles" of the original
handwriting. (Some later editions omitted the facismiles as of insufficient interest.)
This voyage of the Loyal Judith is ship number 93 in
Strassburger/Hinke. (It is #92 in Israel Daniel Rupp's "Thirty Thousand Names..".
S-H found one ship Rupp
Note that use of "A", "B", & "C" to distinguish among
these lists was invented by I.D. Rupp and continued (with corrections to their meanings)
by Sttrassburger & Hincke.
Not all of the passengers on the "A" list will appear on the
"B" or "C" lists. They may have been ill, perhaps under quarantine.
They were supposed to have taken the oaths when recovered, but this was less strongly