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  • [S145] Ellery Bicknel Crane, Genealogy of the Crane Family (Worcester, Mass.: Press of Charles Hamilton, 1895). Hereinafter cited as Genealogy of the Crane Family. http://archive.org/details/genealogyofcrane01cran
  • [S818] William Richard Cutter, Genealogical & Family History of the State of Connectciut (New York: Lewis Publishing, 1911). Hereinafter cited as GFHSC.
  • [S956] Cemetery Inscriptions, Waterloo, New York, Cemetery Inscriptions, copied 1980-1983, transcribed 1986, Marjorie S. Dows, D.A.R. Rochester, NY, Central Library of Rochester and Monroe County, Rochester, New York. Hereafter as Waterloo NY.
  • [S1062] Morgan H. Seacord, Historical Landmarks of New Rochelle (New Rochelle, NY: New Rochelle Trust Co., 1938). Hereinafter cited as Hist. Landmarks, New Rochelle.
  • [S1063] Mary de Witt Freeland, The Records of Oxford, Mass.: Including Chapters of Nipmuck, Huguenot and English History from the Earliest Date, 1630, With Manners and Fashions of the Times (Albany, N.Y.: J. Munsell's Sons, 1894). Hereinafter cited as Oxford, Mass. recs.
  • [S1064] Ralph Le Fevre, History of New Paltz, New York, and Its Old Families (from 1678 to 1820) (Albany, N.Y.: Fort Orange Press, Branden Print. Co., 1909). Hereinafter cited as Hist. of New Paltz.
  • [S1074] Gale M. Roberts, "Gale M. Roberts Family Tree", Ancestry.com, World Tree Database at Ancestry.com.Apr 2005 No source citations.
  • [S1098] Caroline E. Robinson, The Gardiners of Narragansett: Being a Genealogy of the Descendants of George Gardiner the Colonist, 1638 (Providence, R.I.: printed for the author, 1919). Hereinafter cited as Geo. Gardiner Desc.
  • [S1218] Howard S.F. Randolph, "Teuntje Teunis and Her Descendants", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol.59, pp.4-16 (1928). Hereinafter cited as "Teuntje Teunis; NYGBR 59:4-16."
  • [S1448] "East Haddam Vital Records from Barbour, 1668-1852."Transcribed by Carolyn Brown. Online http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~hubbard/….. Hereinafter cited as East Haddam VR from Barbour.
  • [S1604] Norman Davis, Westchester Patriarchs: A Genealogical Dictionary of Westchester, New York Families Prior to 1755 (n.p.: Heritage Books Inc., 1988). Hereinafter cited as Westchester Patriarchs.
  • [S1643] Royden Woodward Vosburgh, editor, Records of St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Town of Berne, Albany Co., New York (New York City: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, Jan 1916). Hereinafter cited as St. Paul's ELC Recs.
  • [S1705] John Cortland Crandall, Elder John Crandall of Rhode Island and His Descendants (New Woodstock, NY: n.pub., 1949). Hereinafter cited as Elder John Crandall of Rhode Island.
  • [S1733] Sarah Adelaide Mabie, "Mabie Family", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 52 (1921). Hereinafter cited as "Mabie, NYGBR 52 (1921)."
  • [S1737] "Hilton Family Records (Peter L. Hilton Bible)", Mohawk Vol.13, no.1 (1996). Hereinafter cited as "Peter L. Hilton Fam. Recs."
  • [S1790] Richard Schermerhorn, Schermerhorn Genealogy and Family Chronicles (New York: T.A. Wright, 1914). Hereinafter cited as Schermerhorn Gen.
  • [S1831] Royden Woodward Vosburgh, editor, Records of the First Lutheran Church in the City of Albany, N.Y. (New York City: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, Jan. 1917). Hereinafter cited as First Lutheran Ch., Albany.
  • [S1973] "Maple Grove Cemetery, Town of Candor."Read by The Beulah Patterson Brown Chapter of the DAR, Newark Valley, Tioga County, N.Y. 1927. Typed by: David Smith
    . Online http://www.rootsweb.com/~nytioga/maplegro.htm.. Hereinafter cited as Maple Grove Cemetery, Candor.
  • [S2097] Dutchess County, New York Surrogate's Court, Wills vol. AA, A, 1751-1796; FHL film #0913659 (Salt Lake City: Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1972), Microfilm of original records in the Dutchess County courthouse.. Hereinafter cited as Dutchess Co. Wills v. AA, A.
  • [S2158] Jeremias Van Rensselaer, Correspondence of Jeremias van Rensselaer, 1651-1674 (Albany: University of the State of New York, 1932). Hereinafter cited as Correspondence of Jeremias van Rensselaer.
  • [S2159] V. Rensselaer, H. Gansevoort, Eleazer Wheelock, Geo. Clinton and et al, Collections on the History of Albany (Albany: J. Munsell, 1865). Hereinafter cited as Collections on the History of Albany.
  • [S2160] Susan Brower, "William Brower-Susan DeMott Family," e-mail message from Susan Brower to Chris Chester. Hereinafter cited as "Susan Brower, e-mail correspondence."
  • [S2162] Carole Leishman, "Brouwer Database Story: Elizabeth Willemse Brouwer," e-mail message from Carole Leishman to Chris Chester, 5 Aug 2008. Hereinafter cited as "Brouwer Database Story: Elizabeth Willemse Brouwer."
  • [S2333] Letter from Mercedes Matthews Williams (Pontola Valley, Ca.) to William B. Bogardus, 28 Apr 1992; unknown repository (unknown repository address). Box 2, File 33A, 38-M. Mercedes Matthews Williams was a daughter of Hope Miller Matthews. The letter includes the pamphlet from Hope Miller Matthews' Memorial Service.
  • [S2337] Otis M. Mather, Six Generations of LaRues and Allied Families (Louisville, Kentucky: Press of C.T. Dearing Printing Co., Inc., 1921). Hereinafter cited as Six Generations of LaRues.
  • [S2348] Letter from Herbert E. Murray (Swansboro, North Carolina) to William B. Bogardus, 11 Mar 1991; William B. Bogardus Collection (Anneke Jans and Everardus Bogardus Descendants Association, Wilmington, Ohio). Box 2, File 33A, 129-M. "Woodmere Notes."
  • [S2502] Jane Betsey Welling, They Were Here Too: Genealogies of the Owners of the Inn at Easton Corners and Related Families of Southern Washington County and Environs, State of New York (Greenwich, New York: Washington County Historical Society, 1963). Hereinafter cited as They Were Here Too.
  • [S2503] Willard's Mountain Chapter. D.A.R. Greenwich N.Y. and Butler Hoag, "Data Taken From the Records of Easton Monthly Meeting of Friends", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 46 (1915). Hereinafter cited as "Records of Easton Monthly Meeting of Friends."
  • [S2537] New York. Surrogate's Court (Washington County) Wills v.1-2, 1788-1811; FHL film #0513861 (Salt Lake City: Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1967), Microfilm of manuscripts at the County Courthouse, Salem, New York.. Hereinafter cited as Washington Co., New York Wills, v.1-2.
  • [S2546] Henry I. Richmond, Richmond Family Records (London: Adlard & Son, 1933). Hereinafter cited as Richmond Family Records.
  • [S2633] Nina Howlett Frakes, Descendants of William Howlett (Rupert, Bennington County, Vermont) and William Howlett, Jr. (Cottage, Cattaraugus County, New York) (San Francisco, Ca.: Typed, mimeographed and assembled at the San Francisco Rehabilitation Workshop, 1973). Hereinafter cited as Descendants of William Howlett.
  • [S2668] Dorothy A. Koening and Pim Nieuwenhuis, "Catalina Trico from Namur (1605-1689) and Her Nephew Arnoldus de la Grange", New Netherland Connections Vol.1 no.3 (1996). Hereinafter cited as "Trico, NNC 1 (1996)."
  • [S2669] Dorothy A. Koening, "Further Information About Catalina Trico", New Netherland Connections Vol.1, page 89 (1996). Hereinafter cited as "Trico, NNC 1.4 (1996)."
  • [S2712] "The Essex Antiquarian", online www.americanancestors.org. New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2006. (Originally Published in Salem, MA. The Essex Antiquarian, 13 vols. 1897-1909.). Hereinafter cited as The Essex Antiquarian.
  • [S2724] Lois Stewart, "Wim Van Duijn Answers Some Questions About Riker's Sources of Information", New Netherland Connections Vol. 9 (2004). Hereinafter cited as "Riker's Sources, NNC 9 (2004)."
  • [S2740] Barbara Belter, "Questions/Info Embody Lineage," e-mail message from Barbara Belter (unknown address) to Chris Chester, August 18, 2009. Hereinafter cited as "Questions/Info Embody Lineage."
  • [S2741] "Lackawana County Marriage License Index Vol. 36, Page 1: A-F", online http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~palackaw/marriages/…. Contributed by Richard M. Reese. Revised 2008.. Hereinafter cited as Lackawana County Marriage License Index Vol. 36, Page 1: A-F.
  • [S2743] "Lackawana Co., PA, Wll Index Co-Cz", online http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~palackaw/wills/…. Donated by Tom Price, 2002.. Hereinafter cited as Lackawana Co., PA, Wll Index Co-Cz.
  • [S2857] Allen Rosenkrans, The Rosenkrans Family in Europe and America (Newton, New Jersey: New Jersey Herald Press, 1900). Hereinafter cited as The Rosenkrans Family in Europe and America.
  • [S2905] Lynn Brandvold,"Interments in the Reformed (Dutch) Church Ground (Village of Hyde Park, Dutchess Co., NY)", online http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nydutche/cems/…. From "Old Gravestones of Dutchess County, New York" by J. W. Poucher published in 1924, pages 127-130. Copied by Charlotte Cary Dingee, transcribed by Liz DuBois.. Hereinafter cited as Reformed Dutch Church Ground, Hyde Park, NY.
  • [S3061] Donna Valley Stuart, "The Lehman/Laman/Layman Family of Greene County, New York", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 110 (1979). Hereinafter cited as "Lehman/Laman/Layman Family."
  • [S3073] New York. Surrogate's Court (Queens County), Accounts 1817, July-December; FHL film #0932562 (Salt Lake City: Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1973), Microfilm of original records in the Queens County Courthouse. Hereinafter cited as Queens Co. Surrogate's Court Accounts, 1871 Jul-Dec.
  • [S3157] Pamela J. Sears, "Who was Catrina: wife of Stephen Jansz Van Voorhees of Jamaica?", New Netherland Connections Vol. 12, no. 4, page 92 (2007). Hereinafter cited as "Catrina, wife of Stephen Jansz Van Voorhees."
  • [S3160] Kiliaen van Rensselaer, Arnold J. F. Van Laer, Nicolaas de Roever, Susan De Lancey Strong and New York State Library, Van Rensselaer Bowier Manuscripts, being the letters of Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, 1630-1643, and other documents relating to the colony of Rensselaerswyck (Albany: University of the State of New York, 1908). Hereinafter cited as VRBM.
  • [S3187] Frans C. M. Gouverneur, "Dutch origins of some early settlers and allied families, part 7, Selijns, Specht, New Netherland Connections 9 (2004), pp. 89-104, Corrections and additions", New Netherland Connections Vol. 14, page 67 (2009). Hereinafter cited as "Selijns, Specht Corrections."
  • [S3343] Rev. Creighton Spencer-Mounsey, "The Carmer Family of New York", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 61, pp. 356-372 (1930). Hereinafter cited as "The Carmer Family of New York."
  • [S3355] FamilySearch.org,"Netherlands Births and Baptisms, 1594-1910."Family Search Historical Records.. Online https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/…).. Hereinafter cited as Netherlands Births and Baptisms, 1594-1910.
  • [S3373] Jane Yaples,"Descendants of Garret Dedrick." Online http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nybroome/dedrickd.htm.. Hereinafter cited as Desc. of Garret Dedrick.
  • [S3433] Unknown author, "New York Wills", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 2, pp. 39-40 (1871). Hereinafter cited as "New York Wills."
  • [S3486] Lois Stewart, "The Society of Descendants of Johannes de la Montagne", New Netherland Connections Vol. 2, page 27 (1997). Hereinafter cited as "The Society of Descendants of Johannes de la Montagne."
  • [S3492] John Blythe Dobson, "Remarks on the Titus Family of Flatbush", New Netherland Connections Vol. 2, page 74 (1997). Hereinafter cited as "Remarks on the Titus Family of Flatbush."
  • [S3554] Fred Westcott, "Roosa Ancestor," e-mail message from Fred Westcott to Chris Chester, December 15, 2010. Hereinafter cited as "Roosa Ancestor."
  • [S3573] Thomas G. Evans, "The Schoonmaker Family of Ulster Co., N. Y.", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 19 (1988). Hereinafter cited as "Schoonmaker Family of Ulster Do., N.Y."
  • [S3584] Dorothy A. Koenig and Pim Nieuwenhuis, "The Nephews of Jan Jansz Damen", New Netherland Connections Vol. 4 (1999). Hereinafter cited as "The Nephews of Jan Jansz Damen."
  • [S3595] Barbara Terhune, Cozine-Brewer/Brouwer Demarest Van Orden and Koning in "Dutch-Colonies", listserve message to RootsWeb Dutch Colonies-L, January 5, 2011. Printout dated January 7, 2011. Hereinafter cited as Dutch-Colonies.
  • [S3678] Chris Chester,"Descendant Chart: Paulus Dirckszen."Updated periodically. Online http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/….. Hereinafter cited as Descendant Chart.
  • [S3693] Sharon Weiden, "Information on Gibbs," e-mail message from Sharon Weiden to Chris Chester, January 16, 2010. Hereinafter cited as "Information on Gibbs."
  • [S3698] Sharon Weiden, "Horatio M. Gibbs - My 3rd Great Uncle," e-mail message from Sharon Weiden to Chris Chester, January 18, 2011. Hereinafter cited as "Horatio M. Gibbs."
  • [S3900] Carolyn Nash, "European Origin of Marie Sohier, Matriarch of the Demarest Family", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 141, page 257 (2010). Hereinafter cited as "European Origin of Marie Sohier."
  • [S3944] George E. McCracken, "The American DeKay Family", The American Genealogist Vols. 33, 34 (1956, 1957). Hereinafter cited as "The American DeKay Family."
  • [S4008] Harry Macy Jr., "Sara (De Planck) Monfort", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 122, page 143 (1991). Hereinafter cited as "Sara (De Planck) Monfort."
  • [S4015] Moses Bigelow, The Scudder Family of Trenton (Newark: Somerset Press, 1948). Hereinafter cited as Scudder Family of Trenton.
  • [S4017] Unknown author, "The Founders of New England", New England Historical and Genealogical Register Vol. 14, page 297 (1860). Hereinafter cited as "The Founders of New England."
  • [S4018] Theodore M. Banta, "Philemon Dickerson and Some of His Race", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 30 (1899). Hereinafter cited as "Philemon Dickerson and Some of His Race."
  • [S4019] Brianne Kelly-Bly,"Baptisms - 1st Presbyterian Church, Morristown, New Jersey", online www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~njmorris/churches/1stpresbaptism.htm. 1999-2011. Original source not stated.. Hereinafter cited as Baptisms, 1st Presbyterian Church, Morristown, NJ.
  • [S4023] Wesley Logan Baker, Dickerson & Dickinson Descendants of Philemon Dickerson of Southold, Long Island, N. Y., also, Long Island descendants of Captain John Dickinson of Oyster Bay (Madison, Wisconsin: Adams Press, 1978). Hereinafter cited as Dickerson & Dickinson Descendants of Philemon Dickerson.
  • [S4064] John Camden Hotten, Our Early Emigrant Ancestors: The Original Lists of Persons of Quality (Salem, Mass.: reprint Higginson Book Company, 1880). Hereinafter cited as Hotten.
  • [S4080] Arthur C. M. Kelly, compiler, Poughkeepsie Reformed Church Marriages, 1746-1824 (Rhinebeck, N. Y.: Kinship). Hereinafter cited as Poughkeepsie Reformed Church Marriages 1746-1824.
  • [S4097] Frans Gouverneur, "The De Riemer Family", New Netherland Connections Vol. 7, page 77 (2002). Hereinafter cited as "The De Riemer Family."
  • [S4226] Samuel Gordon Smyth, A Genealogy of the Duke-Shepherd-Van Metre Family: from civil, military, church and family records and documents (Lancaster, Pa.: New Era Print Co., 1909). Hereinafter cited as Duke-Shepherd-Van Metre.
  • [S4285] Frans C. M. Gouverneur, "Dutch Origins of Some Early Settlers and Allied Families, Part 1: Steenwijck, Godtschalck, Maurits (Sluiswachter), ten Broeke (Paludanus), van Nieuwenhuijsen", New Netherland Connections Vol. 8, page 29 (2003). Hereinafter cited as "Dutch Origins of Some Early Settlers, Part 1."
  • [S4287] Frans C. M. Gouverneur, "Dutch Origins of Some Early Settlers and Allied Families, part 2; de Keij, Marssens, Macké, Lubberts, de la Noij", New Netherland Connections Vol. 8, page 71 (2003). Hereinafter cited as "Dutch Origins of Early Settlers part 2."
  • [S4395] Edward Lewis file; W8042; NARA Ser. M805; Roll 525 (www.heritagequestonline.com: Heritage Quest).
  • [S4449] Franklin Ellis, History of Monmouth County, New Jersey... (n.p.: R.T. Peck & Co., 1974). Hereinafter cited as History of Monmouth Co., NJ.
  • [S4457] New York Academy of Sciences Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York, Volume 1 (New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1824). Hereinafter cited as ALNHNY.
  • [S4462] Raymond Martin,"Bethesda Methodist Church Cemetery, Howell Twp., Monmouth County, New Jersey (Part 1)", online www.usgwarchives.org/nj/monmouth/cemetery/bethedam01.txt. USGenWeb Archives, 2011. (Formerly Blue Ball) a.k.a Adelphia Cemetery, Wycoff Mills Road, Howell, NJ.. Hereinafter cited as Bethesda Methodist Church Cemetery.
  • [S4463] Raymond Martin,"Maplewood Cemetery (Old Site), Freehold, Monmouth County, New Jersey (Part 6 of 6)."USGenWeb Archives, 2011. Online www.usgwarchives.org/nj/monmouth/cemetery/maplewood/maplewoodold06.txt.. Hereinafter cited as Maplewood Cemetery (Old Site).
  • [S4465] Rev. William White Hance, "Gravestones in the Burying-Ground of Christ Church, Shrewsbury, N. J., of a Date Generally Prior to 1850", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 34, page 103 (1903). Hereinafter cited as "Burying-Ground at Christ Church, Shrewsbury, NJ."
  • [S4548] "Queries", New Netherland Connections Vol. 15 (2010). Hereinafter cited as "Queries, NNC 15."
  • [S4553] William Nelson, Patents and Deeds and Other Early Records of New Jersey, 1664-1703 (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997, 2000). Hereinafter cited as Patents, Deeds, Early Records of NJ.
  • [S4558] Dauphin County (Pennsylvania) Register of Wills, Wills Vol. 1A-1C, 1785-1814; FHL film #0021237 (Salt Lake City, Utah: Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950), Microfilm of the original records at the Dauphin County Courthouse, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Hereinafter cited as Wills v.1A-1C.
  • [S4652] John William De Forest, The DeForests of Avesnes (and of New Netherland) (New Haven, Conn.: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1900). Hereinafter cited as DeForest.
  • [S4721] Minnie Cowen Abstracts of Wills of Rockland County, New York, Vol. 3 (New York: the compiler, 1939). Hereinafter cited as Abs. Wills Rockland Co. NY.
  • [S4732] Berthold Fernow, Minutes of the Court of Burgomasters and Schepens, Sept. 3, 1658 to Dec. 30, Inclusive (Vol. 3), The Records of New Amsterdam from 1653 to 1674 Anno Domini (New York: Knickerbocker Press, 1897). Hereinafter cited as RNA v.3.
  • [S4769] Ancestry.com,"New York City Deaths, 1892-1902."Provo, Utah, 2003. Online www.ancestry.com.. Hereinafter cited as New York City Deaths 1892-1902.
  • [S4778] William Roberts, June 30, 1875 New York State Census, Kings Co., New York, page 26, family no. 223, lines 1-9, New York State Census, 1875 FamilySearch.org.
  • [S4794] Editor, "Van Tuyl Ancestry in the Netherlands", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 122, page 88 (1991). Hereinafter cited as "Van Tuyl Ancestry."
  • [S4837] Alexander Jackson will (January 25, 1815), Alexander Jackson, Will Orange Co. Wills, Lib. F, page 209, Photocopy of original, WBC 5: WW-57, Anneke Jans and Everardus Bogardus Descendants Association, Wilmington, Ohio. Hereinafter cited as Alexander Jackson Will.
  • [S4870] Renee L. Dauven,"Gravesend 1672 West Meadows", online http://notmyfamily.pbworks.com/w/page/55280254/Gravesend 1672 west meadows. Abstracting Town Records of Kings County: Gravesend, Book 3. Town Meetings, 1656-1705. New York Municipal Archives Microfilm Roll No. 61, Item 3002, p. 34.. Hereinafter cited as Gravesend 1672 West Meadows.
  • [S5098] William J. Hoffman, "The First Generations of the Van Doorn Family", The American Genealogist Vol. 25, pp. 162-164 (1948). Hereinafter cited as "Van Doorn Family."
  • [S5232] Ancestry.com,"Quebec, Canada, Land Grants, 1763-1890."Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. Original data: Robert Dunn and Derek Hopkins, comp. Alphabetical Index to the Land Grants by the Crown in the province of Quebec from 1763 to 31st December 1890. Pointe Claire, Quebec: Quebec Family History Society, 2005.. Online www.ancestry.com.. Hereinafter cited as Quebec Land Grants, 1763-1890.
  • [S5239] Ancestry.com,"Washington, Death Index, 1940-1996."Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2002. Original data: Washington State Department of Health. State Death Records Index, 1940-1996. Microfilm. Washington State Archives, Olympia, Washington. Online www.ancestry.com.. Hereinafter cited as Washington Death Index 1940-1996.
  • [S5338] Ancestry.com, Quebec, Canada, Land Grants, 1763-1890 (n.p.: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., unknown publish date).
  • [S5369] Ancestry.com, Web: International, Find A Grave Index (n.p.: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., unknown publish date).
  • [S5370] Ancestry.com, Web: Saskatchewan, Death Index, 1889-1916 (n.p.: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., unknown publish date).
  • [S5419] A. J. F. van Laer, Correspondence of Jeremias van Rensselaer, 1651-1674 (Albany: The University of the State of New York, 1932). Hereinafter cited as CJVR.
  • [S5582] E. B. O'Callaghan, "First Stone House in Albany", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 4, no. 1, p. 21 (1873). Hereinafter cited as "First Stone House in Albany."
  • [S5589] Obituary, Mrs. Maria G. Brower, New York Tribune, Maplewood, N. J., May 19, 1914. Hereinafter cited as New York Tribune.
  • [S5714] Barbara A. Barth, "Additions and Corrections: Garrison-Gerritsen and Segers Descendants of Gerrit Segers", New York Genealogical and Biographical Record Vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 216-217 (1996). Hereinafter cited as "Garrison-Gerretsen Add. & Corr."
  • [S5735] Melaney Moisan, "Skidgel-Bogardus (?) History," e-mail message from Melaney Moisan to William Bogardus and Chris Chester, February 19, 2014 (March 6, 2014). Hereinafter cited as "Skidgel."