Few of us are entirely comfortable with the genealogical research we and others have done. Many of our findings have words like “probably”, “may”, “perhaps”, and “assumption” inserted because of our doubts. We've exhausted all the traditional research tools and all that remains is using simple, painless DNA testing to provide the answers for which we've been hunting.
DNA testing is the newest tool available to genealogists. Y-DNA testing helps genealogists verify their paternal ancestry (father's father's father, etc.) in a quick and easy way. It saves time, prevents mistakes,and provides invaluable data that can be obtained in no other way. The only cost is for the testing itself and it is a bargain when compared to many of the research trips we have made that produced far less information — consider the costs of gasoline, tolls, parking, photocopying, meals, and perhaps an overnight stay.
Y-DNA testing enables us to discover whether our separate Bradner and Breadner family trees should connect at some ancestor in common, or whether the same surnames were derived separately. It also validates our conventional research by showing whether the links as we have them correlate with the DNA results.
Family Tree DNA will also determine your Y Haplogroup, even to the extent of performing additional tests on your DNA sample if it becomes necessary. This will indicate your paternal line's ancient ancestry and will show the migration routes of your ancestors of thousands of years ago through different geographic regions on a map that Family Tree DNA will provide, and also on the various genographic and haplogroup maps available on the web.
Another advantage of providing a DNA sample is that some companies will store it for many years — Family Tree DNA stores it for 25 years at no additional charge. So as new testing methods evolve, further testing can be performed on that same sample, and this is extremely valuable when the person originally tested has since died.
You simply swab the inside of your cheek a few times in the comfort of your home. Mail the sample to the testing company, and then sit back and wait about six weeks for the results. You will receive a handsome on-line certificate, ready for printing, which displays your genetic profile — a series of numbers that are meaningless by themselves, but they hold the key to your paternal ancestry and, when matched against the profiles of others, can yield information that can be obtained in no other way. Those numbers will be compared against fast-growing databases, such as at Y search, and you will likely find other individuals whose results match yours — if not immediately then in future years. You will be notified as new matches occur.
Note that only a male with any of the subject surnames may participate in Y-DNA testing but, if you have this ancestry, you can be represented by even a distant cousin whose name is Bradner or similar. Maternal ancestry (mother's mother's mother, etc.) testing can also be performed and is termed Mitochondrial or mt-DNA testing, but obviously it is used to verify other than the surname line. For further information about DNA read Charles Kirchner's Introduction. Further questions and concerns are answered at Family Tree DNA's Frequently Asked Questions' page.
The four trees below show where we know we have living male individuals that are candidates for Y-DNA testing. We need to determine if the trees as shown are correct, and DNA analysis is the only way remaining for us to do this. DNA analysis has already proven the connections of Tree 3 back to County Wicklow, Ireland. We now need to test more individuals from Trees 1 and 2 to verify them. Once individuals are tested and links are confirmed by DNA testing, the tree's links will be coloured red. This will provide an indication as to the status of our testing.
Even though we have many separate trees in this One-Name study, only those shown below are known to contain living male Bradners and we would like at least one of them from each major branch to take a DNA test. If your branch of the tree is not shown here, and should be, please contact us so we can include your family in the tree or add a completely new tree for your ancestry.
Our DNA testing has shown that the County Wicklow Irish Bradners of Tree 3 have an R1b1b2 haplogroup which is the predominant haplogroup in Ireland with some areas having 98% of their population with it. But the biggest surprise was discovering close matches between Tree 3 Bradners and McGuirk/McGurk individuals that have had their DNA tested. This means there has to be a connection someplace between our surnames. An Australian, a Canadian, and an English Bradner have participated in testing and our common DNA haplotype proves our connection back to Joseph and Elizabeth (Tatterson) Bradner and indicates that the McGuirk/McGurk connection is before them (1807).
The surprises continue . . . so far only one Bradner from Tree 1 and one from Tree 2 have participated in Y-DNA testing but we've discovered that their DNA match each other, as well as a Breadner. Another Bradner from Tree 1 has taken an autosomal DNA test, and all four have the same haplogroup, however it is haplogroup J2 which is more of a Mediterranean Europe DNA as well as being totally different from the County Wicklow Bradners. So now the questions are . . . how did we end up with two groups of unrelated Bradners, and why do the County Wicklow Bradners have a McGuirk/McGurk connection? Were there (J2) Bradners in County Wicklow that adopted and raised a McGuirk as their child, and are his descendants Tree 3?
We know now that Tree 2 connects somehow to Tree 1, but where? We've been unable to discover this with conventional genealogy due to a lack of records and an overabundance of Bradners in the same era named "John"! But DNA testing can tell us where they are most likely to connect with each other. However, to do this and to prove the connections shown below, we desperately need more living male Bradners that fit into Trees 1 and 2 to have their DNA tested. These are large trees and so we need males from other branches to be tested to see where their DNA places them in the overall pattern. Ideally these should be farthest from the individuals that have already been tested (as shown in red) — so descendants of Gilbert, John and Benoni (the Ohio and Michigan Bradners) would be the best candidates for proving the validity of Tree 1; and descendants of William H., William G., Robert Carr, Albert, and Henry (1804) for Tree 2. This testing will add much to our understanding of how we all fit together. If you know someone that's a candidate for this and would be willing to have their DNA tested then please contact us.
If you would like to participate by having your Y-DNA tested then order a test kit and mail your sample to Family Tree DNA. Note: we recommend having a minimum of 37 markers tested initially. In return you will validate your position in the overall Bradner/Breadner Family Tree and will receive comprehensive details of the results of your test — see sample reports.
If you would be willing to provide a donation to support our DNA project then please contribute to the BRADNER Surname Project. Payments can be made securely via credit card or PayPal. All funds received will be used to test the DNA of Bradner and Breadner individuals who cannot afford the cost.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing provides the female line (maternal) haplotype. While this is not normally used in a "Surname" project, it can be used to validate the parents of female Bradners of long ago. Doing this is however quite complicated as it entails discovering living descendants of those females via a pure female line (except for the person being tested) — so the tested person's mother must be related through her mother, and so on, back to the female of interest.
Autosomal DNA testing (FT-DNA's Family Finder, 23andMe's Relative Finder, Ancestry DNA) provides information about your DNA that was inherited from all your ancestors. Like mtDNA testing, this is not normally used in a "Surname" project but is another very useful tool to discover how and where individual trees fit together. The only problems with it is that many more participants are needed to supply DNA samples, and analysis of the resultant data is very time-consuming because that data comes from a mix of at least 256 ancestors but they are not identified. On the plus side... it does permit females to participate in DNA testing, and it also provides information about all ancestral lines (not just the paternal one).
Gilbert (born 1665) (and Susannah) Bradner's male descendancy to living males | | Rev. John (born abt.1690) (and Christian COLVILLE) | | +— Colville —— Colville "Calvin" —+— John —+— James —— John James ====> 5 known living males (Penn & Mass) | | | | abt.1719 | | | | +— John Robertson —— George ——> 2 known living males (Massachusetts) | | | | | +— James N. —— Nathaniel R. —— Henry K. ——> 5 known living males (NY, VA, NV & WA) | | | | | +— Benjamin —— James W. —+— Elbert E. —> 9 known living males (MD, PA, VA, TX & IA) | | | | | +— Henry ———> 2 known living males (Alberta, Canada) | | | | | +— Samuel D. —— George H. —— Samuel D. —> 11 known living males (NY, ME, OH, OR & WA) | | +— Gilbert —+— John —— Joel —+— Enos —— Charles Enos —— Charles Edward =====> 3 known living males (Washington) | | | | | | | | +— Joel A. —— John S. —— Joel A. —— Ralph D. ——> 9 known living males (NY & Ohio) | | | | | +— Moses —— John D. —— John W. —+— Edward J. —+— Donald E. ———> 2 known living males (California) | | | | | +— Paul W. ———> 1 known living male (California) | | | | | +— Eric J. ———> 4 known living males (Michigan & Illinois) | | | | | +— Henry W. —— Lynn H. ———> 1 known living male (Illinois) | | | | | +— Curtis C. —— John C. ———> 1 known living male (Michigan) | | +— John —+— William T. —+— Samuel —— Marcus —— George Anson ————> 2 known living males (Ohio) | | 1725 | | | +— William —— John Alonzo —+— Martin S. —— Fredrick ——> 2 known living males (Ohio) | | | | | +— John Ross —+— Earl M. ——> 11 known living males (Ohio) | | | +— Virgil C. ——> 2 known living males (Ohio) | | | +— Harry R. ——> 4 known living males (OH & IN) | | | +— Edgar C. ——> 3 known living males (Ohio) | | | +— Max ————> 1 known living male (Ohio) | | +— Josiah —— Lester —— Lester —— Lester —+— Leicester ———> 9 known living males (RI, SD & Hawaii) | +— William Murray ——> 2 known living males (Mass & Illinois) | +— John —————————> 1 known living male (Massachusetts)
John (born est.1765) (Elizabeth Carr) Bradner's male descendancy to living males – tree based on traditional genealogy. | | +— Jehue —— John Henry H. —— William H. —+— Beverly H.B. —— Beverly H. ———> 1 known living male (North Carolina) | | |abt.1798 | | +—— William —— Lawrence P. —+— Gary Wayne ——> 3 known living males (FL & Calif) | | | | | +————————————> 3 known living males (W.Virginia) | | | | | +— David D. ———————> 2 known living males (Ohio) | | +— John Carr —+— William G. —— John William —— Cleveland J. —— Cleveland J. ——> 3 known living males (S. Carolina) | | | 1799 | | +— John O. —+— John Thomas —+— Joseph Thomas ——————> 6 known living males (FL, VA & Hawaii) | | | | | | | +— William S. —+— William S. —————> 1 known living male (Virginia) | | | | | | | +—————————————> 2 known living males (Virginia) | | | | | | | | +— Bruce —+— Ralph Mitchell ————————> 2 known living males (Florida) | | | | | | | +— Bruce —————————> 1 known living male (South Carolina) | | | | | | | | +— Alfred Dunreath ——— John Alfred —————> 7 known living males (North Carolina) | | | | | | | | +— Lance Laurston —+— Norman Camp ——————> 4 known living males (NC, GA & VA) | | | | | | | +— John Lance ——————> 5 known living males (NC, GA & TN) | | | | | | | +— Lance Laurston ——————> 4 known living males (Virginia) | | | | | | | +——————————————————> 3 known living males (N. Carolina) | | | | | | | | +— Charles Shelton —+— Charles Shelton ————> 4 known living males (Virginia) | | | | | | | +— James Allister —————> 1 known living male (Virginia) | | | | | | | | +— Harry ——— Numa Page ===============> 3 known living males (Virginia & NY) | | | | | +— Robert Carr —+— John Francis —— Archer Carr ————————> 1 known living male (Virginia) | | | | | | | | +— Robert Shelton —— William Thomas ———> 1 known living male (S. Carolina) | | | | | +— Albert —+— William Albert —+— Joseph L. —— Lester T. ———> 1 known living male (Virginia) | | | | | +— Oakley —————————> 2 known living males (Virginia) | | | | | +— Percy —————————> 2 known living males (Virginia) | | | | | +— Eddie Russell ———————> 1 known living male (Virginia) | | | | | +— James Thomas —+— Alley Wilson ———————> 3 known living males (Virginia) | | | | | +— James Thomas ———> 4 known living males (Virginia & N. Carolina) | | | | | +— Henry Howard —— Guy Woodrow —— Guy Woodrow ————> 3 known living males (Virginia) | | +— Henry —+— John ——— Henry B. ——— Earl Lee ——— Robert Earl ————> 5 known living males (Georgia & Florida) | 1804 | +— Richard Henry —+— Theoflice Archer ——— John Henry —————> 10 known living males (Virginia) | | +— John Leslie —+— Willie Richard —————> 5 known living males (SC & VA) | +— James Jackson ——————> 3 known living males (Kentucky) | +——————————————————————> 6 known living males (Virginia)
John (born abt. 1660) (Jane) Bradner's male descendancy to living males – tree based on traditional genealogy. | | John — Joseph — John —+— Joseph —+— John ——— John Gilbert ——— John =============> 2 known living males (Australia) | | 1715 1753 1783 | 1807 | | +— Joseph —— Joseph Henry —+— Joseph Henry ====> 3 known living males (Quebec & Ontario) | | | +— William John ————> 1 known living male (Quebec) | | | +— Ernest Gordon ———> 1 known living male (British Columbia) | | +— Thomas Richard —+— Thomas —+— Francis Gilbert ——————> 6 known living males (British Columbia) | | abt.1810 | +— George Edward ——————> 1 known living male (Washington State, USA) | | +— Joseph —— Francis E. —— Francis E. ————> 3 known living males (Ontario) | | +— George Gilbert —+— Robert Maxwell =====> 7 known living males (England) | +— George Gilbert —————> 4 known living males (England) | +— Francis Mervyn —————> 2 known living males (England)
Felix (born abt.1860) (Martha Katzmarek) Brezinski/Bradner's male descendancy to living males | | | +—————— Stanley M. —————> 3 known living males (Arizona) | | 1897 | | +—————— John Henry —————> 4 known living males (Arizona & Nevada) | | abt.1903 | | +—————— Patrick W. —————> 1 known living male (Ohio) | | 1905 | | +——————— Benjamin ——————> 2 known living males (California) 1913
Click here to see a spreadsheet of the allele values of the various markers for the individuals that have been tested so far.
To see the listings of individuals in the Bradner Family Tree:
The Bradner Family Tree pages — start with the Surnames page and click on links to pages for each individual.
Please send us an e-mail if you have any information about BRADNER or BREADNER family members of any era, or wish to discuss any of these individuals or their relatives. Address snail mail to: 21 Chelvin Drive, Georgetown, ON, Canada L7G 4P8.
Credits — persons who have contributed to this One-Name Study.
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