Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   

Chitomachen1,2

M, TMG ID # 3461
Last Edited=25 Aug 2014
Relationship
10th great-grandfather of Charlene Elizabeth Bell
     • Chitomachen was born circa 1607 at the colony of Maryland, The British Empire. This event is constructed from alternative data given by several sources.3


Chitomachen married Mary (Unknown Surname) on an unknown date4. As an approximation of when Chitomachen married Mary, (year ?? 1631) is an estimate or guess based on the year of birth of their daughter, Mary, minus 2 years. • Chitomachen died in 1641 at the colony of Maryland, The British Empire. This event is constructed from variant or alternative data from several sources.3


========== Name Variations ==========.

•Chitomachen also used or was referred to as Charles.5
•Chitomachen also used or was referred to as Kittamaquund.5

========== Unusual Name Variations (Displayed) ==========.
• Chitomachen was referred to by a researcher as Chitomachen Kittamaquund.6,4

• Chitomachen was referred to by a researcher as Kittamaquund 'Charles' Piscataway Tayac.4
========== Alternative or Variant Life Events ==========.
• Chitomachen was born at the colony of Maryland, The British Empire.6

• Chitomachen was born circa 1607.4 • Chitomachen died at the colony of Maryland, The British Empire.6

• Chitomachen died in 1641.4

========== Titles and Honors ==========.


Chitomachen claimed the title of Tayac of the Piscataway.7

========== Research: Notes and Commentary ==========.
• Researcher Glenn C. Benson, compiler of the WCP database BensonCousins, has the following comment:Kittamaqund ('Big Beaver') was Topac, or Great Chief, of the PiscatawayIndians at the time European settlers first came to Maryland. With thesettlers came Jesuit missionary Father White, who established amissionin 1639 at the Piscataway tribal capital. 'Here on 5 July, 1640, inpresence of the governor and several of the colonial officers whoattended for the purpose, Father White, with public ceremony, baptizedand gave Christian names to the great chief, his wife, and daughter, andto the chief councillor and his son, afterward uniting the chief and hiswife in Christian marriage.' Source: 'Piscataway Indians,' CatholicEncyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12114a.htm.6

• Researcher Richard Riley, compiler of the WCP database Riley and Allied Families, has the following comment:Kittamaquund, Tayac of the Piscataway (d. 1641)

(Alternative spelling = Chitomachon)

The Native Americans of southern Maryland played an important role inthe founding of the Maryland colony. While some native peoples madewar on the colonists, others, like the Piscataway, became their alliesand trading partners.

Kittamaquund was an important Piscataway warrior and the youngerbrother of a man named Wannas. Wannas served as the Piscataway's headchieftain, or tayac, when Governor Leonard Calvert arrived in 1634.'Tayac' is the Piscataway word meaning 'Emperor' or 'ruler of all thechiefs.

' The Piscataway Tayac ruled over 130 miles of native territory andvillages on the both shores of the Chesapeake Bay. Kittamaquund andhis followers saw that Wannas mistrusted the English. They believedthat Wannas might lead the Piscataway to war against the colonists.Kittamaquund killed his brother in 1634, and became tayac in hisplace.1 As tayac, Kittamaquund led his people to peaceful ties withthe Marylanders.

Some of the Piscataway were angry that Kittamaquund had killed Wannas,but Kittamaquund also had friends among his people. They thought theirnew tayac was wise. They also wanted the benefits of English fur tradeand military protection from their enemies, the Susquehannocks.2

Father White visited Kittamaquund in June 1639. Father Andrew Whitewas a Jesuit priest who had learned some of the native language andwho wanted to teach the Indians about his Christian beliefs. The tayacliked Father White, and invited the priest to live in his 'palace'with his family. Later that year, Kittamaquund became ill with adisease that native medicine men could not cure. Father White curedthe tayac with some English medicine powder and blood-letting.3

Kittamaquund was so grateful that he allowed Father White to instructhim in Christianity. He also adopted the colonists' style of clothesand learned to speak some English.4 Kittamaquund finally converted toChristianity in 1640. He asked to be baptized along with his wife anddaughters. Other Piscataway leaders decided to become Christians withtheir tayac.

Father Andrew White performed Kittamaquund's baptism on July 5, 1640.Governor Leonard Calvert, other Maryland officials, and Piscatawayleaders all attended the ceremony. The ceremony took place at a chapelbuilt with bark walls, just like other Piscataway buildings. Duringthe baptism, the priests gave the Piscataway Christian names.Kittamaquund's name became Charles, and his wife was named Mary.5Kittamaquund's daughter, Princess Mary, went to live with the Brent'sand later married Giles Brent.6 Kittamaquund died in 1641.7

1'Annual Letter of the English Province of the Society of Jesus,1639,' in Clayton Colman Hall, ed., Narratives of Early Maryland,1633-1684 (New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1910) 126; 'Letter ofGovernor Leonard Calvert to Lord Baltimore, 1638,' in Hall, ed.Narratives of Early Maryland, 158-159; Archives of Maryland, vol. 3,454.

2For detailed information about Wannas' and Kittamaquund'srelationships with the English colonists, see James H. Merrell,'Cultural Continuity among the Piscataway Indians of colonialMaryland,' William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 36 (4) (Oct. 1979):548-570.

3'Annual Letter of 1639,' 126; Merrell, 'Cultural Continuity,' 557.

4'Annual Letter of 1639,' 127.

5'Annual Letter of 1640,' 131; Timothy B. Riordan, The PlunderingTime: Maryland in the English Civil War, 1642-1650 ( St. Mary's City,Maryland, forthcoming publication), 3-6.

6Archives of Maryland vol. 15, 'Preface,' p. 8

7'Annual Letter of 1642,' 136.

LINKED DOCUMENTS OR IMAGES:
References to Kittamaquund in Proceedings of the Council of Maryland,1660-1661. Archives of Maryland, Vol. 3, p. 403 and Proceedings of theCouncil of Maryland, 1661-1675. Archives of Maryland, vol. 3, p. 454.

Click to see a picture of The Baptism of Kittamaquund, by [Edwin]Tunis, The Baptism of Kittamaquund, charcoal drawing, TunisCollection, Maryland State Archives. MSA SC1480-1-5.

John White, Indian Village of Secoton, 1585-86, watercolor. The firstillustration on the page is a picture of a Native American villagesimilar to the type where Kittamaquund and his family lived. Otherimages on the page include scenes of native life and portraits ofindividuals. In Maryland State Archives. DOCUMENTS FOR THE CLASSROOMSERIES. Colonial Encounters in the Chesapeake: The Natural World ofNative Americans, Europeans, and Africans, 1560 -1800. Designed anddeveloped by Edward C. Papenfuse and Dr. M. Mercer Neale, preparedwith the assistance of R. J. Rockefeller, Lynne MacAdam and othermembers of the Archives staff. 1993. MSA SC 2221-17-3. Publication no.4198.
SOURCES:
Clayton Colman Hall, ed. 'Extracts from the Annual Letter of theEnglish Province of the Society of Jesus, 1639, 1640, 1642.' InNarratives of Early Maryland, 1633-1684. New York: Barnes & Noble,Inc., 1910.

Hughes, Thomas. History of the Society of Jesus in North America:Colonial and Federal Documents, 1605-1838, 4 vols. London and NewYork: Longmans, Green and Co., 1908.

Roundtree, Helen C. and Thomas E. Davidson. 'Chapter Three: The FirstCentury with Maryland.' In Eastern Shore Indians of Virginia andMaryland. Charlottesville and London: University of Virginia Press,1977.

****************************************************************************************************************************

At the time English explorers first reached Maryland, the Piscatawayswere the primary Native Americans that they encountered. In 1608, whenCaptain John Smith of Virginia sailed up the Potomac, he touched onseveral Piscataway villages, including Nacochtank, where 'the peopledid their best to content us.' In 1622 the same town was destroyed bya band of plunderers from Virginia but afterward rebuilt. There isadditional information about Piscataway Villages at the Prince GeorgesCounty history site, which states, 'They lived in small villages andcamps along the rivers and streams, where they hunted, fished, andraised a variety of crops. The Indians of Southern Maryland -- wherethe first colonists settled -- were united in a loose confederationknown to the English as the Piscataway Confederacy. Their chief-whomthe colonists grandly styled an emperor-lived in a village alongPiscataway Creek, now part of Prince George's County. Anotherimportant village was on the Anacostia River, near the present site ofSaint Elizabeth's Hospital.'

Kittamaquund ('Big Beaver') was a tapac or great chief of thePiscataways at the time the first English settlers arrived inMaryland. When Lord Baltimore's settlers arrived on the Ark and theDove on March 25, 1634, they landed on St. Clement's Island andestablished friendly relations with the Piscataways at Yaocomoco. ThePiscataways being under threat from the powerful Susquehannas at thenorth end of the Chesapeake Bay, and about to leave Yaocomoco, thesettlers negotiated with them for the location and renamed it St.Mary's.

Among the first Engish arrivals were two Jesuit priests and two laybrothers, who set at work at once to study the Piscataway language andcustoms and to teach them Christianity. By 1639 Father Andrew White,superior of the mission, had established a mission at the tribalcapital, Piscataway, also known as Kittamaquindi, from the name ofKittamaquund, its tapac. On July 5, 1640, Father White in a publicceremony baptized and gave Christian names to the great chief, hiswife, and daughter, afterward uniting the chief and his wife inChristian marriage. The governor and several of the colonial officersattended this ceremony. (1)

In addition to the religious motivations which were part of thedecision to seek baptism, it is possible that the Piscataways werelooking for an alliance with the English to protect them from theSusquehannas. Conversion to Christianity would have been seen as partof that alliance. In addition, Kittamaquund sent his daughter, newlynamed Mary, to live in Governor Calvert's household and learn Englishways. If Mary was entering adolescence in 1640, then her date of birthmight have been in the period 1625-1630.

What happened to the Piscataways?

The fortunes of the Piscataways began to decline in 1644 when PuritanClaiborne with the help of Puritan refugees from Virginia who had beenaccorded a safe shelter in Catholic Maryland, seized the government,deposed the governor, and sent the Jesuit missionaries as prisoners toEngland. Returning in 1648, the missionary work was interrupted byEngland's civil war until in 1652 England's new Puritan governmentunder dictator Oliver Cromwell outlawed Catholicism in Maryland. ThePiscataways were 'driven from their best lands by legal and illegalmeans, demoralized by liquor dealers, hunted by slave-catchers, wastedby smallpox, constantly raided by the powerful Susquehanna whileforbidden the possession of guns for their own defense, theirplantations destroyed by the cattle and hogs of the settlers and theirpride broken by oppressive restrictions. After the Susquehanna wereconquered by the Iriquois, they faced an even more powerful enemy, whomassacred an entire town in 1680. In 1697 most Piscataways, numberingunder 400, fled into the backwoods of Virginia, where, under theprotection of other tribes, they migrated west and then north. In 1765they were living with other remnant tribes near Chenango, nowBinghamton, New York. Drifting west with the Delawares, they madetheir last appearance in history at a council at Detroit in 1793. Asmall remnant remained in Maryland.(1)

In 1968, the new town of Columbia, Maryland was formed in HowardCounty. The first of its man-made lakes was named Lake Kittimaqundi.Sometimes the travel brochures now refer to it as a reference to anIndian settlement in the Howard County area, which is not true. It hasalso been termed an Indian word for 'meeting place.' Onlyoccasionally, does one see a reference to the Piscataway tapac who wasamong the very first converts to Christianity in the English-speakingnew world.

In New Jersey, there is a town called Piscataway, where new houses arebeing built in the $200,000 - $250,000 range, and whose High Schoolteam is called the 'Chieftains.' Its School Board is engaged inSupreme Court litigation over an affirmative action hiring case.

In Waldorf, Southern Maryland, there is a Piscataway Indian Museumdedicated to preserving the culture of the Piscataways and educatingthe public about them. For information about modern Piscataway people,one site suggests contacting Peter Lowe of the Maryland IndianCommission at (410) 740-1416.

NOTES:

1. 'Piscataway Indians' in The Catholic Encyclopedia, © 1913 by TheEncyclopedia Press, Inc. Electronic version © 1998 by New Advent, Inc.

2. Professor James Henretta, 'Margaret Brent: A Woman of Property', inJames A. Henretta, Elliot Brownlee, David Brody, Susan Ware, andMarilynn Johnson, America's History, Third Edition, Worth Publishers,Inc., 1997. © Worth Publishers, Inc.

3. Francis Michael Walsh, 'Resurrection: The Story of the St. InigoesMission 1634-1934', 1997.

4. Professor James Henretta, 'Margaret Brent: A Woman of Property', inJames A. Henretta, Elliot Brownlee, David Brody, Susan Ware, andMarilynn Johnson, America's History, Third Edition, Worth Publishers,Inc., 1997. © Worth Publishers, Inc.

5. Francis Michael Walsh, 'Resurrection: The Story of the St. InigoesMission 1634-1934', 1997.

6. Professor James Henretta, 'Margaret Brent: A Woman of Property', inJames A. Henretta, Elliot Brownlee, David Brody, Susan Ware, andMarilynn Johnson, America's History, Third Edition, Worth Publishers,Inc., 1997. © Worth Publishers, Inc.

7. Research of Mollie King, who has a web site for The King Family inMaryland. Note that there is a possible break in the line toKittimaquund if Katherine Brent is not a child of Giles Brent and MaryKittamaquund

8. Research of Mollie King, who has a web site for The King Family inMaryland.

9. 'Piscataway Indians' in The Catholic Encyclopedia, © 1913 by TheEncyclopedia Press, Inc. Electronic version © 1998 by New Advent, Inc.7

========== Research: To do, Additional Sources =========.

•Check Ancestry.com on Riley. •Decode comment from Benson.
•Check Ancestry.com on Benson.6


========== Research: External Data ==========.

• Researcher Richard Riley, compiler of the WCP file Riley and Allied Families, cites "~ATF1A4.ged" and "~AT4322.ged" as a secondary source for data relevant to Chitomachen.7,8,9
========== End of data ==========.

Child of Chitomachen and Mary (Unknown Surname)

Citations

  1. [S20] The database may also be found on Ancestry.com and in the WorldConnect Project on RootsWeb.
  2. [S3] Constructed Name.
  3. [S4] Constructed Event.
  4. [S41152] WorldConnect Tree: "Riley and Allied Families", Compiler: Richard Riley, URL: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi
  5. [S41108] Constructed Name.
  6. [S5049] Glenn C. Benson, "BensonCousins", WorldConnect Project File.
  7. [S41151] Richard Riley, "Riley and Allied Families", WorldConnect Project File.
  8. [S40033] ~ATF1A4.ged.
  9. [S40032] ~AT4322.ged.