The name originates in Cambridgeshire (where it is a place name meaning "warrior's spring") and in Northamptonshire (where it is a place name meaning "stream near a burial mound").
Arms: VR gules a saltier embattled between four crescents argent
Crest: on a wreath or + azure a wolf's head eras'd of the second collar embattled of the field studd'd + chained of ye third
Motto: Loyal au mort
Cambridge town is divided into four distinct wards, named respectively Bridge ward, Market ward, High ward, and Preacher’s ward, and contains the fourteen parishes of All Saints, St. Andrew the Great, St. Andrew the Less, St.Benedict, St. Botolph, St. Clement, St. Edward, St. Giles, St. Mary the Great, St. Mary the Less, St. Michael, St. Peter, St. Sepulchre, and the Holy Trinity, all (except the precinets of King’s College, which are in the diocese of Lincoln,) in the archdeaconry and diocese of Ely, excepting St. Andrew’s the Less, which, being a donative, is exempt from all ecclesiastical authority. The university, by custom and composition, is exempt from episcopal and archidiaconal jurisdiction. The living of All Saints is a discharged vicarage, rated in the king’s books at £5. 6. 3., endowed with £400 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Jesus College. The living of St. Andrew’s the Great is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £200 private benefaction, and £400 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Ely. The church was repaired and a great part of it rebuilt in 1643, chiefly by the benefaction of Christopher Rose, Esq.: in the north transept is a cenotaph in memory of the celebrated navigator Captain Cook, and his three sons. The living of St. Andrew the Less, or Barnwell, is a donative in the patronage of the owner of the priory at Barnwell. The church stands eastward from the town, and is supposed to have been built from the ruins of the priory. The village of Barnwell has suffered from repeated fires: the last and most destructive of these was on the 30th of November 1731, when the greater part of the houses was consumed. A chapel of ease to the church of this parish has been recently erected. The living of St. Benedict’s is a perpetual curacy, rated at £4. 7. 11., endowed with £200 private benefaction, £400 royal bounty, and £1200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Corpus Christi College. In the church was interred Thomas Hobson, the celebrated Cambridge carrier. The living of St. Botolph’s is a discharged rectory, rated at £2. 14. 4½., endowed with £400 private benefaction, £600 royal bounty, and [p.328] £200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the President and Fellows of Queen’s College. The living of St. Clement’s is a perpetual curacy, rated at £4. 5. 7½., endowed with £400 private benefaction, £200 royal bounty, and £1100 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Jesus College. The church stands a little south of the great bridge. The living of St. Edward’s is a discharged rectory, rated at 3s. 4d., and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Trinity Hall. The church stands a little to the west of Trumpington-street. The living of St. Giles’ is a vicarage not in charge, with which the perpetual curacy of St. Peter’s is united, endowed with £200 royal bounty, for St. Giles’, and £800 royal bounty for St. Peter’s, and in the patronage of the Bishop of Ely. St. Giles’ church stands at the north end of the town: St. Peter’s, opposite to it, has been disused for many years. The living of St. Mary’s the Great is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £400 private benefaction, £200 royal bounty, and £1300 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Trinity College. The church, commonly called the University Church, is situated nearly in the centre of the town, on the east side of Trumpington-street, and opposite to the public schools and library. It is in the later style of English architecture, and consists of a nave, the dimensions of which are about one hundred and twenty feet by sixty-eight, two aisles, and a chancel, with a lofty tower surmounted by pinnacles, and containing twelve bells, which are rung on all state holidays, “;c. The rebuilding of this church by contribution was begun in 1478, and finished in 1519, except the tower, which was not completed until 1608.
In it was interred the celebrated reformer Martin Bucer, whose body was taken up in the reign of Mary, and burned, with that of Paul Phagius, in the market place. Academical exercises were formerly performed, and public orations delivered here; and, in 1564, Queen Elizabeth was present at the disputations held in it. The university sermons are still preached here: the vice-chancellor, heads of colleges, noblemen, professors, and doctors, sit in a handsome gallery raised between the nave and the chancel; the proctors, masters of arts, and fellow commoners, have seats in the area of the nave, called the pit; and the bachelors and under-graduates are provided with places in the side galleries: William Worts, Esq., who died in 1709, left the sum of £1500, to accumulate for the purpose of building the galleries, and £20 per annum for keeping them in repair. The churchwardens of this parish were made a body corporate by Henry VIII. in 1535. The living of St. Mary’s the Less is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £1200 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of St. Peter’s College. The church was built in 1327, on the site of a former church, dedicated to St. Peter, which gave name to the adjoining college of Peter House. The living of St. Michael’s is a perpetual curacy, endowed with £800 royal bounty, and in the patronage of the Master and Fellows of Trinity College. The church stands on the east side of Trumpington-street, opposite to Caius College: in the spacious chancel are held the bishop’s visitations and confirmations. In 1556, this church was placed under an interdict, as being the burialplace of Paul Phagius, then esteemed an arch-heretic, and was re-consecrated by the Bishop of Chester, acting as the deputy of Cardinal Pole. The living of St. Sepulchre’s is a vicarage, rated at £6. 11. 0½., endowed with £200 private benefaction, £1000 royal bounty, and £200 parliamentary grant, and in the presentation of the churchwardens and parishioners. St. Sepulchre’s, or the church of the Holy Sepulchre, stands on the east side of Bridge-street, and is remarkable for the antiquity and peculiarity of construction of the older part of it, which is believed to be the oldest remaining specimen of the circular churches, erected by the Knights Templars on the model of that of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and to have been built in the reign of Henry I.: it is forty-one feet in diameter, and has a peristyle of eight rude massive pillars, supporting circular arches with chevron mouldings. This church contains a tablet in memory of the eminent divine Dr. Ogden, who died in 1778. The living of Trinity parish is a discharged vicarage, rated at £7. 6. 8., endowed with £800 royal bounty, and £1000 parliamentary grant, and in the patronage of the Bishop of Ely. The church stands at the south end of Bridge-street. There are meeting-houses for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, and Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists.
A SPECTACULAR Medieval castle located in the grounds of Barnwell Manor, Northamptonshire.
Barnwell Castle is steeped in history and local legend – apparently there is a body concealed within the castle walls! Built in 1266 by a powerful noble, Berengar le Moyne, the castle was constructed without a licence. After joining the Crusades to escape debts, Berengar was forced to convey his land and castle back to Ramsey Abbey – but not before a considerable sum of money was exchanged. Following the dissolution of the monasteries, Henry VIII granted Barnwell Manor and the now disused castle to his Chief Justice, Sir Edward Montagu. The magnificant Tudor manor house was probably built by Sir Edward around 1568 as a dower house, enlarged by the 1st Lord Montagu in circa 1640 and partly rebuilt around 1750. The estate was disentailed in the mid 19th century, and in 1913 became a lavish hunting box for Horace Czarnikow, a famous Polish émigré. The Barnwell estate became a royal residence in 1938 when it was purchased by His Royal Highness, Prince Henry, The Duke of Gloucester, brother of George VI. He had married Lady Alice Christabel Montagu Douglas Scott, daughter of the Duke of Buccleuch, in 1935 and the acquisition of Barnwell meant Princess Alice had returned to an early home of her Montagu ancestors. She remained at Barnwell until 1995.
Originally founded in 1092 by the first Sheriff, Picot, at St Giles Church, next to his castle. The Austin canons of St Giles church were moved in 1112 by the second Sheriff, Pain Peverel, to an area apparently known as children's springs - Barnewelle. (It seems every year, at Midsummer's Eve, children gathered there for games, attracting traders.) It became the largest religious foundation in the town and gained the right to hold Midsummer. The site ran from Newmarket Road down to the river, east of what is now Elizabeth Way. The church of St Andrew the Less (now Christ Church) on Newmarket Road was associated with it. The Priory site was levelled between 1810-12.
Barnwell County was settled in the early 1700's by pioneers wishing to adventure into the "back country". By the 1740's, Palatine settlers entered the picture spreading throughout Orangeburg District. By the end of the Revolutionary War, many settlers obtained grants in Barnwell County. Most were from North Carolina and Virginia. Barnwell was actually a district within Orangeburg until the late 1780's. At this time, Winton District was created and the Barnwell name wasn't used again until 1798. Many of the Palatine, Virginian and North Carolinian surnames are still evident in Barnwell today. Some of them being, Hutto, Hartzog, Matheny, Hair, Delk, Harley, Rountree and many more.
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