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SOME OLD SPELLINGS :  
WITH REFERENCE TO  

  VARIOUS TRADES

 


Accomptant, Accountant, Almone
r
- Giver of charity to the needy,

Amanuensis - Secretary or Stenographer.

Aquarius (Ewer) - Waterman

Aurifaber - Goldsmith.

Artificer - A soldier mechanic who does repairs.

Avenator (Plantifene) - Hay and Forage Merchant.

Bailie - Bailiff.

Barker - Tanner.             

Baxter - Baker

Belhoste - Tavern keeper.

Belleyetere - Bellfounder.

Bever - Beverage maker

Blockmaker - One who crafted pulleys

Bluestocking - Female writer.

Boniface- Keeper of an inn.

Bowyer - Bowmaker.

Brasiler - Dyer.

Brazier - One who works with brass,

Brewster - Beer manufacturer

Brightsmith - Metal Worker,

Burghermaster - Mayor,

Burneman - Carrier of barm or water for brewers.

Caulker - One who filled up cracks (in ships or windows or seems)

Cancellarius - Chancellor.

Cardmaker - Maker of cards or instrumets for combing wool.

Carnifex - Butcher.

Carpentarius - Carpenter.

Castor - Hat maker

Chaisemaker - Carriage maker,

Chaloner - Dealer in shalloon, a material made in Chalons.

Chandler - Dealer or Trader. One who sells Candles. Grocer

Chiffonnier - Wig maker

Chapman - Merchant.

Chirugion - Apothecary or Surgeon.

Cissor - Tailor.

Clericus, Clark - Clerk.

Cocus (Keu) - Cook

Collier - Coal miner,

Colporteur - Peddler of books

Combere - Woolcomber

Cooper - One who makes or repairs vessels
made of staves & hoops, such as casks, barrels, tubs, etc.

Corvisor (Cordewanarius, Cordwainer) - Shoemaker.

Costermonger - Peddler of fruits and vegetables

Cotiler - Cutler

Crowner - Coroner

Cuhreur (Cunreur) - Currier.

Cuper - Cooper; a barrel maker.

Currier - One who dresses the coat of a horse with a currycomb;
one who tanned leather by incorporating oil or grease.

Dexter - Dyer.

Docker - Stevedore, dock worker who loads and unloads cargo

Dowser - One who finds water using a rod or witching stick

Draper - A dealer in dry goods

Drayman - One who drives a long strong cart without fixed sides
for carrying heavy loads

Dresser - A surgeon's assistant in a hospital

Drover - One who drives cattle, sheep, etc. to market; a dealer in cattle

Dubbere - Cloth dubber, i.e., one who raises the nap of cloth.

Dudder - Probably a maker of coarse cloaks.

Duffer - Peddler

Dysshere - Probably a ditcher, or in some cases a disher.

Elymaker - Oilmaker.

Factor - Agent, commission merchant; one who acts or transacts business for another. 

Faber - Smith.

Farrier - A blacksmith, one who shoes horses.

        Faulkner/ Falconer/ Fellmonger - One who removes hair or wool from
            hides in preparation for leather making,

Faulkner - Falconer

Felmonger/Fellmonger - One who removed hair or wool from hides.

Ferur (Ferator) - Farrier or blacksmith.

Fisher (Fishdryver) - Victualler.

Flauner - Confectioner.

Flesher - Butcher.

Fletcher - Arrowmaker.

Forestarius - Forester.

Frereman - Servant of the Friars.

Fuller - One who trampled cloth. See alsoWalker.

Furber (Furbour) - Furbisher of armour.

Furner - Baker.

Garcifer (Garcio) - Groom, attendant.

Garlekmonger - Dealer in garlic.

Glassewryght - Maker and mender of glassware.

Gynour - Engineer.

Hacker - Maker of hoes

Hamberghmaker (Hamberow) - Horse collar maker.

Hatcheler - One who combed out or carded flax

Haymonger - Dealer in hay

Hayward - Keeper of fences

Hetheleder - Provider of heather for fuel.

Higgler - Itinerant peddler

Hillier - Roof tiler

Hind - A farm laborer

Hooker - Reaper

Hooper - One who made hoops for casks and barrels

Hosteler - Innkeeper.

Huckster - Seller of small wares

Husbandman - Tenant farmer .

Jagger - Fish peddler

Joyner/Joiner - A skilled carpenter

Journeyman - One who has served his apprenticeship and is now hired by the day

Keeler - Bargeman

Kempster - Wool comber

Keepgest - Innkeeper.

Lardner - Keeper of the cupboard

Latouner - Worker in latten, a metal resembling brass.

Lavender - Washer woman

Lederer - Leather maker

Leech - Physician

Limner - Draughtsman or Artist.

Lokeer - Locksmith.

Longshoreman - Stevedore

Lorimer/Lormer - Bridlemaker.

Macun/Mason - Bricklayer

Malender - Farmer

Maltster - Brewer

Manciple - A steward

Marescallus - Marshall.

Medicus - Leech, Doctor.

Mercator - Merchant.

Mintmaster - One who issued local currency

Molendinarius - Miller.

Monger - Seller of goods (ale, fish)

Muleskinner - Teamster

Mustarder - Grower and grinder of mustard.

Nailor - Nail maker

Neatherder - Herds cows

Nedder - Needle-maker.

Ordinary Keeper - Innkeeper with fixed prices

Palmer - A Pilgrim, one who had been to the Holy Land.

Paneler - Saddler.

Pannarius - Clothier and Draper.

Pannebeter - Pan-hammerer, or perhaps clothdriver.

Pardoner - One licensed to sell Papal Indulgences.

Parmentor - Probably a parchment maker, or tailor.

Parcheminer - Parchment maker.

Pattenmaker - Maker of iron-rimmed pattens for footwear.

Pelliparius (Peltarius) - Skinner.

Peregrinator - Itinerant wanderer

Perukemaker - Wigmaker.

Pettifogger - A shyster lawyer

Pictor - Painter.

Pigman - Crockery dealer

Pinder - Keeper of the Pound or Pinfold.

Piscarius - Fishmonger.

Piscator - Fisherman.

Pistor - Miller or Baker.

Plomer - Plumber.

Porter - Door keeper

Puddler - Wrought iron worker

Pynner - Pin-maker.

Roper - Ropemaker.

Rotarius - Wheelwright.

Safernman - Grower of Saffron.

Samitere (Samite) - Maker of a kind of heavy silk suff.

Sauntere - Salt maker.

Sausere - Salter.

Scrivener - Professional or public copyist or writer; notary public

Scrutiner - Election judge

Seinter - Girdlemaker.

Sempster - Seamstress

Serviens - Sergeant.

Servus - Servant.

Shrieve - Sheriff

Sifker - Sievemaker.

Silkmaker spinster - Female spinner

Silkmaker throster - Male spinner

Sissor (Cissor) - Tailor.                             

Slater - Roofer

Sleymaker - Maker of instruments to part threads in weaving.

Slopseller - Seller of ready-made clothes in a slop shop

Snobscat/Snob - One who repaired shoes

Soper - Soapmaker.

Sorter - Tailor

Spinster - A woman who spins or an unmarried woman

Spittleman - Hospital Attendant.

Spicer - Grocer.

Spurrier - Spurmaker.

Squire - Country gentleman; farm owner; Justice of the Peace

Stabler - Ostler.

        Stuff gown - Junior barrister

Stuff gownsman - Junior barrister

Sugarer - Dealer in sugar: Grocer.

Sumner - Summoner or Apparitor.

Supercargo - Officer on merchant ship in charge of cargo and concerns of the ship

Sutor - Shoemaker or cobbler.

Tabernarius - Taverner, Innkeeper.

Tannator - Tanner.

Tanner - One who tans (cures) animal hides into leather

Tapley - One who puts the tap in an ale cask

Tasker - Reaper

Teamster - One who drives a team for hauling

Teinter - Dyer.

Textor - Weaver.

Thatcher - Roofer

Tide waiter - Customs inspector

Tinctor
- Dyer or possibly a painter.

Tinker - An itinerant tin pot and pan seller and repairman

Tipstaff - Policeman

Travers - Toll bridge collection

Tucker - Cleaner of cloth goods

Upholder - Upholsterer; also a cheapjack and seller of secondhand goods.

Vaginarius, Sheather - Scabbard maker.

Venator (Venur) - Huntsman.

Victualer - A tavern keeper, one who provides an army, navy, or ship with food

Vintner - Wine Merchant.

Vulcan - Blacksmith

Wagoner - Teamster not for hire

Wainwright - Wagon maker

Walker (Same as Fuller) - Cloth trampler or cleaner.

Waterman - Boatman who plies for hire

Webster - Weaver. Operator of looms

Whittawer - Preparer of white leather

Wright - Workman, especially a construction worker                      

Yeoman - Farmer who owns his own land.