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Fascinated with history and in studying the War between the States, one must look even further back to get the true meaning of what started the whole mess in the first place. It was not as a result of recent issues that was the start of the differences between the North and South, but started in Virginia and reached far back into the wilds of the Western frontier when George Washington surveyed lands for Lord Fairfax. He had acquainted himself of the lands he surveyed even in Pennsylvania around Fort Pitt, which is now the City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The greed of a group of men and the fight of who could get their hands on it first by outfoxing the other, resulted in our country's biggest land scams I have ever seen. It could not be more correctly stated by this article "The American Civil War was the military showdown of a struggle which had continued since the time of the earliest European settlements in America, into the era of the Republic". There was so much conspiracy, treason, scamming of such magnitude it is almost unbelievable that we have been led to believe how great these men were, when in fact they were only lining their own pockets. So my question is this, do you think it is still going on today in our nation's capitol? Look around and open your eyes, it's never stopped. These events are not mere speculation, but are backed up with thousands of documents so scattered that it makes it difficult for one to get the real picture. It's only until you see the documents in collective events do you really see the truth of it all. Some will call it the conspiracy theory, but the documents speak for themselves of the horrors of what has actually happened in the founding of this nation and the real people who have paid the price at other's expense in the name of greed. When I was doing research with Dan Byrnes, who created "Merchant Networks" a few years ago, he asked me what is with all the patriotism sentiment in America. The only response I could give him at the time was what we have been taught in school and growing up all our lives to be patriotic. He found that quite absurd giving the research he has done and what has not been reported by American historians. He has access to the Australian archives which is the basis of his research. He told me then I should look at the signers of the Declaration of Independence and what they were doing. Is it not strange that a man who lives in Australia could point out to me such a vital piece of information that most of us have never looked at before, only based on what our national history has reported. He saw it quite differently. At the time I was quite amazed, after all our historians wouldn't lie about it.....right!!! But little did I know at the time he was quite right about what he was telling me.

As I have researched my own families westward movements from the eastern states through New Jersey, New York, Maryland, Virginia on their treks to Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Ohio and Tennessee, I started noticing a trend of land disputes and actual land titles that soon disappeared out of the names of the men who had originally held them. And everywhere I turned our faithful and glorified President George Washington's name kept cropping up. The research I was working on was in sharp contrast to the vision I had learned of George Washington and his gallant service to us as an American icon, but quite different from the history I had learned growing up. It disturbed me as I dug further and further because a man of extraordinary greed and self importance was emerging before my vary eyes on document after document. It made me wonder what really did happen here and one thing led to another and I soon realized what actually did happen was far different then what has been written in our history books and the men who wrote to glorify the founding father's of this nation through a "smoke screen" into our field of knowledge and acceptance.

Be sure to read more by clicking on the links that are underlined.

When I was hired by an author, Hewitt Clarke, to do research on his most recent book "Money and Blood", he then threw another project at me for help in finding information about a man named Philip Nolan, who had invaded Texas and was killed there in 1801 on a expedition. As I started research on him I soon discovered that the names of men who were associated with George Washington started showing up in Mississippi, New Orleans, and eventually the take over of those lands, to the Louisiana Purchase and invasion of Texas. So now we had not only Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, but was stretching to every state in the westward settlement and southern states. So this really got my attention and has sent me on a search to see what else I could document, which led to an enlightment of the things that were going on with the founding of this country and still seem to be going on in our government and officials today, corruption everywhere!! This led to conspiracies to separate the union, treason, spies, you name it. Historians are finally coming to realize that GW wasn't quite the man he wanted us to believe he was and hoped to be remembered in historical accounts, but his own letters and those of others give an entirely different picture. The one thing I have always been troubled by is the defection of one man, Benedict Arnold, whose military service was beyond reproach. How could a man who had fought for us suddenly give up and turn to the other side. The question in my mind was what had historian's either overlooked or ignored? With what I learned years earlier and in doing further research I soon discovered a comment he made in latter years regarding his disturbance for Catholic sentiments that were going on. Another thing I could never quite understand was George Washington's continued allied very close friends of the Catholics in Maryland and the alliance with Catholic's of France, who financed and shipped arms to us during the Revolution, which was in violation of their treaty with England. How was it that he could fight against the French during the Seven Year's War aka French and Indian Wars in the 1750's and turn around and ally with them during the Revolution. It just didn't make sense to me at that time. And how was it that Benjamin Franklin on whose own recommendation to the Pope in his own diary admits that he was instrumental in the appointment of the First Catholic Bishop in the United States, one Rev John Carroll, whose brother, Daniel Carroll of Rock Creek, Maryland was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and a member of the Continental Congress and also a friend of George Washington. This only threw more questions about the extension by Lord Calvert of his Maryland boundaries into Pennsylvania and westward into Virginia which eventually ended up being the Mason Dixon line, which bears a monument stone bearing his heraldry arms that still exists to this day. And the final straw that broke the camel's back was how could our national capitol be built as a replica of the Vatican with such astronomical precision and be separated from the actual United States of America as it's own entity just like the Vatican and the same government based on the Holy Roman Empire? I didn't have much trouble gathering information as everyone who's hailed and glorified as a piece of our history brags on and on about their ancestors who participated in the whole mess and allied with George Washington. Another thing I was so amazed by is how all of these men who were either tried and acquitted or just flatly got away with being prosecuted. How was it that General James Wilkinson, who was on the Spanish payroll and still continued to serve in our army ends up eventually the Governor of Louisiana after his numerous fiasco's with treason, separation of the union, invasion of Texas employed Philip Nolan to go into Texas on the very expedition he was killed. These same men who were allied with Aaron Burr, Vice President of the U.S. who ends up being tried for treason and gets away with it, eventually gain control of 1000's of acres of land and made a killin!! Hummmm..sound familiar? The thing that really irks me is that they have used our families to serve their "slave" needs and our men's lives in the military to achieve their selfish and greedy goals in the name of freedom and patriotism. And they are now stripping our middle class to the point of poverty. Did it just start, no it's been going on long before the revolution ever started and covered up with their "smoke screens" to hail themselves as our heroes and men we should look up to for the founding of this great nation. When in fact it has been our families who have built this nation with their hard labor and sacrifices who continue to be taxed beyond comprehension and stripped of everything that they can do to put us lower on their totem poll for control. These are the men of the eastern establishment who started it all in the first place and it's just grown from there until it's out of control.

It's hard to put a starting point of where it all began, but it did start early in the mid 1500's to 1600's in various parts of Virginia and Maryland and a fight to gain control of those lands in the name of religious persecution. My goal is researching for documentation in black and white which is so difficult because it's scattered all over the world in libraries, government files, land records, universities, personal family files and collections and various other locations. I just seem to have a knack to get my hands on old documents that many have no idea even exist. Even I was totally unaware of until I started digging deeper and deeper. My closet and office look like a library. The next task is to try to organize it into chronological order so you can see the pattern that developed and evolved into a vast stream of greed and deception. My conclusion is that people research their families or a certain part of history but what they fail to look at is the big picture that has emerged through the years and since we have been led to believe that our history was one way they never look to see if it was different, but why would we? But that's not how I am, I have a photographic memory and am detail oriented and when I start finding evidence that shows something entirely different then what I was taught to believe it sends me even further to see what else I can find out and boy what a rude awakening I came to find out, things just weren't like I had been told by any stretch of the imagination. So being blessed with this gift I feel it's my duty to report my findings and draw your own conclusions. I know what my sentiments are, but I have no right to impose my beliefs on anyone else, so you make your own conclusions. Some will probably say that I'm not a lover of this country, but that's far from the truth. It's just that the principles and truths that we have been taught I'm finding out are very much different and we as the citizens have paid the price and continue to do so at our own expense and as a result we continue to line their pockets with wealth while they sit back and reap the harvest of our labors. So the truth of the matter is that I have discovered what has been going on long before the revolution of this country is still going on today and it just sickens me. They have their own set of rules, and another for us.

I will quote from various resources of which I either have a copy of the original or in pdf format. Some I will scan and put a link to so you can read it for yourself and these are underlined. The pdf format documents that I have I can't upload to my webpages, but upon request you can email me and I'll be happy to send it to you and you can read it for yourself. When you email me you must put a subject regarding what it is you want, otherwise I will delete the email.

So what did all of these events leading up to the Revolution, the actual reason for the Revolution, and the forming of our seat of government in Washington, D. C. have to do with it all? It was a matter of who could be manipulated and rewarded for going along with the desires and greed of this group of men to the westward settlement to reach the Pacific ocean and all the waterways from the Potomac, Ohio, Tennessee and Mississippi River trade that would make them fabulously rich. Did they know what they were planning....ABSOLUTELY. Pay close attention to how they manipulated the state legislatures, of whom their buddies were in those positions, to change laws to suit their needs.

It only takes reading the research of Dan ByrnesMerchant Networks "The Blackheath Connection", to see the obvious ties with most of the celebrated men of our illustrious history to see what else they were up to all over the world. My own research into my Campbell family of Culpeper County, Virginia led me to his wonderful research to the settlement of Jamaica with whom I believe are my ancestors who migrated from Scotland to Jamaica managing huge slave sugar plantations. John Campbell, whom I believe is one of my grandfathers, married the widow, Mary West Dandridge, wife of Alexander Spotswood, son of the Colonial Governor, Alexander Spotswood of Germanna settlement. Mary is the cousin of Martha Dandridge Custis, wife of President George Washington. It was through these endeavors of tracking him to Jamaica that I soon learned that one of his cousins, Duncan Campbell, was the overseer of the Prison Hulks on the Thames River in London. One of his ships "The Bounty" of Mutiny on the Bounty fame of William Bligh was married to Duncan's niece, Elizabeth Betham. He was shipping convicts to Maryland and Virginia to these plantation owners who were buying them to work their plantations as indentured servants, and I use that term very loosely. Through all of the research and ties these illustrious men tried to steal the land of my John Campbell and his widows zillions of dollars to their own use, including Bernard Moore, her brother in law, and included Fielding Lewis, George Washington, and many others. These men owed their factors tons of money before the revolution because they were over spending beyond their means and ended up heavily in debt. So after the revolution anyone who didn't go along with the program got their lands confiscated and they refused to pay their debts they owed their factors. Gee isn't that convenient, just wiped out all of their debts, whereas anyone else went to debtors prison. These include governors, lawyers, doctors, legislators, signers of the declaration of independence, members of the Continental Congress, loyalists, federalists, you name it. And as Dan says, how is it that historians conveniently left out part of our history? They were no better than the liars, cheaters, and thieves they were importing, they just gave themselves a title and it made it ok.

Matthew Ridley was agent for Duncan Campell and John Stewart for their operations in Maryland and Virginia. British born, he for some reason or the other sided with the revolutionists. He owned a huge warehouse on the wharf at Baltimore, Maryland. Letters exist that he wrote to the below Thomas Johnson, Benjamin Franklin and even dealt with Franklin while in Paris. His 2nd wife, Catherine Livingston was the daughter of New Jersey Governor, William Livingston, and Catherine's sister, Sarah was married to John Jay who served as President of the Continental Congress. He was appointed to the Supreme Court by George Washington. In March of 1781, Ridley was appointed agent for the state of Maryland, and was sent to Europe to secure a loan for the state. Following a year in Paris, he traveled to Holland in May of 1782, where in July he secured a loan of 300,000 fl. from the firm of Nicolaas and Jacob van Staphorst of Amsterdam. During his time in France and Holland, Matthew spent time with Benjamin Franklin and John Adams.

It seems that most of GW's cronies were appointed to the Supreme Court and other important government positions to help use the government to accomplish their means. Wasn't that cozy?


As mentioned earlier, I had never quite figured out why George Washington had so much to do with the Catholic population in Maryland. In the first place the Catholics were very much hated by the Protestants. There was some very strange things going on amongst the families who lived directly across the Potomac from GW not only with Lord Baltimore, who were the Calvert family, but others such as the Digges, Carroll, and Brent families, whom were all Catholic families.

The most concerning of the group to me is the family of William Digges of Warburton Manor, later the site of Fort Washington, (was directly across the Potomac River from Mount Vernon) who had married Ann Attwood. Of their children were George, Thomas Attwood, Elizabeth, and Jane. Many entries in the diary of GW note frequent visits at the Warburton Manor. George was married to Catherine Brent, whose mother was Ann Carroll and sister to Daniel Carroll of Rock Creek, signer of the declaration of independence and Rev John Carroll, 1st Bishop of the U. S. George and Catherine's daughter, Anna Maria married Robert Leroy Livingston, a son of John Livingston who married for his 2nd wife the widow of Matthew Ridley.

More is written of George Digges:

George Digges son, William Dudley Digges, married Eleanor Carroll of Duddington. Their daughter Eleanor Digges married James Ethelbert Morgan, whose son Dr. James Dudley Morgan inherited this portrait: Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, Volume 23 By Columbia Historical Society (Washington, D.C.) pg 215 On the walls of the lovely Morgan home at Chevy Chase hangs a portrait by Van Dyck of Sir Dudley Digges, one of the active spirits in the Virginia Company, which owned and ruled that colony during the first quarter of the seventeenth century. Sir Dudley lived at Chillum Castle, Kent, England. From this ancestral home Chillum Manor Estate in Maryland derives its name. A portion of the Chillum Estates was called GREEN HILL, and there, abt 1800, a house was built by Mrs Catherine Digges, a sister of Washington's first mayor, Robert Brent. Her son, William Dudley Digges, married Eleanor Carroll, a daughter of Daniel Carroll of pg 216 Duddington; and they lived at Green Hill--he until his death in 1830 and she until 1863, when she went to spend the last year of her life with her son in law, Dr. James Ethelbert Morgan.

William Digges and Ann Attwood's daughter, Elizabeth, was married to Daniel Carroll, Jr of Rock Creek, whose father was the signer of the declaration of independence above and one of the commissioners appointed by GW to build the U S Capitol in Washington, D. C. Their daughter, Jane, was married to Colonel John Fitzgerald who was an aide-de-camp to George Washington. In 1769, John Fitzgerald emigrated from Ireland and later ran a mercantile business in Alexandria. He was a major in the 3rd Virginia Regiment in 1776, and he joined Washington’s staff as an aide-de-camp in November of that year. Fitzgerald was on the battlefield at Princeton, and he is probably the source of the often-told story when covered his eyes as the British fire a volley at Washington, after which the commander-in-chief remains unscathed. During the Valley Forge encampment, Fitzgerald was sent to Virginia with a packet of letters, and he does not return until May. He was therefore absent from the army and headquarters for several months. Fitzgerald was wounded at the battle of Monmouth, and he resigned from the army shortly thereafter. He returned to his business in Alexandria, and at one point he helped supply American prisoners-of-war. Elected mayor of Alexandria in 1783, Fitzgerald’s friendship with Washington continued after the war, when he was a guest at Mount Vernon. During Washington’s presidency, he was appointed a local collector of customs. Fitzgerald declared bankruptcy in 1799 and died shortly thereafter. Washington wrote of Fitzgerald: “I shall now proceed to mention a person in whose skill and integrity … I have the fullest confidence; a Gentleman who is a native of Ireland – Colo. John Fitzgerald. The active Services of this Gentleman during the War, his long residence in the Country and intermarriage in it (with one of the most respectable families, Digges of Maryland) all entitle him to be considered as an American. The laws of this Country know no difference between him and a native of America.”

The next interesting tidbit about Fitzgerald and GW is gleaned from this website First Catholic Church in Virginia A. D. 1795 Inscription. This stone taken from the canal of the Potomac Company of which Washington and Fitzgerald were Directors commemorates the erection of the First Catholic Church in Virginia, A. D. 1795, which stood until 1839 about twenty feet behind this marker.

In grateful acknowledgement of their aid in establishing this church the three trees to the north of this stone have been dedicated as follows to General George Washington as subscriber to the building, Colonel John Fitzerald, his favorite Aide de Camp, as the collector of the building fund, Colonel Robert Hooe, Major of Alexandria, as the donor of the acre of land.

In commemoration of the bicentennial of the birth of George Washington this tablet was donated by the Holy Name Society of Sacred Heart Church (Vailsburg), Newark, N.J. on the 135rd anniversary of the funeral of Colonel John Fitzgerald, December 4, 1932.

“St. Mary’s was established in 1795, and is the oldest Catholic parish in the Commonwealth of Virginia. To fund the church, Colonel John Fitzgerald, friend of George Washington and an early mayor of Alexandria, took up a collection. According to local tradition, Washington himself made the first donation. A chapel was built at the south end of the city, on land still used today as St. Mary’s Cemetery.” Excerpt from Robert Madison’s book, Walking with Washington. “George Washington’s diary shows that he and [John] Fitzgerald met together frequently. Fitzgerald’s home was on the southeast corner of King and Fairfax Streets where the Burke & Herbert Bank is today. Since there was no Catholic church in Alexandria at that time, services were sometimes held in Fitzgerald’s home. According to tradition, while dining there on Saint Patrick’s Day in 1788, George Washington contributed to a fund to build Alexandria’s first Catholic Church.”

The next time you are drinking coffee at Starbucks on the southeast corner of King and Union Streets, look around. You are in an eighteenth-century warehouse built by John Fitzgerald. A former aide-de-camp to General George Washington, John Fitzgerald (d. 1799) moved to Alexandria in 1769 and returned after spending the winter at Valley Forge. He purchased the south side of the 200 block of King Street with Valentine Peers, (Valentine Peers grandson, Richard Henry Collins who published the history of Kentucky, purchased a painting of General James Wilkinson from grandson, Ludovic Bigot, in 1882, Louisville, Kentucky. The painting hangs in the Filson Club Historical Library, Louisville, Kentucky. In his history of Kentucky, he wrote extensively about Wilkinson. The purchase of this painting is referred to by the author, Edward Everett Hale, of the story "Man without a Country" which is based on a story character of Philip Nolan.) and the town trustees granted them the “sunken ground” on the south side of King Street east of Lee Street in September 1778. They filled in the area east of Lee Street, and this building was John Fitzgerald’s warehouse. It is typical of the Alexandria waterfront in George Washington’s day. Fitzgerald was Alexandria’s leading Catholic layman, one of the first directors of the Potomac Company and its president from 1793 to 1796, mayor from 1786 to 1787, a member of the Alexandria committee to ratify the U.S. Constitution in 1788, commander of the Alexandria Independent Dragoons, a founder of the Bank of Alexandria in 1792 and the Alexandria Library in 1794, and collector of the port. In his 1793 letter appointing Fitzgerald Collector of Customs of the Port of Alexandria, President Washington slipped from his general policy of not taking personal advantage of his public position and wrote “I am now about [to] give you a little trouble on my private account.” The President wanted Fitzgerald’s help in selling flour and tobacco that he had stored in Alexandria warehouses.

George Washington’s diary shows that he and Fitzgerald met together frequently. Fitzgerald’s home was on the southeast corner of King and Fairfax Streets where the Burke & Herbert Bank is today. Since there was no Catholic church in Alexandria at that time, services were sometimes held in Fitzgerald’s home. According to tradition, while dining there on Saint Patrick’s Day in 1788, George Washington contributed to a fund to build Alexandria’s first Catholic Church. St. Mary’s is the oldest Catholic parish in Virginia.

Fitzgerald's daughters, Elizabeth and Jane, married Francis Lightfoot Lee, son of Richard Henry Lee and Ann Gaskins, signer of the declaration of independence.

The history of the Catholic Church in Maryland published a history in 1914. Some of the statements made in this history are pretty alarming. The statement regarding St. Peter's chair indicates to me a notion of one world government. The following are excerpts from that history:

The Catholic Church in the United States, 1914 "who knows but the Chair of Peter may yet be translated to America, and that St Peter's Church at Baltimore may be substituted for St Peter's at Rome, and that ye Bishop of Baltimore may be identified with ye head of Christ's Church on earth!" St Peter's remained in an unfinished state until 1783

pg 6

In August, 1782, after the battle of Yorktown, the French under Rochambeau halted at Baltimore, and camped on ground now occupied by the Cardinal's house and the cathedral, the camp possibly extending on the south to Lexington Street, on the west to Howard Street, on the north to Centre Street and on the east on the edge of the hill.

The legion of the Duke de Lauzun is said to have camped on the spot where the cathedral now stands, which, as well as that round St Peter's, was then covered with forest. A small chapel was built, in which the chaplain to the French troops offered the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. The solemn Mass of Thanksgiving ordered by the King of France was sung with great pomp by an Irish priest, chaplain to Count Rochambeau, the troops being arranged in the form of a hollow square. The officers and soldiers attended in uniform and regimental bands played in the presence of a great concourse of people.

Right Rev John Carroll, Perfect Apolostic and Bishop, 1784-1804

a scheme had been formed in the French embassy at Philadelphia to impose on American Catholics a French bishop residing in Paris. Benjamin Franklin, then the American ambassador to France, was asked by the Papal Nuncio at Paris to lend his aid to the project. Franklin acquiesced, wrote

pg 7

to the prime minister of France, and referred the matter to the Continental Congress. Soon, however he saw his mistake, and exerted his influence to press the appointment of the Rev Mr Carroll. In 1784, Pope Puis VI appointed the Rev John Carroll Perfect Apostolic over the thirteen states, thus formally terminating jurisdiction of the English over the American church and giving the Church in the colonies independence from any other political center at the very time we had gained political independence. Franklin's diary thus records this memorable event: "1784, July 1st--The Pope's Nuncio called and acquainted me that the Pope had, on my recommendation, appointed Mr John Carroll Superior of the Catholic clergy in America, with many of the powers of a bishop, and that probably he would be made bishop in partibus before the end of the year."

In the year 1786, the Very Rev John Carroll left his home in Rock Creek, Montgomery County, where he was living with his mother, and took up residence with the Rev. Mr Sewall in Baltimore, ...His sermons were so much admired that many Protestants attended them with great satisfaction.

pg 10

Bishop Carroll had a profound admiration for the character of George Washington. After Washington's election to the presidency, the Catholics presented him an address signed by the Bishop on behalf of the clergy, and by Charles Carroll, Daniel Carroll, Dominic Lynch, and Thomas Fitzsimmons, signers of the Declaration of Independence, on behalf of the laity, to which Washington made a memorable reply. Bishop Carroll was selected by the unamious resolution of Congress, passed in compliance with the general desire of the clergy and laity of all denominations, to prounce the panegyric on the first national commemoration of Washington's birthday, February 22, 1800. His discourse on the occasion, delivered in St Peter's pro-Cathedral, Baltimore, was one of the finest of many great eulogies pronounced on the Father of his Country. He ordered that this day be made one of mourning.


Charles Carroll of Carrollton was a signer of the declaration of independence and the last signer to die. He was the son of Charles Carroll of Annapolis, Maryland and Elizabeth Brooke. Charles of Annapolis is the one who went to France trying to get a land grant which pertains to the below article. They were going to sell everything they had in Maryland and move to the Louisiana grant if they could work it out. However, it never came to be, so they remained in Maryland. There have been comments that Charles, the father, wanted to go their to be supreme ruler of the colony. These Carroll families are from Ireland.

The cousins of the above Carroll's involve two more members of the Carroll family of Maryland. Daniel Carroll of Rock Creek, another signer of the declaration of independence, and his brother, John. John was the first bishop appointed by the Pope on recommendation of Benjamin Franklin. Daniel of Rock Creek was also a member of the below Potomack Company with George Washington and was appointed by GW as one of the commissioners to build Washington, D. C. In February, 1776, the Continental congress appointed Carroll one of a committee of three to visit Canada to secure the alliance of the Canadians in the struggle for independence. Franklin and Samuel Chase were the other members of the committee. On the 19th of July Carroll was appointed on the Board of War. As a Federalist Carroll favoured the tariff, Hamilton's funding measures, and the strengthening of the national government. He and Lee of Virginia were the chief advocates of placing the capital at Philadelphia for ten years, thence to be removed to the Potomac.

Two memorials at find a grave for John Carroll, one at Georgetown University, in Washington, D. C., which was started by the Catholics. And the other in Baltimore

George Washington has two memorials in Catholic churches, one in Alexandria, Virginia where he gave the first contribution for St. Mary's Church in 1795. And the other at St. Paul's Cathedral in London. I have run across numerous stories that state George was baptized a Catholic at his death by a Jesuit Priest, Leonard Neale. However, I think his involvement was much deeper prior to these statements being made. There has been talk about it since he died and I have found numerous newspaper accounts from 1890 to 1912 discussing the matter, as well as to present day. I tend to think Neale gave him last rites before he died.

Then there is the Digges family of Warburton, who lived directly across the Potomac River from Mt Vernon. Washington's favorite aide-de-camp was an Irishmen and also a Catholic, John Fitzgerald. John was married to Jane Digges, daughter of William Digges and Ann Attwood. Fitzgerald lived in Alexandria and had a business on the wharf and was eventually Mayor of Alexandria and appointed by GW as customs collector, who got into extremely deep financial problems. Mass was held at his house only a short distance from GW before the first Catholic church, St. Mary's, was built in 1795. Fitzgerald and GW were extremely tight and visited each other frequently.

A sister of Jane Digges, Elizabeth, was married to Daniel Carroll, Jr of Rock Creek, son the Daniel Carroll of Rock Creek, signer of the declaration of independence.

Two brother's of Jane Digges are also extremely important. George Digges lived at Warburton Manor. Both of their activities during the revolution are extremely questionable. Letters that survive in the 1770's from London where they both were are involved with many spying activities. It is said of George: His home at "Warburton Manor," later the site of Fort Washington, was directly across the Potomac River from Mount Vernon. George Washington's diaries record frequent visits between the two families. In the year 1753 he was commissioner of the land office. later he was a member of LORD BALTIMORE'S (CALVERT) council and Mayor of Annapolis from 1759 to 1763. Later he was one of the joint commission on BOUNDARIES BETWEEN MARYLAND AND PENNSYLVANIA(MASON DIXON LINE).

In Irving's account of the "aquatic state and ostentation among the rich planters who resided on the banks of the Potomac" he refers to the "beautiful barges and land equipages imported from England" and especially mentions Mr Diggs (whose sister was the Ann Digges who married Dr George Steuart, 1st of Annapolis). (My note: Known Tories, Ann Digges who married Dr. George Hume Steuart was the sister to William Digges who married Ann Attwood. Their son, Dr. Charles Hume Steuart/Stewart married Elizabeth Calvert, daughter of Benedict Swingate Calvert, the illegimate son of Lord Baltimore, Charles Calvert 5th Baron Baltimore. Dr. David Steuart was a physician of George Washington and was appointed by GW as a commissioner to build Washington, D.C. His wife was Eleanor Calvert, daughter of Benedict Swingate Calvert. Eleanor was the widow of John Parke Custis, son of Martha Dandridge Washington, wife of GW. There is some discrepancies to me about the parents of David Steuart, but he seems to be the son of Ann Digges) Benedict Swingate Calvert was a loyalist during the revolution, however, he remained in the U.S. and didn't have his property confiscated. Read his find a grave memorial how Washington drew criticism from people and the family remained friends!!

Lord Baltimore sent his natural son, Benedict Swingate, aged 10 or 12, to live in Annapolis with Dr. George Steuart who resided on Francis Street, just around the corner from the Calvert house. People soon learned that Benedict was the Fifth Lord's son and by the 1740s he was using the Calvert name. In 1745, Benedict became customs collector for the Patuxent District and its Naval Officer, entitled to a portion of all customs fees.

In 1748, Benedict and Elizabeth Calvert were married, with his Lordship's blessing, and Benedict moved into the Calvert house on State Circle. The house which had been so empty now began to fill with children. The couple eventually had thirteen children, although five of them died at a very early age. Possibly as a consequence of their growing family, the Benedict Calverts moved in the early 1760s to the Mt. Airy plantation in Prince George's County which had been a gift from the Fifth Lord to his son before his death in 1751. With Mt. Airy and Elizabeth's inheritance--the Gerard lands--the Benedict Calverts owned over 4000 acres, much of it prime tobacco land. Benedict put his energies into improvements at Mt. Airy and the house on State Circle languished.

Dr. George Hume Steuart, of Argaty b: ABT 1717 in Aberfoyle, Perthshire, Scotland. Dr. George Home-Steuart moved to Maryland, United States where he was a medical doctor. Dr. George Steuart was politically involved with the interests of the proprietorship of Maryland, i.e. the Calvert family; thus finding himself on the "wrong" side when the Revolutionary War erupted. He owned at least 4,100 acres in Anne Arundel County, Maryland in 1775. The Revolution caused a dilemma for Dr. Steuart. If he supported the Revolution, he would forfeit his property in Scotland. If he supported the Crown, his estates in America would be confiscated. It appears he was a pragmatic man, and divided his family. Dr. Steuart returned to Scotland with some sons, and proclaimed his loyalty. He left Ann and some of the family in Maryland, signed his land over to his sons, who professing sympathy for the Revolution, they retained the American properties. Dr. Steuart died in Scotland, just as the Revolutionary War was ending. Ann died in 1814, at the estate in Maryland called "Dodon." The Steuart farm at Dodon is still family owned, though they only have about 550 acres left. You can visit their website

Then there is the other brother, Thomas Attwood Digges, who was a very dubious character and of very questionable behavior. Written of him and letters that still survive show him as a spy for both sides, supposedly.

Along the Potomac Shore in Prince George's County, Maryland copyright 1992 Tanta Cove Garden Club P O Box 44526 Fort Washington, Maryland 20749

The Digges Family and Warburton Manor, page 61 Thomas Attwood Digges (1742-1821), William's second son, is of special interest to us as he was the last of the family to live at Warburton Manor and recent research has revealed interesting information about his life, politics and family relationships. He was banished at age 24 for some unknown misconduct in 1767 and left the colonies for Europe. When his older brother Charles died two years later he inherited Warburton Manor, but continued to live abroad. Thomas was described as being of dubious repute and some wondered if he was a double agent during the Revolutionary War.

Papers of John Adams, Volume 9 From Thomas Digges Docno: PJA09d011 Author: Digges, Thomas Recipient: JA Date: 1780-03-03 London 3 Mar 1780 Sir

In a letter from Mr. L of the 16th Feby. I find He was good enough to mention me to You1 and that you gave direction for any letters I might have occasion to write to be forwarded a Mons. Mons. Fernando Raymond San, Nogiciant chez Mons. Hocherau Libraire Pont neuf Paris.2 I shall be very happy in giving you any information of movements here that may come to my knowlege because in doing so I am certain I may in some degree serve the cause of my Country. I have never missd as yet any letter from Paris by Common Post directed For Mr. Wm. Singleton Church Nandoes Coffee House Temple Bar London. I dont mention my direction with a view to draw you in for answering any thing I may have to write, but meerly to serve you in any thing you may require of me—that direction under cover to Mr. Edward Bridgen3 Merchant Pater nostre Row will also find me. I am thus explanitory at the onset, because it might not be safe to mention so much by common post, and that I have a safe opportunity of conveying this to You by a Capt. Carpenter4 of the late Cartel ship to Bristol from Boston who goes on business to Passy, and will return in 10 or 12 days: If in the course of that time you chuse any other direction you may mention it to me by a line by Capt. Carpenter. I send by Him the news papers of four or five days back from which you will gather every thing doing here.5 The friends to Ministry and their measures are hoping every hour to hear that Clinton (who embarkd only 7,000 Effective Men, tho they are said to be ten, in the latter end of Decr) is in possession of Charles Town. {p. 9 | view } illustration read description: Thomas Attwood Digges, Attributed to Sir Joshua Reynolds, ca. 1775–1781 9 {p. 10}

That Detatchment consisted of the Lt. Infantry and Grinadiers of the 7th, 23d, 33d, 42d, 63d and 64th British Regiments; a legion of Horse, the New York Volunteers; Fergusons Corps; Yagers; four Battalions Hessian Grenadiers; one Hessian Regiment; and a detatchment of the 71st. British Regiment. Many are of opinion a part of this army was intended for the Windward Islands, and that they embarkd and saild the 26th Decr., and was much hurt by a Storm after sailing; but this does not seem probable, as there are no accounts from N York later than the 23d Decr., and the most intelligent accounts then, said they were not to sail till the 12 or 15 Jany. 2,000 under Lord Cornwallis who said to be intended for the Chesapeak to burn two or 3 french men of war then in James River, and to serve as a diversion in favour of the other five going against Chs. Town.6

The toreys and others of the friends to Ministry do not at all seem to be in spirits about the picture of Affairs in America and the West Indies; nor do they rejoice so much as I have seen them on much less trivial occasions, for the success of Rodney over the Spaniards. They now begin to fear that the fleet at Gibraltar will be blockd up by the Cadiz fleet under Gaston which has many ships superior to Rodneys; They also fear much from the French getting a majority in the West Indies, from whence some late accounts are Come of vast sickness and disorder onboard the English Ships. The naval War will seemingly be removd for the next summer to that quarter. Rodney was to sail about the 20 or 25th Feby. with four ships for the Wt. Indies, and Walsingham will not take more than that number as a Convoy to about 100 Wt. Indiamen which will sail between the 15 and 20th Instant. More ships of war will probably conduct this fleet off the land. It is most likely the N York and Quebec trade about 50 more will sail at or near the same time. I dont hear of any troops or Ships of War going to that station; but there is a talk going about that Wallace will have a small squadron and carry 4 or 5 thousand men out but I dont beleive it in the later instance.7 You will find by the papers sent to Dr. F that the Ministry have been hard run in several parliamentary questions lately. Their party is loosing ground dayly, and the County Petitions for reform &c. seems to be a heavy weight round their necks—these meetings and Assosiations are very similar to former movements in America and it strikes me in the end there will be a serious rumpus if reforms do not take place. The Committees of each County have already appointd 3 Deputies to meet and act for the Whole. This is exactly a Congress and it will likely be stiled so eer it is long. I dont know {p. 11} whether these movements at home, or the Disturbances in Ireland chagrin and depress the ministry most. It appears that the Sovereignty of this Country over that, will not be of many months duration. The armd Assosiations of Ireland amount to near 64,000 Men, who from appearances seem determind to free themselves from every restriction laid on them by this Country. Their parliament are going to put an end to all appeals to England—to render the judges of that Country independant of the Crown, they at present holding their Offices durante bene placito and not quamdiu se bene gesserent 8 as in England—To have a Hebeas Corpus act—to repeal Poinings Law which enacts that all Bills shall orriginate in the Council and not in the Commons—to confine the new supplys to the apportionment of new duties only—to give Counties on their own Manufactures—and to have a mutiny Bill which last goes immideately to the grant point of Jurisdection, &c.—this is all making for America but would have come better and more servicable to Us a Year or two ago. Even with all the present appearances against this Country, and the certainty of America succeeding to Her wish, I do not discover among what we term the Patriots in Parliament, many men that go straight forward in their wish for american Independence. Those whom I intimately connect myself with are clearly and decidedly for it—Viz: Lds. Camden, Effingham, Coventry and Bp. of St Asaph; Sr. G Saville, Dd Hartley and but a few others in the Commons—the rest whom I converse with, are all for Independence on some provisos, such as England to remain with a feather of Sovereignty, for America to give up the French Alliance, federal Alliance with England &c. &c. I wish they saw the Interests and exact state of both countries in a clearer view. If you take in any of the English morning papers I think you will do well to fix a mode for getting regularly that calld the London Courant published by Almon in Piccadilly. The real state of Ship news, dispatches, sailing of Fleets &c. are as regularly and justly put into that paper as can be. The Courier de l'Europe also in them points is pretty chaste.9 I am Sir Yr very Obt Sert, T D——s RC Adams Papers; addressed: “A Monsieur Monsieur J. A——ms Paris”; endorsed: “T. Dundas. March 3d ansd 14. 1780.”

1. In Digges, Letters , p. 163, note 1, “Mr. L” is identified as Peter Luard. Little is known of Thomas Attwood Digges' early life. A member of a prominent Maryland family, he may have attended Oxford in the 1750s and then returned to America. In 1767, Digges went to Portugal as a merchant; by 1774 he was in London acting as an agent for {p. 12} various shipping interests. There he associated with other American supporters of the Revolution such as William and Arthur Lee, Matthew Ridley, Joshua Johnson, and William Carmichael. In 1775 he published a semiautobiographical novel, The Adventures of Alonso. With the outbreak of war, Digges turned to clandestine trade with America, usually through Portugal or Spain, and became interested in the welfare of American prisoners in England. In 1778, at the behest of their mutual friend David Hartley, Digges began a correspondence with Benjamin Franklin under a variety of pseudonyms that lasted until 1781, when Franklin accused Digges of embezzling funds intended to aid the prisoners (Digges, Letters , p. xxiii–liv; William Bell Clark, “In Defense of Thomas Digges,” PMHB , 77 [Oct. 1953]:381–438).

The correspondence between Digges and JA that began with this letter was both important and extensive. The Adams Papers editorial files indicate that, between 3 March 1780 and 23 April 1782, the two men exchanged 73 letters. JA sent or received letters as Ferdinando Ramon San, but Digges adopted a variety of names, including Alexander Brett, J. W. C., William Singleton Church, T. Dundas, William Fitzpatrick, Alexander Hamilton, Timothy D. Ross, William Ross, William Russell, Alexander Williamson, and T. Williamson. William Singleton Church was the pseudonym most frequently used in Digges' correspondence with JA. Digges, like Edmund Jenings, is a shadowy figure who may or may not have been a British agent, funnelling information to JA in order to obtain his confidence and receiving useful intelligence in return. In any case, JA described him as a person “with whom I had a correspondence under feigned names, and who sent me regularly pamphlets and newspapers: with whom, however, I was not sufficiently acquainted ever to write without reserve” (JA, Corr. in the Boston Patriot , p.159).

2. JA derived his pseudonym from the name of the Spanish muleteer he employed during his journey through Spain, to which he added the name Ferdinando. See JA's letters to and from Michel Lagoanere of 26 Dec. 1779 and 16 Jan. 1780 (vol. 8:301–305, 310). The address, “Mons. Hocherau Libraire Pont neuf Paris,” was also given to Edward and Charles Dilly in a letter of 20 Feb. (vol. 8:342) as that to which English publications should be sent. For the Dillys, JA's alias was to be Antonio Ares.

3. Edward Bridgen, a North Carolinian and part of the London mercantile firm Bridgen & Waller, served at various times as a London alderman and was a friend of Thomas Brand Hollis. He spent considerable time with the Adamses when they went to England after the war. Bridgen exchanged numerous letters with Benjamin Franklin and JA, most notably on the possibility of his firm supplying copper blanks for coinage. See JA, Diary and Autobiography , 3:179–180, 188, 196, 200; Cal. Franklin Papers, A.P.S. ; List of the Benjamin Franklin Papers in the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., 1905.

4. This was Capt. Benjamin Carpenter of the cartel ship Polly. The cartel had arrived at Bristol on 19 Dec. 1779, 24 days out of Boston, carrying prisoners taken on their passage to Jamaica. Besides this letter to JA, Carpenter also carried a letter from Digges to Benjamin Franklin giving the conditions under which Americans would be exchanged for those on the Polly (London Chronicle, 21–23 Dec. 1779; William Bell Clark, “In Defense of Thomas Digges,” PMHB , 77 [Oct. 1953]:407, 408; Digges, Letters , p. 164–169).

5. JA copied the text from this point, through the words “federal Alliance with England &c. &c.” in the second paragraph below, and included it in his second letter of 14 March to the president of Congress (No. 19, calendared, below).

6. With the exception of the 42d regiment, which was held for use as a reinforcement, the force described by Digges sailed for Charleston on 26 Dec. 1779. The fleet, composed of approximately eighty-eight transports and nine warships, had a difficult passage. On the 28th a series of storms began that continued almost unabated until 20 Jan., scattering the fleet and resulting in the loss of most of the expedition's horses and ordinance. It reassembled off Tybee Island at the mouth of the Savannah River at the end of January, but it was not until 11 Feb. that the troops began landing on the banks of the North Edisto Inlet, about thirty miles south of Charleston. The actual beginning of the siege of Charleston was put off to 1 April, after the landing force had been resupplied from St. Kitts and obtained cannon from the navy. Cornwallis accompanied the troops and took command when Clinton returned to New York at the end of May (B. A. Uhlendorf, ed. and transl., Siege of Charleston, Ann Arbor, 1938, p. 104– 111, 23–25, 101, 417; Mackesy, War for America , p. 340–342).

7. This report appeared in the London {p. 13} press, but in fact Capt. James Wallace remained in European waters until late 1781 (London Chronicle, 29 Feb.–2 March 1780; DNB ).

8. That is, the judges were holding office at the King's pleasure, rather than during good behavior.

9. For John Almon's London Courant and other newspapers that JA received on a regular basis, see Adams' letter to Digges of 15 April, note 3, and Digges' letter of 28 April, note 2 (both below). Compare Digges' view of the Courier de l'Europe with JA's in his letter to the president of Congress, 23 Feb. (No. 8, vol. 8:358–359, calendar entry).

Thomas Attwood Digges, Attributed to Sir Joshua Reynolds, ca. 1775–1781 9

This portrait, reproduced from a photograph that appeared in the Records of the Columbia Historical Society in 1904, was in the Digges family's possession until 1957. Its present location is unknown. The letter of 3 March 1780 from Thomas Attwood Digges (1742–1821) to John Adams (below) opened a correspondence that endured less than three years, but is one of the most valuable in John Adams' career. Digges, a Maryland merchant living in London, carried on a parallel correspondence with Benjamin Franklin, was active in prisoner relief efforts, and had ties to such British supporters of the American cause as David Hartley (Digges, Letters , p. xxiii–liv). Writing under a variety of pseudonyms, Digges supplied John Adams with news gleaned from London newspapers and was Adams' primary source for pamphlets written in the ongoing British debate over the American war. It was through Digges, for example, that Adams received Thomas Pownall's A Memorial, Most Humbly Addressed to the Sovereigns of Europe, on the Present State of Affairs, Between the Old and New World, London, 1780; and Joseph Galloway's Cool Thoughts (London, 1780 [i.e. 1779]). John Adams' letters to Digges consist of appeals for additional printed material, requests for more information on current events, and comments on British policies. Of particular interest are the letters exchanged following Henry Laurens' October imprisonment in the Tower of London, for while Digges lacked direct access to Laurens, he spoke with those who did and kept Adams informed of Laurens' situation. Also of interest is Digges' involvement in the events surrounding the British arrest of the American artist John Trumbull in November, and his efforts, as an Anglo-Dutch war became inevitable, to conceal his American identity in letters sent to Adams at Amsterdam. Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society.

Potomac Landings By Paul Wilstach pg 108

On the promontory on the north lip of the mouth of this creek near where now stand the aged, gray, and obsolete bastions of Fort Washington once stood Warburton Manor house. This was the seat of one branch of the Digges family whose sons in Virginia as well as in Maryland were prominent in colonial and revolutionary affairs. The first Digges of Warburton was William descendant of Edward Digges, a member of the Council and in 1650 Governor of the Colony, and of "Sir Dudley Digges, Knt. and Bart., Master of Rolls in the reign of King Charles I."

On his own part William was a member of the Council and Deputy Governor of the Province in the absence of Lord Baltimore in England, and in command of the capital at the mouth of the river during the Protestant revolution. His son, George of Warburton, added lustre to the family name by his character and attainments. He was the "neighbour Digges" of Washington's letters.

When the Continental Congress desired to send a confidential representative to the Court of St James's Washington backed his son, Thomas Atwood Digges, who received the hazardous but complimentary commission. He was no stranger to London for he spent much of his youth there and was known as "the handsome American," an epithet confirmed by his portrait ascribed by Sir Joshua Reynolds. The intercourse between Mount Vernon and Warburton Manor was at all times intimate.

Washington, in going to Philadelphia and New York, frequently made Warburton the Maryland landing point when crossing the river. On such occasions the PRESIDENT would have his coach and horses sent over the night before to be in readiness for his later arrival. He would be rowed across in his barge next morning. There was a CODE OF SIGNALS between Warburton and Mount Vernon. When either had guests for the other their barges, manned by slaves in checked shirts and black velvet caps, would shoot from the opposite shores and meet in midstream where the passengers were exchanged.

The City of Washington is in plain sight of Warburton Manor lands and there is an interesting connection between these two historic Potomac points. The capital city was planned by a FRENCHMAN, Major Charles L'Enfant, who was later commissioned to plan Fort Washington. When he undertook this work he went to Warburton Manor and resided there for SEVEN YEARS as the guest of his FRIEND Thomas Digges whose nephew, WILLIAM DIGGES, later gave the Frenchman asylum in his home, Green Hill (later known as Rigg's farm), on the Sligo branch of the Anacostia River. There the creator of the plans of the national capital died and there he was buried. Later his remains were removed to Arlington and rest on the brow of the hill overlooking the city the plan of which his genius conceived.

Before leaving Piscataway neighborhood there remains to tell of Mount Airy, the seat of Benedict Calvert. The old mansion survives, rich in its association with colonial bigwigs of the Potomac. It stands on a plantation known in early records as "His Lordship's Kindness" and though not strictly a Potomac River estate it borders on the "ffreshes of Piscataway" and by other ties partook of the neighborhood life of the great river. It was a favourite stopping place for GENERAL AND MRS WASHINGTON when travelling to Philadelphia, Annapolis, and Mount Vernon. Mrs Washington's son John Parke Custis on his trips between Mount Vernon and his schools in Annapolis, Princeton, and New York, stopped here frequently. Out of these visits grew a romance, and eventually young Custis married Eleanor Calvert and took her to live at Abingdon on the Potomac, of which something remains to be told in connection with the homes on the Virginia side of the river.

Estate of historic distinction between Oxon Creek and Anacostia River were Oxon Hill, Gisborough, St Elizabeth's and Blue Plains. All date back into the 17th century and LORD BALTIMORE was the original grantor. All overlooked the Potomac at or near the mouth of the Anacostia River except Oxon Hill which lay on the high ground on the north side of the mouth of Oxon Creek opposite the CITY OF ALEXANDRIA. Its fine mansion was a RIVER LANDMARK until it was destroyed by fire in 1895. This was one of the seats of the ADDISON's relatives of Joseph Addison of SPECTATOR fame and of most of the COLONIAL ARISTOCRATS OF MARYLAND AND VIRGINIA. It is sometimes spoken of as ADDISON MANOR.

Two miles above the Anacostia River or EASTERN BRANCH, the Potomac turns to the West under the heights of Georgetown and soon thereafter its tidewater reach terminates in the narrows below the Falls. Most of the shore between these two points, which FORMERLY WAS WHOLLY WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OF MARYLAND, IS NOW IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. Its lands were familiar to the earliest Maryland colonists and some of the river front was embraced in manors. One of the most conspicous of these was DUDDINGTON MANOR, of 1,000 acres, dating to 1663, which extended along the North side of the Anacostia and inland as far as to embrace the SITE OF THE PRESENT CAPITOL OF THE UNITED STATES. THIS WAS THE SEAT OF DANIEL CARROLL, THE GREAT UNCLE OF CHARLES CARROLL OF CARROLLTON, Signer of the Declaration of Independence.

A Literary Find in the Letters of Robert Southey: Michael N. Stanton Department of Rare Books, Special Collections and Preservation UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER LIBRARY BULLETIN Volume XXVII · Winter 1973-1974 · Number 2 A Literary Find in the Letters of Robert Southey --MICHAEL N. STANTON Assistant Professor of English, University of Vermont

In 1775, in London, appeared an anonymously published novel entitled The Adventures of Alonso; the title page of the second issue states that it was "written by a gentleman of Warburton County, Maryland."2 The novel relates the love-longings, vicissitudes, and escapades of one Alonso, son of a rich Portuguese merchant, in Portugal, Spain, Brazil, and elsewhere. The identity of that gentleman of Maryland-who was truly no novelist-remained obscure until 1941 and the publication of Robert Elias' article, "The First American Novel,"3 which suggested from internal and circumstantial evidence that the author of Alonso was one Thomas Atwood Digges, a friend of Washington and an active American agent in Europe during the Revolution.4 Yet despite Elias's closely reasoned arguments, the identity of Digges as author of Alonso remained only a likely conjecture.

But help for the puzzle has come unexpectedly, thirty years later, from Southey. For in 1774, his aunt, Elizabeth Tyler, was visiting Lisbon, and as he tells us, while there, she gave more encouragement than was prudent to an American Adventurer, who followed her to England. His name was Digges. If I am not mistaken he wrote a sort of novel called the Adventures of Automathes, in which there is a story of a man endeavoring to smuggle diamonds from the Forbidden District in Brazil, -- & I know that he was a mere adventurer, who afterwards acquired some dishonourable notoriety by his political intrigues during the American war.5

The affair was broken off, Southey remarks later at length, because each party had apparently overestimated the fortune of the other.

Despite Southey's mistaken citation of the title,6 the novel he describes is clearly the novel published as Adventures of Alonso. And Southey's mention of it provides the first and so far the only objective proof of Elias' thesis. I communicated my information to Professor Elias, now at Cornell University; he pointed out its significance as evidence, and we co-authored an article setting forth the facts.7

The picaresque narrative of Alonso can be regarded as the first novel by an American. And thanks to Southey's omnivorous memory, the identity of its author is now virtually established. This serendipitous find among Southey's letters has added one small stone to the edifice of literary history, and we can anticipate that Southey's writings, especially his many unpublished letters, will yet prove a quarry for reconstructing other portions of the neglected fabric of late Georgian literature.

25. William Digges (Charles 15, William 6, Edward 2, Sir Dudley 1) was born in 1713 and died in 1783, at age 70. William married (name unknown). Children from this marriage were: + 29 M i. George Digges was born circa 1742 in Prince George's County, Maryland and died in 1792 in Prince George's County, Maryland, at age 50. George married Catherine BRENT. + 30 M ii. Charles Digges was born in 1740 in Prince George's County, Maryland and died in 1769 in Dumfries, Virginia, at age 29. + 31 M iii. Francis Digges . He never married. + 32 M iv. Thomas Atwood Digges was born circa 1741 and died in 1821 in Washigton, D.C., at age 80. + 33 M v. Henry Digges . He never married. + 34 M vi. Joseph Digges died circa 1776 in Teneri, Canary Islands. + 35 F vii. Teresa Digges . Teresa married Ralph FOSTER. + 36 F viii. Ann Digges was born in 1750 and died in 1804, at age 54. She never married. + 37 F ix. Susannah Digges was born in 1748. + 38 F x. Mary Digges was born in 1751 and died circa 1761, at age 10. + 39 F xi. Elizabeth Digges was born in 1753 and died in 1843, at age 90. Elizabeth married Daniell CARROLL. + 40 F xii. Jane Digges was born in 1755 and died in 1825, at age 70. Jane married Col. John FITZGERALD in June 1799.

Thomas Attwood (ca 1741-1821), a scholar and diplomat who was sent to Europe to be educated, spent much of his youth in London, England, became a confidential representative to the Court of St James, and died in Washington, D.C.;

Vincent Carretta University of Maryland A New Letter by Gustavus Vassa/Olaudah Equiano? In March 2003, Michael D. Benjamin, a scholar-collector of early writings by people of African descent, brought to my attention a very intriguing piece of Equiana. Mr. Benjamin had found a letter signed Gustavus Vassa (Olaudah Equiano, 1745?–1797) addressed to Thomas Digges written in a copy of the rare 1794 ninth edition of The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Gustavus Vassa, or Olaudah Equiano, the African. Written by Himself, first published in London in 1789. The letter is reproduced here courtesy of the Library Division of the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University. Having noticed that the letter mentions a Mrs. Vassa after the February 1796 date of Susanna Vassa’s death given in the Penguin edition of Vassa/Equiano’s writings, Mr. Benjamin asked me what I made of the letter. What follows is my attempt at an answer. Thomas Attwood Digges (1742–1821) was born a Roman Catholic gentleman in Warburton, Maryland. Disowned by his family for reasons unknown, in 1767 he left America for continental Europe. He probably lived in Lisbon, Portugal, until the mid-1770s, when he moved to London.There, in 1775, he published anonymously his novel Adventures of Alonso, which is set in Portugal and is considered by some the first novel by an American. During the American Revolution Digges, under a number of aliases, acted as an agent for the Americans, supplying London...

Digges, Thomas Attwood (1742–1821) revolutionary and spy, born in Warburton, Maryland. Digges spent much of his life abroad, passing on from London to American leaders political gossip, lists of American prisoners of war, and reports on activities in Parliament. He smuggled war supplies to America via Spain, and after the war smuggled artisans and machinery from Britain to America.

Digges was disowned by his family, imprisoned for debt in Dublin, arrested for shoplifting in Scotland, and active in Irish nationalist struggles, yet a personal friend of George Washington —one of the few invited to his funeral. Also a writer, his Adventures of Alonso (1775) is sometimes described as the first novel by an American.

The Mysterious Mr. Digges Lynn Hudson Parsons

Thomas Attwood Digges of Warburton, Maryland was portrayed in a recent article in the William and Mary Quarterly as an AGENT IN THE "TRANSIT OF TECHNOLOGY" from the Old World to the New. About Digges there has always swirled a minor eddy of controversy concerning the EXACT NATURE of his performance as GO BETWEEN IN LONDON DURING THE YEARS OF THE AMERICAN WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE, Digges being accused by BENJAMIN FRANKLIN of DISHONESTY in his dealings regarding American prisoners of war.

He was, however, defended by his friend and neighbor GEORGE WASHINGTON, whose home was situated just across the Potomac from that of DIGGES. After the end of the war Digges went to Ireland where he assisted in the smuggling of the inventor artisan WILLIAM PEARCE out of the country to America , defying British law on the subject of emigration of artisans and exportation of industrial knowledge.

Largely on the basis of Dr Franklin's accusations, certain historians went so far as to accuse Digges of being a DOUBLE AGENT working for the British from 1779 to 1782. Such was his general reputation until 1953, when William Bell Clark pointed out correctly that while Franklin had denounced Digges as a scoundrel he had never directly or indirectly accused him of spying, and that therefore the conclusions of later historians were not justified by anything Franklin had written. Clark's article dealt almost exclusively with Digges career in England during the time of the revolution, explaining that afterwards "there is a long silence from and about Thomas Digges." Pursell's article has since indicated that Digges was by no means quiescent during his subsequent stay in Ireland. Furthermore, certain information drawn from printed sources relating to Irish history makes clear that the SMUGGLING of inventors was not the only activity of Digges. It also suggests that further research might well reopen the case of his LOYALTY.

Thomas Attwood Digges and Adventures of Alonso: Evidence from Robert Southey Robert H Elias and Michael N Stanton Cornell University & University of Vermont

In January, 1941, Robert H Elias, at that time a graduate student at the University of Pennsylvania, argued in the pages of this journal that Thomas Atwood Digges, of Warburton, Maryland, was in all probability the anonymous author of "Adventures of Alonso: Containing some striking anecdotes of the present Prime Minister of Portugal (London: John Bew, 1775) and that the novel was therefore the first known novel of a citizen of the United States. Subsequently, below this disclosure in one copy that has survived, someone wrote in pencil, perhaps for presentation, "By Mr Digges of Warburton in Maryland." Since Thomas Atwood Digges was a native of Maryland and was the only Digges from Warburton who had before 1775 been some years in Lisbon, since there were numerous similarities between events in Digges life and events in the narrative, and since the ascription was written in a hand resembling Digge's own, the argument concluded that he must have been the author.

contributed by Shirley Middleton Moller

PGLR JRM 12.579 This Indenture made the fifteenth day of April in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred and eight between Thomas A Digges of Prince Georges County in the State of Maryland Esquire of the one part and The Honorable Thomas Jefferson President of the United States of America of the other part Witnesseth that the said Thomas A Digges for and in consideration of the Sum of Six thousand dollars current money of the said United States to him in hand paid by the sd Thomas Jefferson at or before the sealing and delivery of these presents the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged hath granted bargained sold aliened released Conveyed and Confirmed and by these presents doth grant bargain Sell alien release Convey and Confirm unto the said Thomas Jefferson and his Successors and Successors in Office All that piece or portion of land situate lying and being in Prince Georges County aforesaid being part of Warburton Manor Beginning for the Same at a large White Oak Standing near the bank of the river Potomack and running thence north thirty Seven degrees fifteen minutes East fourteen perches to a Stake thence South forty four degrees forty five minutes East thirty Six perches and fifty two hundredths of a perch to the North Side of a Locust tree and then Continuing the Same line three perches and twelve hundredths of a perch to a Stake at the end of the Second line then with a line running South fifty three degrees thirty Minutes West eighteen perches and eighty eight hundreds of a perch to a Stake thence with a line North thirty Six degrees forty five Minutes West tow perches and ninety two hundredths of a perch to a locust tree and then Continuing the Same line thirty two perches and thirty Six hundredths to the beginning tree Containing three Acres and One hundred and twenty Seven perches of land together with all waters streams Channels Woods rights members and appurtenances thereto belonging or in any wise appertaining And the reversions and reversions remainder and remainders rents issues and profits thereof To have and to hold the said piece or portion of land hereditaments and premises with the appurtenances unto the said Thomas Jefferson President of the United States his Successor and Successors in Office to the only proper use benefit and behoof of the United States of America forever And the Said Thomas A Digges for himself his heirs executors and administrators doth hereby Covenant and Agree to and with the said Thomas Jefferson his Successor and Successors that he the said Thomas A Digges and his heirs the said piece or portion of ground and premisses hereby Conveyed unto the Said United States against the claim or claims of all and every person or persons whatsoever shall and Will Warrant and forever defend by these presents And this Indenture further Witnesseth that he the said Thomas A Digges for the Consideration aforesaid doth grant unto the said Thomas Jefferson his Successor and Successors for the use of the said United States forever full and free access to and from the said piece or portion of ground so as aforesaid Conveyed as well from the River Potomak near the old wharf as from the Main road along the road now or hereafter to be used to the Fishing landing without any interruption whatsoever But that the said United States do not in any wise incrouch or infringe upon the said Thomas A Digges fishing Stations as now used or upon the banks or Soil without the limits of the boundary aforesaid but that in all respects as little injury shall be done thereto respectively as the nature of things will admit In Witnesseth whereof he the said Thomas A Digges doth hereunto Subscribe his hand and affix his Seal the day and year first above written Signed Sealed & delivered in the Presence of Thomas A Digges seal Thomas Herty John Gardiner

On the back of which Deed was thus endorsed to wit State of Maryland Prince Georges County to wit Be it remembered that on the fifteenth day of April One thousand eight hundred and eight before the Subscriber Chief Judge of the first Judicial District personally appearedThomas A Digges party to the within Indenture and acknowledged theSame to be his Act and deed according to the true intent and meaning thereof Taken before & Certified by me John Mackall Gantt Enrolled April 30th 1808


The American Historical Review Vol. 16, No. 2, Jan., 1911 Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Historical Association

2. A Projected Settlement of English-speaking Catholics from Maryland in Spanish Louisiana, I767, I768.

THE three documents printed below' form part of a correspondence relating to a proposed settlement in Spanish Louisiana by Maryland Catholics. Research in the Archivo de Indias bas failed to I It does not appear to whom this letter was written. Its significance lies in its reference to the postponement due to the feeling of the ministry. For Lord Hillsborough's attitude, see the report of the Board of Trade in N. Y. Col. Docs., VII. I9. 1 All copied from originals in the Archivo General de Indias, Seville, Audi- encia de Santo Domingo: Luisiana y Florida, Correspondencia Oficial con los Gobernadores, afios 1751 a I768, estante 86, caj6n 6, legajo 6. The copies form part of a collection made for Mr. Louis Houck, of Cape Girardeau, Missouri, -who has allowed use to be made of them here. The two English letters were evidently copied for Ulloa by a copyist unacquainted with English, and hence were poorly done. Mr. Houck's transcripts were carefully re-collated in Seville, thus proving that the original copies were faulty. Some of the most obvious errors have been corrected without comment, while in other cases the editorial bracket has been employed.

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locate the other letters touching this matter (Jerningham's of May 2, I767, and the reply of July 31) that are mentioned in the docu- ments here presented, or to discover any other additional material regarding it. The attempt to found a Catholic colony from Maryland in the midst of the French and Catholic colonists was never carried out. It was no new idea. Already in I752, Charles Carroll had gone to France on a fruitless mission, to petition for a grant of land on the Arkansas River, in order that the oppressed Catholics of Maryland might settle there and have freer scope for the practice of their religion. After I755, some of the Acadians who had been deported from their own country to Maryland found their way to Louisiana, where they were given lands, and where they received a hearty wel- come from the French population. According to the letters pre- sented here, bands of Acadians must have gone to Louisiana in 1766 or 1767. Their reception by the Catholic government may have inspired Jerningham's attempt. At any rate tentative efforts were made for the founding of a settlement by Catholics from Maryland, as outlined partially in Jerningham's two letters and the letter of Governor Antonio de Ulloa, the two former being enclosed by the latter to his home government. But the time had gone by for such a colony. Had Carroll's negotiations in 1752 met with favor in France, doubtless many of the Catholics of Maryland would have sought an asylum under a Catholic government. Double taxes, and the various other oppressions, both economic and religious, and the intolerant spirit of the Protestant government, might easily have driven off some of the best families of the colony, and much wealth. After the treaty of I763, however, conditions had almost insensibly been improving. There was a more tolerant spirit. Catholic worship was more freely permitted. There was less talk of persecution. Consequently, there was not the same reason for migration as before. The very tone of Jerningham's letters is indicative of the fact that the Catholics would migrate only if their conditions were met by the Spanish authorities. This in itself points to a larger tolerance of their worship in Maryland. The same independence would not have been expressed fifteen years earlier. The agitation was no longer principally on religious but on economic grounds. The presence in Louisiana of a body of colonists, although Catholic, from the near-by English colonies, who expressed them- selves so distinctly and independently, would later not have tended to ensure the Spanish authorities, who were so soon to be seized by

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a veritable hysteria against all Americans. It is more than likely that most of those who might have migrated and their descendants would have favored, if they had not joined in, the movement that was inaugurated from above for the opening of the Mississippi; and with effect, for the families who proposed to migrate were for the most part industrious tradesmen and owners of property. The end of Louisiana must have been the same. There might have been a greater English-speaking Catholic body in certain districts. Other- wise, the course of history would have remained unchanged. The economic aspects would continually have assumed greater proportion at the expense of the purely religious, among a people independent by nature and training; and this would in time have dominated and controlled the political. The attempt is more interesting, however, from its mere historic aspect than from the speculative side. It is illustrative of one phase of life in the colonies, Spanish as well as English. It shows also the tendency toward a break-down of the artificial barriers between the Latin anid Anglo-Saxon centres in America. That the attempt failed was perhaps a gain to the American revolution against Eng- land that broke out eight years later. For notices of the Catholics of Maryland during the period from about 1750 to 177I, see the Maryland Gazette; the correspondence of Governor Sharpe (1753-I77I) in volumes VI., IX., and XI. of Archives of Maryland, published by the Maryland Historical Society; and J. G. Shea, The Catholic Church in the United States (New York, I886-i892), volumes I. and II. In the archives of Georgetown University (no. 43, envelope io) is a manuscript volume on the state of the Catholics in Maryland, in which is a petition (April IO, I756) of the Maryland Catholics to the provincial Assembly, praying that no double or increased tax be laid on Catholics. See also the document on page 8I9 of volume XV. of this journal, where mention is made in I784 of the prospect that, independence and tolerance being now assured, Catholics might extensively migrate from Maryland and the neighboring regions to those on the left bank of the Mississippi. Definite notices regarding Henry Jerningham are scant. An old family tree in the possession of Mrs. H. Q. Slye, of Washington, D. C., shows that Henry Jernegan (an old form of the name), M. D., "embarked for Maryland, in America July 22". Inquiries ad- dressed by the managing editor of this journal to Lord Stafford of Costessey Hall, the present head of the Jerningham family, and to Stafford Henry Jerningham, esq., of the same residence, and This

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pursued through the aid of Dr. Marcus W. Jernegan of the Uni- versity of Chicago, elicited some information. Mr. Jerningham writes: "I have . . . carefully waded through six boxes of docu- ments in our Muniment Room here and I regret to say that I cannot come across anything which would throw a light on the matter. I see that this Henry Jerningham was the grandson of Sir Francis Jerningham, third baronet of Costessey. He died in the Province of Maryland on November 20, 1772, leaving two sons and five daughters." A pen-and-ink sketch of his family, sent over from Maryland by him, is preserved at Costessey. Several advertisements inserted in the Maryland Gazette make it evident that Jerningham had a private hospital in connection with his medical practice. The issues of February I0, March 20, and September 26, I77I, con- tain notices in regard to vaccination against smallpox, his prices for that service, and the number treated at his house. His original will is owned by Mrs. Jessie Thomson, of St. Louis, and copies of it are in the possession, of Mrs. H. Q. Slye. It bears date November i9, I772, and was witnessed by Eleanor Lancaster, George Slye, and Ignatus Craycroft. In this document the names of his five daugh- ters are given as Frances Henrietta, Mary, Helloisa, Edwardinna, and Olivia; and those of his sons, Charles and Henry Tobias. A notice in the Maryland Gazette, September 9, 1773, signed by his wife Catherine and his daughter Frances, offers for sale the medical possessions left by Jerningham, various articles of furniture, etc. Jerningham appears to have been a man of considerable wealth and influence in his district. The family connections alluded to in the postscript to the first letter can be readily made out, and the claims made confirmed. One learns from Playfair, British Family Antiquity (London, i8i i), VI. I84, I85, that Sir Francis Jerningham (i65o-I730), third baronet, married Ann Blount, aunt of Mary Blount, duchess of Norfolk; that his second son was Sir George Jerningham, fifth baronet, whose elder son, afterward Sir William, was married in June, I767, to the daughter of Viscount Dillon, while his younger son, Charles, became a general officer in the service of the King of France; that Henry Jerningham, fourth son of Sir Francis, had five sons and three daughters; that the second of these sons, Henry, married and settled in America, had two sons and five daughters, and died in Maryland November 20, I772; that the third son, Charles, became a general officer in the service of the Emperor and died at Vienna in I802 at the age of 8o; that the fifth son, Hugh, was a religious at Douay till I793 when he died at Dover while returning to England

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after the expulsion of the Franciscans from Douay; that the three daughters, Mary, Elizabeth, and Edwardina, were religious in the English Augustinian monastery at Bruges until I794. Thc Jerning- ham and Dillon families, between whom marriage was not uncom- mon, were among the most famous of Catholic families in England and Ireland. MAuch of the correspondence of Frances Dillon (d. I825), wife of Sir William Jerningham, was published in the Jerningham Letters (London, I896), edited by Egerton Castle. An old pamphlet is conserved among the Jerningham papers entitled Particulars illustrative of the Genealogy of Jerningham, or Jernegan, compiled froms. the Antient FamzilAy and other Records. JAMES ALEXANDER ROBERTSON. I. DR. HENRY JERNINGHAM TO DON ANTONIO DE ULLOA.' MARYLAND North America Mouth of Wicomico river ST MARYS COUNTY Novem 28 I767.' Excellent Sir. I have inclosed to your Excellency a faithfull Copy of a letter dated New Orleans July 31, I767. it having no nominal or manual signatur[e] Credit could not be given to it here; besides it hints only at the questions -pointed at. permit me to request an answer more explicit. grant me also the favor of your pardon, if I undertake to acquaint you, that a British subject is free, that he may emigrate Where he pleases, in time of peace, nothing Can Stop him but his Creditors, Should he have any. your Court and governors of his Catholic Majesty, need be under no aprehensions, of Kindling any Jealosy in the Breast of the British Ministry on that account, because a Clearance from the officer of the -port where the adventurers Would ship themselves as migrators is not only a passport and permission, but a positive assent of his Britannic Majesty ratified by his officer affixing his seal to it. the Letter of the 3I July says, lands are granted in property Without fee, or futur[e] taxation. it does not inform What is the lot of individuals, or What people of property, may purchase or What price. Was this certyfied With the other proposed of the 2d May many \Vho are the descendants of pure noble and ancient Blood Would Settle among you. Objection: unless we have his most Catholic Majestys royal assurance of Irish or English priests the Migrants could not comply With the dutys incumbent of a Roman Catholic, nor have any spiritual consolation at the hour of death. this the letter Says his Catholic Majesty shall be incessantly consulted on; all that would enter to plant there familys among you could not have objection to taking the oath of allegiance to his Catholic Majesty, as their intention it Would be to become his subjects; in con- sequence, must conform to all the Laws and customs as every good Citizen Should doe Where he resides. None of the roman Catholics of

Footnotes: 2Antonio de Ulloa, the first Spanish governor of Louisiana, arrived in Louisiana, March 5, 1766, and was expelled from the colony by the French citizens, November i, I768. See an account of his term of government in Gayarre, History of Louisiana, II. The original from which this transcript is made reads incorrectly, " I768 ".

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this province have never betrothed there allegiance. Nor it never has been demanded of them by his Britannic Majesty. the fertility of your Soil and healt[h]iness of the Climate are well Known from history, and converse With those Who have travelled and resided there. We have seen many letters from the Acadians to their Countrymen, pressing them to speed themselves to partake of their gobd fortune in that fruitfull region. as they could not have been a Sufficient time in the Country, to render an account of it, and in general, but illiterate people not great confidence could be reposed in their relations; in many essential par- ticulars they are very much Wanting. first how they are served or the natives in the Country, With priest or Missionars;4 New Orleans, we Know, does not Want them. are the seculars or What religious orders are among you. we Know, since his Catholic Majestys late orders no jesuits reside in his Extensive dominions. your Excellency, May be assured, there are hundreds of roman Catholic familys here, to whom the advantages granted to the Acadiens Who are gone among you Would be a great blessing to them; but men of property and fortunes must Know before they dispose of their estates here on What terms they can acquire an equivalent among you wch is not to be attained to by any other method, we can devise, than by your Excellencys information, so as to leave no further doubts among Us. you can not Expect, on such a treaty, any person to appear authorised With a public Caracther because it relates solely to the roman Catholics, Who Can not represent or serve, in any office under the British government. secondly tho the constitu- tion does not impede his Subjects from migrating to any part of the globe Sound policy dictates to her as to all other nations, to encourage an encrease rather than decrease of their inhabitants. I am your Excellencys most humble and obedient Servant, HENRY JERNINGHAM, m Doctor and Eques Anglicanus. P. S. Your Subscribers father Was first Cousin of the present dutchess of Norfolk the Ist dutchess in Britain. I am related to many of the prime nobility, roman Catholic in England- My Eldest Brother died a Jesuit at Rome. My younger Brother Charles is now Lieutenant Colonel in Regi- men[t] de Stampech Cuirassiers pour le servise de son imp. Re d'hongrie. Hugo still younger a recollect at douay in french flanders. three Sisters ann Elizabeth and Edwardina now living all religious at the augustins' nuns at bruges, in the Austrians netherlands. My uncle Sir george Jerningham Knight and Baronet now Living, was in a public Caracther at the Court of Charles 12. King of Suede. his son lately marryed my lord dillons daughter and his youngest son is a lieutenant Colonel in the service of his C[h]ristian Majesty. I have a wife and seven Children. II. JERNINGHAM TO ULLOA. May it please your Excellency. Sir: If I presume to trouble you since my answer, to your 31 of July dated New Orleans I767, it is to acquaint your Excellency that the 4 That is, by members of any religious order

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bearer James Walker, is sent by his neighbours, to your Excellency to receive your information relating to the subject I have been Writing to you about in my letter of the 2d may 67, and nov. the same year, also in his own name, and that of his neighbours, begs your Excellencys permis- sion to travel in the Country, and assistance of passports necessary there- fore, that he may be able thereby to get information, and intelligence of the soil and Civil government in order at his return to satisfy his friends and neighbours, Who are desirous to settle among you. this same James Walker is a plebeyan and mechanic. his father and mother were Roman Catholics, and dyed in that faith. he was Christened in the same com- munion and has behaved as a good C[h]ristian, and moral man, Witn the Esteem of his neighbours, and those Who are acquainted With him; he possess[es] lands in freehold here, nor has he any other Views or intentions in his Expedition, but to enable himself at his return to render agreeable accounts to his friends, relations, and neighbours, that may encourage them to undertake the same voyage With their familys. he proposes With your Excellencys permission to remain some months, under your governmant, to see the produce of the soil, at the different seasons, the manners and Customs of the people, their Way of living, and how the Laws are executed, Questions every reasonable and think- ing person Will be enquisitive about at his return. I am your Excellencys most obedient and humble servant. HENRY JERNINGHAM. in. D et eques Anglicanus. December 14th I767. III. ULLOA TO THE MARQUIS OF GRIMALDI.' NUEVO ORLEANS ii. de Febrero de I768. Don Antonio de Ulloa. Noticias de los Catholicos de Mariland que quieren venirse a la Colonia. Nuimero 2. Excelentisimo Senior. Mui Seiior mio: Los Catolicos de Marilanda aviendo recivido la respuesta anonima que les hize en 3I de Julio u'ltimo: de que remiti copia a Vuestra Excelencia an buelto 'a escribirme con los Acadianos recien llegados :6 y por las copias de las dos cartas que he recivido de ellos y paso at Vuestra Excelencia se impondra ampliamente en los terminos en que lo hacen: siendo signa[da]s, de que las haga reconocer. Tambien ver'a Vuestra Excelencia que an embiado un sujeto de su confianza, de los mismos que pretenden venir 'a estableserse, para que se imponga en las circunstancias y seguridades que desean tener, como asi 6 Minister of State. 8" Have again written me through the recently arrived Acadians." From January I to May I3, I765, about 650 Acadians arrived at New Orleans and were sent to form the settlements of Attakapas and Opelousas. In February, I766, another band of 2I6 arrived in Louisiana and were authorized to settle along both sides of the Mississippi, from the German Coast as far as Baton Rouge, and even as high as Pointe Coupee. Acadians had, however, been sent to Maryland as early as I755 and I756, and it was through some of these who migrated to Louis- iana that Jerningham entered into communication with Ulloa. See Gayarre, His- tory of Louisiana, II. 122, I32; and J. T. Scharf, History of Maryland (Baltimore, I879), pp. 473-479. See also Professor Alcee Fortier's article on the Acadians of Louisiana in his Louisiana Studies (New Orleans, I894), pp. 148-I97.

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mismo en la disposicion de las Tierras, y proporciones de ellas para venirlas a Poblar, abandonando alla sus poseciones y combeniencias que tienen. Como este asunto toma ya alguna formalidad: y para condesender en el reconocimiento del Pais que ha de hacer el Emisario se necesita alguna seguridad: he tomado Ynformes de los mismos Acadianos: quienes sin descrepancia me confirman quanto dice la carta: esplicando que estas familias catholicas son las que fueron espulsadas de Ynglaterra en los tiempos de los alborotos de aquel Reyno sobre.religion y en los posteri- ores a el: que conserbandose desde entonces en la Catholica en toda pureza, se hallan oprimidos y despreciados por el Dominio de los Protes- tantes: y que informados de lo bien recibido que ha sido los Acadianos, y de estar bien hallados: sean propuesto mudar de domicilio sacrificando por la livertad en el uso de Religion, y estimacion de sus personas, los vienes raises que poseen alli. Con esta seguridad he dispuesto que el Emisario Jacobo Walker pase con los mismos Acadianos hasta San Luis,7 reconociendo las Poblaciones de los venidos en los dos anios pasados, y con particularidad el desaogo y descanso conque se hallan ya los del mes de Julio u'ltimo. He dispuesto tambien que desde San Luis los conduzga una Barca por el Rio Colorado8 5 o 6 jornadas a dentro, hasta el Rio de Canias9 para que vea la extension de tierras con sus buenas proporciones: y bolbiendo a salir al Misisipy, lo lleven por el Estero de Chafalalla10 a los Opelusas, donde vera otra Poblacion bastante pingue de Acadianos, territorios bien extendidos y Prados donde se pierde la vista. Todo ello ba esplicado mas difusamente en las dos Ynstrucciones de que tambien remito copias 'a Vuestra Excelencia. En esta forma serba carta viva este sujeto en quien sus compatriotas han puesto la confianza, y tendre poco que escribir para responderles a la suya remitiendome a los inf6rmes que el les haria. Puede Vuestra Excelencia considerar que por este medio, si les quadra el Pais, b'a de repente a Poblarse la Colonia populosamente con una especie de gente enemiga y [ir]reconciliable a la Ynglesa, por el de- sprecio y persecucion en que les han tenido; y que tanto quanto el Rey adquiera Vasallos se disminuie los de la Ynglaterra, persuadiendome a que sera un torrente de Pobladores el que acudir'a aqui en poco tiempo, si empiesan 'a benir dejando tanto bacio como el que aqui Ilenaren, en el Pais que abandonan: pues si Marilanda ofrece muchas mas de miu familias quantas seran las que daran las otras Provincias contiguas, al exemplo de las primeras: De lo que resultar'a de este reconocimiento avisare a Vuestra Excelencia en primera ocasion. Nada ay ya que hacer en esta matheria mas que dejarlas venir, si se determinan 'a ello; pues si sucediere que llegue el sucesor que deseo, y he suplicado a Vuestra Excelencia, quedara impuesto en los parages y This, of course, is the trading post of St. Louis des Illinois, the modern St. Louis, which had been founded only a few years before. 8 The Red River of Louisiana. 'There is a Cane River on some of the old maps of Louisiana, in the old Opelousas district, but it flows southward into the Gulf of Mexico. This is evi- dently the Spanish name of one of the rivers that unites with the Red River at some little distance from the Mississippi-perhaps the Black or Ouachita. 1" The Atchafalaya Bayou, the most northern of the mouths of the Mississippi, which has at times threatened to divert the water from the main part of the river.

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modo como deve colocarlos que sean u'tiles 'a S. M. y al acresentamiento de la Colonia, y en el de manejarse para lo subsesibo sobre el mismo asunto; sin que de ello se siga ninguna mala resulta con la Corte de Ynglaterra: Yo propio dejare escrito antes de ausentarme 'a aquellos Catholicos; afiansandoles en la confianza que devan tener con el sugeto que governare aqui; y les dare conducto para que me escriban a Espafia en caso de que lo necesiten. Esto digo 'a Vuestra Excelencia para que no tenga desconflanza de que se malogre lo adelantado estribando solo en que se sigan las sendas que quedan ya trilladas. Ofresco mi obediencia [a'] las ordenes de Vuestra Excelencia con la mas rendida voluntad y ruego a Dios le guarde la vida muchos anios que deseo. NUEBO ORLEANS y Febrero II de 1768. Excelentisimo Sefior, Beso la Mano de Vuestra Excelencia su mas seguro y fido servidor, D. ANTONIO DE ULLOA (rubric). [Addressed: " Excelentisimo Sefior Marques de Grimaldi "1.]


It is well known that George Washington owned many 1000's of acres of land in Pennsylvania. One particular county of interest is Fayette County in the township of Perry. This township history is quite interesting and will show how the practices of GW connives purchases of more land than was allowed by the law. His own letter incriminates him of this very deed and left the historians in Fayette County scratching their heads as to how he ended up with all of this property when there wasn't a trace of documents in Pennsylvania to show these transfers from the original warrants, but in fact the land on 28 Feb, 1782 (13 years) was patented in his name. In order to understand how property transactions take place, you must realize one is not mandatory to record real estate transactions. You can transfer property without ever recording and it is still a legal and binding document. The purchase of land can be done through a "straw man" who takes up the property then can quit claim it to another person and nobody is any the wiser. These kind of transactions go on all the time and a way to hide assets, plus at that time avoid paying the King's charges for recording which was called the "Stamp Act" which was the so-called reason for the revolution, when in fact it had to do with the King issuing a proclamation in 1763 forbidding any settlements west of the Allegheny Mountains. More about that later.

In 1788, Colonel Israel Shreve left New Jersey with a party of about 30 people and went to Pennsylvania and kept a diary of the trip. Israel served with George Washington during the revolution and subsequently rented and bought some land GW owned there. Israel's son, John, also served in the 2nd Regiment New Jersey, which was against their religion because they were Quakers. Israel and John were both in the campaign to Canada and along Lake Erie, and as will be explained later, many other battles. In 1853, John Shreve, wrote an account of his experiences during the revolution and he was a witness to the escape of Benedict Arnold. His narrative survived long enough to get published in our family history in 1901 by L. P. Allen. He gives a very interesting summation about his thoughts and interesting encounter 22 years after the war about the escape of Arnold. He and his father were also witnesses to the hanging of John Andre aka John Anderson, the British spy. Another son of the Colonel was Henry Miller Shreve, who delivered troops to Andrew Jackson for the battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 on his boat, was instrumental in getting the monopoly for shipping on the Mississippi River away from the eastern establishment. He also would dreg the Red River.

It is quite ironic that Col. Shreve and GW died the exact same day in 1799. Shreve had gotten into some financial difficulty and hadn't kept up his payments to GW and GW subsequently threatened to evict him and his family in a very harsh letter and then relented because of their friendship. Prior to GW death he never conveyed the land to Shreve and a subsequent battle took place between the Shreve heirs and GW's executors. Finally in 1802 a compromise was reached and the land was deeded to the Shreve heirs.

After the children received the land they started selling it off and the purchasers ended up establishing a village called Perryopolis. My 5th great grandfather, Samuel Shreve, was one of the proprietors who established this village. The Fayette county historians have given credit of this Samuel Shreve as the son of Israel, but he was not. He was Israel's 1st cousin 1x removed. They also have confused my Samuel with Israel's younger brother, Samuel, as serving during the revolution. However that Samuel went to Virginia and did serve during the revolution, but my Samuel did not. It has also been proven that Israel never had a son Samuel. Since my Samuel Shreve was a Quaker I have been able to track him from monthly meetings. He was in the Monongahela area and Fairfax MM Virginia in the Quaker records before he made his trek to Pennsylvania. So I want to set the record straight as to the mix up.

The interesting thing about Perryopolis is that GW was planning on using it as the nation's capitol and had laid out a drawing for it. When it was actually laid out they used the same drawing to establish the village. Like Washington, D. C. Perryopolis was laid out with great astronomical precision. The charter and map can be viewed at this link. The Isaac Sparks who witnessed the signatures on the charter is the son in law of Samuel Shreve, who had married his daughter, Elizabeth Shreve. This link for GW gives more background on his 1000's of acres of land he owned and how he dealt with what he felt were "squatters" on his supposed land. This is just a sample of his greed. Other letters of GW I have found relate what he actually thinks about people he deems lower than himself in society and how poor people have no idea how to manage anything. For supposedly being such a great Christian man and leader he reveals his true identity in how he felt about the very people who won the war for him. It sure wasn't him alone, for I guess he forgot about all the "squatters" that fought for the independence of this country so he could be in control of how the land was bought and sold.

This letter in GW's own hand tells to some extend a portion of his Ohio and Pennsylvania holdings and the tidy sum he expects to receive: Washington, George, 1732-1799. The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library *To JAMES ROSS Mount Vernon, January 22, 1798.

Dear Sir: Your favour of the 12th Instr. has been duly received; and an Order from the Treasury of the United States and the Collector of the Port of Alexandria for $1,961.30 has also been received; a receipt for which (for your satisfaction, or that of Colo. Shreve) is herein enclosed; with my acknowledgements, and thanks for your kindness in negociating this business for me. The delay, occasioned by the indisposition of Mrs. Ross, has been attended with no inconvenience to me; and on her happy recovery from it, I congratulate you, and her, sincerely. Colo. Shreve's Bond being in your possession, it is not in my power to endorse the above payment of $1961.30 thereon: but Colo. Ritchie's, which I herewith enclose for the purpose of depositing the same in the Bank of Pennsylvania, (that the Instalments may be collected agreeably to the tenor thereof) has the payment which was made inserted on the back. By placing both Bonds in that Bank, and transmitting me its statement, you will add to the obligations you have already confered on me in this business. Having made an important contract (if the person with whom it is made can fulfil his part) for all the lands I hold On the Great Kanhawa; which are more than half I possess on the Western Waters; I have become less inclined than before, to lay the residue off into lots for the purpose of retailing them; conceiving, however advantageous it might prove in the end, my immediate purposes would not be answered thereby: while expence, trouble, and probable imposition unless a person of known integrity as well as activity could be engaged as an Agent, would be the inevitable result. Could I dispose of the three tracts which I hold on the River Ohio (between the mouths of the little and Great Kanhawa, on the terms my lands on the latter are Let. and my other lands in the Northwestern territory, composed, on each side of the River, of three tracts, containing aggregately 9,157 Acres on the Ohio (exclusive of what is called the round bottom, of 587 acres) and 3,051 acres on the little Miami, not more than ten or a dozen miles from Cincinnati. I say, if I could get these lands off my hands on similar terms with those of the Kanhawa, my views would be completely answered. These, I shall take the liberty of mentioning to you (as it would seem you are frequently troubled with enquiries relative to my Western Lands) although I do not expect a like offer will be suggested to you in my behalf. The four tracts of Land which I held on the Great Kanhawa, amount to 23,216 Acres: these I have leased for 30 years, at the expiration of which, by doubling the Rents, thence forward, they are engaged for 99 years more; for the first yr. (1798) the Rent is to be $5,000; for the 2d. $8,000 and thence to the completion of the 30 years, the Rent is to be equal to the interest of eight dollars an Acre, upon the aggregate quantity of 23,216 Acres; with the priviledge at the end of Six years from the commencement of the Lease (the 1st of the present month) to purchase the fee simple at the price of two hundred thousand dollars; paid in four years, $50,000 annually. The Rents for the first six years are secured (besides the usual mode of Distress and recovery) by a Deed of trust, for a considerable landed property; to be sold for ready money if I should be inclined to resort to it for payment thereof; and the writings are so well drawn, I believe, as to save me against every contingent that can happen, except tying my hands against any other disposition of the lands untill the inability of the Lessee to perform the Covenants of the Lease, are clearly ascertained. The person with whom this agreement is entered into, lives in the county adjoining the Land, is perfectly well acquainted with all the land; and seems to be morally certain of stocking it with tenants (which he is authorised to do) immediately. That he is a Speculator; I need not add; but he must be a fool as well as a Speculator, if he does not see his way tolerably clear to fulfil the bargain on his part. His mind (he acknowledges) is made up for loss in the outset, but he looks forward to ample compensation in the result. His grand object is apparent to me, without any confession thereof on his part; Knowing the quality, situation, and value of the Land; he wanted, but for lack of means, was unable to become, at this time, the purchaser in fee; and therefore he agreed to pay a Rent equivalent to the interest of what would have been the purchase money, had he taken the whole quantity, viz, eight dollars pt. acre. His interest (and all his exertions now) coincide with mine to plant the land with settlers; which, admitting he should be unable to comply with the contract in all its parts, will render the property more valuable on account of the improvements, to me. I should not, my good Sir, have given you the trouble of all this detail respecting my concerns, at a time when I know your head and hands must be engaged in National matters of the utmost importance to our country, but from a consideration, if further enquiries should be made of you, of my intentions respecting the lands On the Ohio, between the Kanhawas, and of those No. Wt. of that River, that you may be enabled to say what I have done and am willing to do. For the round bottom alone an offer of eight dollars an Acre has been refused already. The quantity in this Survey, is less than in either of the others on that River, or on the Miami; but whether the quality of it is much, if any better, I am not sufficiently acquainted with them to pronounce. If Mrs. Ross is with you in Philadelphia, I pray you to present me to her in respectful terms. And at all times be assured of the sincere esteem, and affectionate regard, etc.


George Washington's attorney

James Ross (July 12, 1762 – November 27, 1847) was a lawyer and senator from Pennsylvania from 1794 to 1803. Born near Delta, York County, Pennsylvania, he was the son of Joseph and Jane (Graham) Ross. At eighteen, after having received a classical education, he moved to Canonsburg, Pennsylvania and taught at what would become Washington and Jefferson College. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1784 focusing on land law. A Federalist, he was a member of the convention that drafted a new constitution for Pennsylvania in 1789-1790. President George Washington appointed him to negotiate with the rebels of the Whiskey Rebellion, successfully defusing the situation without violence. On April 1, 1794, the Pennsylvania legislature elected him to the United States Senate. There, he authored a new law for the public lands and fought President Thomas Jefferson's administration. He ran unsuccessfully for Governor of Pennsylvania in 1799, 1802, and 1808. During the late 1810's he is listed as the Pittsburgh City Council President. He died in Allegheny, which is now part of Pittsburgh. Ross Street in Downtown Pittsburgh (bordering the Pittsburgh City-County Building and the Allegheny County Courthouse), the Pittsburgh suburb of Ross Township, and Ross County, Ohio, are named in his honor.


Another huge lot of land:

Washington, George, 1732-1799. The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources

Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library *MEMORANDUM OF LAND EXCHANGE October 11, 1798. Mr. James Welch31 having signified to me, that he has it in his power to dispose of part of a tract of Ninety Nine thousand nine hundred and ninety five acres of land lying on Elk River in the County of Randolph, conveyed to me in Trust, and proposing to subject other Lands of equal or greater value in lieu thereof, in like trust, and estimating further that it will be an accomodation to him and a benefit to me in his payments to make the exchange. 32 [Note:The property to be conveyed to Washington in this exchange could not be found by Eugene E. Prussing as an officially recorded tide. (For a history of this transaction see Prussing's Estate of George Washington, Deceased (Boston: 1927), pp. 119 -- 121.) I do therefore hereby certifie, that upon the ascertainment of this fact, that is, that the Substituted property is of equal value, and free from all disputes and incumbrances, I am willing to receive it in lieu of such part of the aforementioned tract of 99,995 Acres as he shall dispose of, and that I will release my claim accordingly, to the same, upon receiving a proper conveyance of the substituted property.

(MY NOTE: ELK RIVER in Randolph County, West Virginia. The Elk River is a tributary of the Kanawha River, 172 miles long, in central West Virginia in the United States. Via the Kanawha and Ohio rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River.


"The Monongahela of Old; or Historical Sketches of South-Western Pennsylvania to the year 1800

Appendix to Chapter VII - List of Settlers in Fayette and in contiguous parts of Greene, Washington and Westmoreland Counties in 1772 - copied from the official assessment rolls of Bedford County for 1773. In 1772, and until the erection of Westmoreland in 1773, Bedford county embraced all of South-western Pennsylvania. All of what is now Fayette county, east of a straight line from the mouth of Redstone to the mouth of Jacob's creek, composed two townships, Springhill and Tyrone, between which the division line was Redstone creek, from its mouth to where it was crossed by Burd's Road, thence Burd's Road to Gist's, thence Braddock Road to the Great Crossings. That part of Fayette which is west (or north-west) of the line from the mouth of Redstone to the mouth of Jacob's creek, was included in Rostraver township; which then embraced all of the "Forks of Yough" to the junction. All of Greene and of Washington counties, which were then supposed to be within the limits of Pennsylvania, and lying west of Fayette, seem to have been included in Springhill.

Early Settlers, Petition for a New State: Fayette, Washington & Greene Cos, PA PETITION FOR A NEW STATE (List alphabetized from "The Ten Mile Country and Its Pioneer Families"). Fayette, Washington & Greene Co PA and Ohio & Monongalia Co VA (From an original petition for a new state located in the Library of Congress. No date on document. Papers of the Continental Congress No 48, Folios 251-6, pages 89-96). The names in this petition, which is not dated, seem at times to be taken from the militia rolls, and if circulated after 1780 contains names of persons deceased or moved from the district. There is no attempt to conceal the fact that the signatures were written by the prime agitators of the movement as many of those names which appear here could only make their mark. Samuel Shreve



(My note: William Crawford was burned at the stake 11 Jun 1782 in Sandusky, Ohio by the Indians. William Crawford had also been an agent for Lord Calvert of Maryland in trying to extend his boundaries into Philadelphia and Virginia, which became the dispute that created the Mason Dixon line. Captain Wm. Crawford, exercised, to a limited extent, his vocation of surveyor, and made numerous unofficial surveys for George Washington, and for his brothers Samuel and John Augustine Washington. He also made surveys for Lund Washington, and others, even before the lands were bought from the Indians. The object of these surveys was to secure Virginia rights. Capt. Crawford took up, for himself, several valuable tracts in the vicinity of Stewart's Crossing. William's brother, Valentine, took over as GW's agent later (see letter 1774 below.)

Greathouse of Bedford Co. Pa tells about Crawford's surveying.

History of Fayette County, Pennsylvania: with biographical sketches of many of its pioneers and prominent men Author: Ellis, Franklin, 1828-1885, Page 707

Letter from George Washington to Capt William Crawford, of Stewart's Crossing (now New Haven) Mount Vernon, Sept 21, 1767

Dear Sir - From a sudden hint of your brother's (meaning Valentine) I wrote to you a few days ago in a hurry. Having since had more time for reflection, I now write deliberately and with greater precision on the subject of my last letter. I then desire the favor of you (as I understood rights might now be had for the lands which have fallen within the Pennsylvania line see footnote 1) to look me out a tract of about fifteen hundred, two thousand, or more acres somewhere in your neighborhood, meaning only by this that it may be as contiguous to your own settlement as such a body of good land can be found.

Pg 708 It will be easy for you to conceive that ordinary or even middling lands would never answer my purpose or expectation, so far from navigation and under such a load of expenses as these lands are incumbered with. No; a tract to please me must be rich (of which no person can be a better judge than yourself), and, if possible, level. Could such a piece of land be found you would do me a signular favor in falling upon some method of securing it immediately from the attempts of others, as nothing is more certain than that the lands cannot remain long ungranted when once it is known that rights are to be had.

"...It is possible, cut I do not know that it really is the case, that the custom in Pennsylvania will not admit so large a quantity of land as I require to be entered together; if so, this may perhaps be arranged by makking several entries to the same amount, if the expenses of doing it is not too heavy. If the land can only be secured from others it is all I want at present. The surveying I would choose to postpone, at least till the spring, when, if you can give me any satisfactory account of this matter, and of what I am next going to propose, I expect to pay you a visit about the last of April."

Footnote 1: By the Pennsylvania line Washington meant the boundary line between Pennsylvania and Virginia, which at that date was being run beyond the Allegheny Mountains. His understanding as to rights was erroneous, as will hereafter be seen.

Pg 707 NAMES OF ORIGINAL PURCHASERS OF LANDS IN PERRY TOWNSHIP William Athe, 331 acres, Spring Run; warranted April 3, 1769; surveyed Oct 27, 1769 George Washington, 320 acres, MEADOWS; warranted April 3, 1769; surveyed Oct 25, 1769 Thomas Jones, 332 acres, Deer Range; warranted April 2, 1769; surveyed Oct 26, 1769 John Paty, 330 acres, Crab-Tree Run; warranted April 3, 1769; surveyed Oct 27, 1769 John Bishop, 319 acres, Flatt; warranted April 3, 1769; surveyed Oct 28, 1769

The five tracts above were surveyed to the original warrantholders, Oct 26 and 27, 1769, but were all patented to George Washington, Feb 28, 1782.

J Augustine Washington, 3320 acres, Fort; warranted April 3, 1769; surveyed Oct 28 Laurence Washington, 320 acres, Bear Hill; warranted April 3, 1769; surveyed Oct 28


The earliest as well as the most extensive purchaser of lands in what is now Perry township was Gen. (then Col.) George Washington, who received a warrant for lands here on the FIRST DAY OF THE LAND OFFICE OF THE PROPRIETARIES FOR THE SALE OF TRACTS WEST OF THE MOUNTAINS, APRIL 3, 1769. Nearly two years prior to this, however, Washington had begun to entertain the idea of purchasing large tracts in this region, as shown by the tenor of a letter written by him to Capt. William Crawford, of Stewart's Crossings (now New Haven) (then the letter of 1767 above)

Pg 708 No information is found as to the preliminary steps taken by Capt. Crawford to select and secure these lands on behalf of Washington, but it is certain that on the opening of the land-office at the time above mentioined warrants were issued for lands in present township of Perry, amounting to more than sixteen hundred acres, all of which came in the possession of the general. The only tract in this township warranted to George Washington was ONE named "MEADOWS." The warrant bore date April 3, 1769, and the survey Oct 27th of the same year. (then names all the same warrants) The surveys, made with large allowance, .....(renames them again). There is nothing found tending to show that either John A Washington's "Forks" or Laurence Washington's "Bear Hills" tract ever came into the hands of George Washington; but that he did purchase or otherwise acquire all the other tracts above enumerated, amounting in the aggregate to 1641 acres, and that they were patented to him Feb. 28, 1782, is made certain by a RECITAL TO THAT EFFECT IN DEEDS GIVEN IN THE YEAR 1802 BY HIS EXECUTORS. None of the names of the warrantees of the tracts above named as having been patented to Gen. Washington are found in connection with any later settlement or transfer, and therefore it is probably that they took up the lands in his interst; and it is certain that the warrants taken by them passed to him before the issuance of the patents.

Capt. Crawford, who selected these lands for Washington, acted also as his agent in locating many other tracts in what is now Washington County, Pa., in Ohio, and along the Ohio River Valley in Virginia.

In 1770, the year next following the location and survey of these lands, Washington made a tour through this section, and down the Ohio to the Great Kanawha, and kept a journal of the trip. A part of that journal is given below, commencing on the date of his departure from Mount Vernon, viz:

Oct 5th -Began a journey to the Ohio in company with DR CRAIK, his servant and two of mine..... Oct 12th -We left Killman's early in the morning, breakfasted at the Little Meadows, ten miles off, and lodged at the Great Crossing of the Youghiogheny at Somfield, twenty miles farther Oct 13th-Set out about sunrise, breakfasted at the Great Meadows, Fayette Co., thirteen miles, and reached Captain Crawford's about five o'clock.....Crawford's is very fine land, lying on the Youghiogheny, at a place commonly called Stewart's Crossing Oct 14th - At Captain Crawford's all day. Went to see a COALMINE not farm from his house on the banks of the river. The coal seemed of the very best kind,....abundance of it Oct 15th - Went to view some land which Captain Crawford located for me near the Youghiogheny, distant about twelve miles. This tract, which contains about one thousand six hundred acres, includes some as fine land as I ever saw, and a great deal of rich meadow; it is well watered and has a valuable millseat, except that the stream is rather too slight, and it is said, not contact more than seven or eight months in the yar; but, on account of the fall and other conveniences, no place can exceed it. In going to this land I passed through two other tracts which Captain Crawford had taken up for my brothers Samuel and John. I intended to have visited the land which Crawford had procured for Lund Washington this day alsi, but time falling short, I was obliged to postpone it. Night came on before I got back to Crawford's, where I found COLONEL STEPHEN.....

Pg 709 On the 20th, Washington, with Dr. Craik, Capt. Crawford, William Harrison, Robert Beall, and others, with some Indians, proceeded down the Ohio in a large canoe

Of all these purchasers of lands in the present township of Perry in the year 1769, none ever became settlers on them. And from that year until 1784 no other purchases of land were made within the present bounds of the township.

Between 1770 and 1774, Valentine Crawford who had settled on Jacob's Creek, succeed his brother, Capt. William Crawford, as Washington's financial agent in this region, Simpson being merely the manager of his farming and other operations on his lands in the present township of Perry. (then he gives extracts of letters to Valentine Crawford) dated April 27, 1774; May 6, 1774; May 13, 1774; May 25, 1774; July 27, 1774; Sept 20, 1776

Pg 710 and 711 From this time until 1785 little is known as to what was done with Washington's mill or on his lands in this vicinity. On the 23d of September in that year he wrote to THOMAS FREEMAN who had succeeded Valentine Crawford as his agent. (he writes a letter to him trying to sell the property). Gen. Washington, however, did not succeed in selling or otherwise disposing of his lands until the fall of 1789, when they were leased for a term of five years to COL. ISRAEL SHREVE, who afterwards became their purchaser. (This is verified by a letter Israel wrote to his brother, Caleb of Mansfield, New Jersey --Forks of Yough, Dec 26, 1789 - In this letter which I won't fully transcribe "It seems as if people were crazy to get afloat on the Ohio. The MISSISSIPPI TRADE IS OPEN AT THIS TIME, and all the wheat, whisky, bacon, etc buying up by those concerned in it.

On the 31 July, 1795, Gen. Washington, by his attorney, JAMES ROSS OF PITTSBURGH, entered into articles of agreement to sell and convey in fee simple to ISRAEL SHREVE, for the consideration of four thousand pounds, sixteen hundred and forty-four and a quarter acres of land with allowance, consistong the the FIVE SURVEYS BEFORE MENTIONED, viz: MEADOWS, DEER RANGE, CRAB-TREE RUN, FLATT, and SPRING RUN, for which patents had been issued Washington Feb. 28, 1782. Gen. Washington died in 1799, never having conveyed the tracts under the articles of agreement to Col Shreve, who also died in the same year. Nearly two years after Gen Washington's death his executors, GEORGE STEPTOE WASHINGTON and SAMUEL LEWIS, constituted James Ross, of Pittsburgh, their lawford attorney, to convey the five tracts in pursuance of the agreement of July, 1795; and accordingly, on the 17th of June, 1802, Ross did so convey the property to the heirs of ISRAEL SHREVE.

Pg 718 In the year 1853, when stone blocks were being contributed from all the States of the Union for the erection of the Washington Monument, at Washington, D. C., a block for that purpose was quarried by Pierson Cope, owner of a part of the Washington Bottoms, from which it was taken. In removal from the quarry to the "Diamond" in Perryopolis was made the occasion of a Fourth of July (1853) celebration.....Sitting on the block, and dressed in "regiments," was an OLD NEGRO called "FUNTY MUNTY," or SIMON WASHINGTON, who had been a slave, and owned by Gen. Washington.


The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuxxx Sources, 1745-1799. John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor.--vol. 03

From George Washington to Valentine Crawford March 30, 1774.

Sir: You are to proceed without loss of time to your own Settlement on Youghiogany, and there if it is not already done provide such, and so much Provision, as you shall think necessary to take down with you to my Lands on the Ohio. You are also to provide Canoes for transporting of these Provisions. The Tools, and the Workmen.

You are to engage Three good hands as labourers to be employd in this business; you are to get them upon the best terms you can; and have them bound in Articles to serve till the first of December, duely and truely; at the expiration of which term they shall receive their Wages, Provisions and Tools will be found them, but nothing else.

You are also to engage a good Hunter upon the best terms you can, for the purpose of supplying you with provision's. Let him have the Skins, as I suppose he will engage the cheaper for it. Engage him either altogether for Hunting, or to hunt and Work as occasion requires, that there may be no dispute about it afterwards; so in like manner let every Man else know what it is he has to trust to that no disputes may arise there after. And the best way to prevent this is to let all your hirelings know that they are not to consider this, or that thing as their particular business; but to turn their hands to every thing, as the nature of the business shall require.

As Much depends upon your getting to the Land early, in order that as much ground may be clear'd, and put into Corn as possible before the Season is too far advanced, I do most earnestly request you to delay no time in prosecuting your Trip down. And, that as much Ground as possible may be got in order for Corn, and planted therewith, I would have you delay building and Tenting till the Season is too late for Planting, and employ your whole force in clearing.

Begin this operation at, and on the upper Tract and clear five Acre fields in handsome squares upon every other Lott along the River Bank (leaving the Trees next the River standing, as a safe guard against Freshes and Ice); these Fields may be so near together as to answer small Tenements of about 100 acres in a Lott in case you cannot get them surveyd; in short allow each Lott a breadth of about One hundred Rod upon the River, running back for quantity agreeably to the Plots given you.

The same sized Lots, that is Lots of the same breadth upon the River, may be laid off upon all the other Tracts, and five Acre fields cleard upon every other one as above but after the Season has got too late for Planting Corn, then, at each of these Fields, Build a House Sixteen feet by 18, with an outside Chimney, the lower part to be of Logs (with diamond Corners) and to be coverd with three feet Shingles; Also Inclose and fence your Corn at this time, or before, if necessary.

You may then, that is, after building Houses to the Fields already Cleared, and fencing them in, carry your clearing, building, and fencing, regularly on together, in the manner above described.

After the time for Planting Corn is Over; in any of the Bot toms you may be at Work in, if there should be any grassy Ponds, or places easily improvd, and draind for Meadow; It may be done, and Inclosed, instead of preparing Land for Corn.

Endeavour to get some rare-ripe Corn to carry with you for your last Planting, and replanting. The Corn which you do Plant must be Cultivated; in any manner which may appear most advisable to you for my Interest.

If you can get, or I should send out, Peach Stones, have them cracked, and the Kernels Planted, as soon as you get to the first Land, and properly Inclose them.

It will be essentially necessary to have all the Work done upon any one Tract, appraisd before you move to the next Tract if it be possible to have it done, such work I mean, as can be injured by Fire or other Accidents; otherwise I may labour in vain, as I shall have no allowance made for any thing that is not valued. In these appraisements you must let nothing go unnoticed, as it is necessary that every thing should be brought into Acct. that will enhance the price of it.

You should take care to have a Pair of hand Millstones with you, as also a Grindstone, for the benefit of your Tools with proper Pecks.

Keep a regular Acct. of your Tools, and call them over frequently, to see that none are missing; make every Man an swerable for such as is put into his care. Keep a regular Acct. also, of the days lost by sickness; for I expect none will be lost by any other mean's; that an allowance may be made for it at Settlement. And keep a regular, and clear acct. of all expences, with proper Vouchers, that matters may be settled without any difficulty at the end of the Service.

As I could wish to have my Lands Rented, if it be possible to do it, you may, if Tenants should offer, engage them upon the Following Terms, to wit, upon a Rent of Three pounds Stir ling (to be discharged in the Currency of the Country at the Exchange prevailing at the time of payment) for each notified which is to be laid of as describd on the Plott Leases to be given for three Lives; four years Rent free where no Improvement is made, and two only where there is a House built, and five acres of Land cleard on the Lott. Or, if it will be a greater inducement to Tenants, I will grant Leases for 21 years upon the above Rent, payable in the above manner; which Leases shall be Renewable for ever, upon paying at the end of the first 21 years, Twenty shillings pt. ann.: additional Rent for the next Seven years; and in like manner the Increasd Rent of 20/ Sterlg. pr. Ann for every Seven year's afterwards. But it is to be noted that I will not give Leases for Lives, and Leases for the above Term (renewable) in the same Tract of Land; as it might not be so convenient to have Leases of different Tenures mixd.

As I have pointed out the distance along the Water, for the breadth of each Lott (in measuring of which go strait), and as the course and distance from the River of each Lott is also particularly set down, you cannot be at a loss if you have com pass and Chain to lay them off and mark them exactly; the back lines of the Lotts may be markd, or not, just as it suits; the dividing Lines must be markd at all events and an Acct. taken of the Corner Trees in order to insert them in the Leases if any should be given. At the Corner of each Lott, upon the River, blaze a Tree; and with a knife or Chissel, number them in the following manner, viz, at the upper Corner of the first Lott, make the figure 1, at the Corner which divides Lotts No. one and two, make these figures 1/2 at the Corner which divides Lotts No. Two and three make the figures ⅔ and so on with every Lott, by which means the Lotts can always be distinguished the moment they are lookd at, and no mistake can happen.

Build a House, and clear and fence five Acres of Land upon every other Lott, in the manner describd upon the Plat, by which means should any one Person Incline to take two Lotts they may be added together conveniently, and the Improvements will be convenient to both.

I have now mention'd every thing by way of Instruction to you that I can at present recollect; let me conclude then with observing, that this business must even under the greatest good management and Industry be attended with great expence, as it will be with equal Injustice, if it is neglected; to this I am to add, that, as you are now receiving my Money, your time is not your own; and that every day or hour misapplied, is a loss to me; do not therefore under a belief that, as a friendship has long subsisted between us, many things may be overlookd in you that would not in another, devote any part of your time to other business; or to amusements; for be assurd, that, in respect to our agreement, I shall consider you in no other light than as a Man who has engagd his time and Service to conduct and man age my Interest on the Ohio to the best advantage, and shall seek redress if you do not, just as soon from you as an entire stranger.

I wish you health and success, and am &ca.

Note As these Instructions were begun sometime ago, and at a time when I had little doubt of havg. my People movd over the Mountains before the first of April; as also at a time when I had a scheme under contemplation of Importing Palatines, in order to settle on these Lands, which scheme I have now laid aside; those clauses which relate to the turning your whole force towards preparing Land for Corn, may be entirely, or in part, laid aside as Circumstances may direct, and, if there should be any inconsistentcy between the first and latter clauses pursue the directions of the last mentioned.

If you should not receive an Order of Court (from Bote tourt) for valuing the Work done on my first Tract, before you move to the Second, have the Work done thereon, appraisd in the best manner you can by Steven's &ca. and an acct. thereof Sign'd by them, in such a manner as they would swear to, if calld upon.

If it should happen, that you are obligd to wait in your own Neighbourhood for Vessels, Provisions, or on any other acct. let all the People wch you carry out be employd towards forwarding my Mill Work at Gilb'ts Simpson's.


George Washington's Will

The Will of George Washington

Item To the Earl of Buchan I recommit "the box made of the Oak that sheltered the Great Sir William Wallace after the battle of Falkirk" presented to me by his Lordship, in terms too flattering for me to repeat, with a request "to pass it, on the event of my decease, to the man in my country, who should appear to merit it best, upon the same conditions that have induced him to send it to me." Whether easy, or not, to select the man who might comport with his Lordships opinion in this respect, is not for me to say; but conceiving that no disposition of this valuable curiosity can be more eligable than the re-commitment of it to his own Cabinet, agreeably to the original design of the Goldsmiths Company of Edenburgh, who presented it to him, and at his request, consented that is should be transferred to me; I do give & bequeath the same to his Lordship, and in case of his decease, to his heir with my grateful thanks for the distinguished honour of presenting it to me; and more especially for the favourable sentiments with which he accompanied it. [16] Note: Known Catholic ties to the Stewart King's of Scotland (Also see David Steuart Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan

In the inventory George wrote at Mount Vernon on the 9th July 1799 of his land holdings in Pennsylvania that he was to include in his will, he makes no mention of the other 4 tracts of lands in Pennsylvania that he had acquired. The only mention is the 234 acre tract "Great Meadows". Now I wonder why he didn't mention the rest???? It certainly was eventually settled by his attorney James Ross to the Shreve heirs. No wonder the historians in Pennsylvania were scratching their heads. Why would someone "so honest" leave a significant amount of land intentionally out of his inventory?

His land inventory

Pennsylvania Great Meadows 234 [acres] [$]6 [$]1,404 (n) (n) This land is valuable on account of its local situation, and other properties. It affords an exceeding good stand on Braddocks road from Fort Cumberland to Pittsburgh--and besides a fertile soil, possesses a large quantity of natural Meadow, fit for the scythe. It is distinguished by the appellation of the Great Meadows--where the first action with the French in the year 1754 was fought.[13]

13. On Washington's instructions William Crawford bought in December 1770 from Lawrence Harrison for thirty guineas a tract of land of 234-1/2 acres at Great Meadows in Pennsylvania. Harrison's son-in-law William Brooks in October 1771 confirmed the sale to Washington of "a Sartain Tract or Parsel of Land Lying and being in Bedford County in Pensilvania on Bradock's road and Known by the name of they great Medows whare Colo. Washington had a batle with the frinch and Indians in they year one thousand seven Hundred and fifty four." See William Crawford to GW, 15 April 1771, nn.2 and 3 (Papers, Colonial Series, 8:445-46). It was Washington's surrender of Fort Necessity at Great Meadows to the French on 3 July 1754 that first made the name of the 22-year-old officer known outside Virginia. After the Revolution, discovering that his Great Meadows tract was unoccupied, Washington in July 1784 advertised it for lease. See GW to John Lewis, 14 Feb. 1784, and GW to Thomas Richardson, 5 July 1784 (Papers, Confederation Series, 1:123-24, 485-86). The tract of unimproved meadow land had a house on it in the 1780s, and Washington thought its location made it a good site for an inn. He succeeded in renting it only briefly in the 1780s, however, and his attempt to sell it in 1794 came to nothing. See Thomas Freeman to GW, 9 July 1785, n.3 (ibid., 3:43-47); see also Land Memorandum, 25 May 1794, and GW to Presley Neville, 16 June 1794 (Fitzpatrick, Works of Washington, 33:376-80, 405-9).


Now let's turn our attention to Philadelphia and the brutal hangings of two wealthy Quakers, Abraham Carlisle and John Roberts. The The Lower Merion Historical Society website gives a full account of John Roberts and his family and events leading up to his "trial for treason" and subsequent execution by hanging. It is stated here that "Lingering Questions. It is said that Roberts’ hanging was "political murder"...he was made an example to discourage loyalists. Certainly he was put to death on slight charges. Interestingly, pertinent documents, including Justice McKean’s notes of the trial, were soon "missing." All of Roberts’ estate was confiscated except those items his widow could prove were in her dowry. Its dispersal suggests ulterior motives, too. Four days after purchasing the property, Edward Milner quietly sold it to John Nesbitt and his two partners. Well-known to Justice McKean, the three were advocates of the Revolution. Roberts’ estate would seem a coveted "reward."

Sheila Jones "The Other Side of the American Revolution: A Look at the Treatment of Philadelphia Quakers during the Revolutionary War" paints a vivid picture of what the revolutionaries were doing in the name of liberties and how they dealt with the wealthy Quaker population. You need to read the entire presentation that she makes, but she states "In ad­dition, Philadelphia’s Revolutionaries also acted outside of existing laws, or reinterpreted them in order to punish the disaffected on their own. In, “Controlling the Opposition in Pennsylvania During the American Revolu­tion,” historian Anne M. Ousterhout describes how citizens took the law into their own hands, punishing disaffected persons and judging them in their own “spontaneous courts.”51 She also notes that Quakers were the “most severe sufferers” of this treatment.52"

"In his study of colonial Quaker merchants, Meeting House and Counting House, Frederick B. Tolles notes, “by mid-century the largest proportion of Philadelphia’s wealth as well as social prestige and political power was concentrated in the hands of the Quaker merchants.”54 Follow­ing this description, it is not surprising that a handful of Quaker merchants were among the group later banished to Virginia. Those merchants in­cluded Henry Drinker, Thomas Fisher, Abel James, James Pemberton, and Thomas Gilpin.55" "By exiling the merchant elite, the radical government temporarily re­moved what it perceived to be its greatest political threat, also hinting that a new class had become more prominent. Historian Gary B. Nash suggests that the middle- to lower-class artisans were essential to the radical gov­ernment and comprised the group that rose in significance as the Quaker merchant grip on politics and society loosened when Friends bowed out of public office because of the war.56 Nash also notes that while the religious beliefs of Philadelphia citizens did affect government decisions, “it could be said that class identity rather than religious affiliation . . . was the determin­ing factor in how men made political choices.”57"

"Wayne Bockelman and Owen Ireland’s study of the ethnic and reli­gious framework of Philadelphia adds to this class analysis in further high­lighting a shift in Philadelphia’s hierarchy. They note that Quakers were the largest bloc in the Pennsylvania Assembly in the seventeen years before the Revolution and that “an almost complete reversal of power” occurred by 1777; while Quakers and Anglicans controlled 63% of the seats in the Assembly before the break from England, 15 months after the Declaration of Independence, over 90% of the seats were controlled by Presbyterians, Reformed, and Lutherans.60 The importance of Bockelman and Ireland’s assessment is that it shows the marginalization of Quakers in the political structure and the transformation of other, formerly non-prominent groups into positions of power."

Peter Messer’s analysis of the treason trials of Abraham Carlisle and John Roberts also points to the political turmoil of Revolutionary Phila­delphia. He argues that the execution of the two Quakers served the pur­pose of consolidating radical power. In addition, he implies that the men were hanged in order to display radical authority and show the citizens of Philadelphia the consequences of betraying the Patriot cause. Messer notes that many Patriots expressed support for sparing the lives of the two men, which caused the most radical Patriots to fear that their cause was being dismantled. The radicals reasoned that a show of force against the disaffected was the best way to keep the Patriot cause from unraveling.61"

"The 1776 Constitution of Pennsylvania states, “it is our indispens­able duty to establish such original principles of government, as will best promote the general happiness of the people of this State, and their poster­ity, and provide for future improvements, without partiality for, or prejudice against any particular class, sect, or denomination of men whatever.”64 On the surface, the words written by the Revolutionary government offer the appearance of a state constitution that considers all people equal and pro­vides its citizens with protection accordingly. Yet, the experiences of the Philadelphia Quakers suggest otherwise. Under the conditions of political uncertainty and war, the Friends chose to proclaim publicly their allegiance to God, not any man or government. As a result, they were targeted as traitors by the radical government. With the label “enemy to the state,” they were deprived of the very liberties for which the Patriots were fighting."

These are some pretty profound activities documented by historical facts of how treacherous these men really were and how they would stop at nothing to get what they had set out to achieve. This is only a small tip of the iceberg. In a letter I found at the Filson Society Library in Louisville, Ky, James Wilkinson had received correspondence from Joseph Reed (b 1772 d 1846), the son of Joseph Reed (b 1741-d 1785). Wilkinson writes from "Plantation on the Mississippi" 23 May 1819 and states of Joseph Reed " is my purpose as it is my inclination & duty, to render justice to the Talents, the Patriotism, the public Services & personal virtues of your Father. The execution of the Quakers Roberts & Carlisle, served his enemies as a powerful instrument of persecution. I shall therefore be much obliged to you for all the facts & testimonies, Judicial & Executive, which can throw light on that transaction. I have a lively impression, that the execution of those men was made a test at the strength of the Government, & that Governor Reeds Determination was settled by a daring & unseasonable memorial from certain Characters diasffected to the Revolution." it true that my old Friend TENCH COXE is to succeed Mr. Finley." Tench Coxe was the brother of Daniel William Coxe, partner of Daniel Clark of New Orleans. Tench was the grandson of TENCH FRANCIS and Mary Francis, was his mother. Tench was also the first cousin of Margaret "Peggy" Shippen, wife of Benedict Arnold.

Joseph Reed At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, Reed ran a successful Philadelphia law practice, from which he resigned at the request of George Washington. In 1775, Reed held the rank of colonel and he subsequently served in the capacity of secretary and aide-de-camp to Washington. In 1775, Reed commenced service as Adjutant-General of the Continental Army. In December 1776, General Washington, anxious to know the location of General Charles Lee's forces, opened a letter from Lee to Reed which indicated that they were both questioning Washington's abilities. This was extremely disconcerting to Washington, as Reed was one of his most trusted officers. Reed continued to serve in the army without pay until the close of the war; although, with fewer than 3 years in the Continental Army, Reed is not listed as a Propositi of the Society of the Cincinnati. During his term as president of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, in addition to prosecuting Benedict Arnold, Reed oversaw the abolishment of slavery in Pennsylvania and the awarding of Revolutionary soldiers with lifelong "half-pay".[1]Reed's antipathy to Pennsylvania's Loyalist residents has been well attested by historic sources. Whilst in Congress, he advocated for the seizure of Loyalist properties and treason charges for those aligned with Great Britain (Reed and his family then lived in a confiscated Loyalist home).

Stephen Davidson Executed Loyalists I: Two Quakers gives his scenario of what transpired with Benedict Arnold and attacks by Joseph Reed. "These calmer voices were soon drowned out by the vicious attacks that Joseph Reed made on Arnold, who went so far as to demand that the general be removed from command in Pennsylvania. How might history have been altered if John Roberts and Abraham Carlisle had been given fair trials?" Be sure to read the full article by clicking on the link.

Keeping in mind that the execution of these men of which Joseph Reed was a part and secretary to George Washington there isn't any doubt of the collusion of them to try to use their "fear" tactics didn't accomplish much in the way of subduing the Quakers or the loyalists beliefs.


Long before George Rogers Clark was sent to the Illinois country to invade and gain control of those lands it was settled by garrisons of British troops after the seven years war. In the 1760's merchants from Philadelphia were supplying the British troops and Indians with their supplies and goods they were shipping on the Ohio River from Fort Pitt, which is now Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Among the traders there was a company of Baynton, Wharton & Morgan. This firm made up of John Baynton, Samuel Wharton, and George Morgan eventually went bankrupt. Much is written of this group and were involved with Benjamin Franklin in obtaining a large land grant from the British government. Samuel Wharton's younger brother, Robert Wharton, was the longest serving mayor in Philadelphia. Also, involved in this group was William Murray, a kinsman of John Murray, the Earl of Dunmore (who is the LORD DUNMORE, GOVERNOR OF VIRGINIA, of the DUNMORE WARS fame. Murray eventually bought the goods from the Baynton, Wharton, Morgan group when they went bankrupt. He then bought a piece of land 2 lots in Frankfort, Kentucky on the 6 Jan, 1792 from GENERAL JAMES WILKINSON, which was then in the state of Virginia and shortly thereafter became Kentucky in Woodford County. The deed was witnessed by John Hughes, Richard Thomas, and Gabriel Maupin, a Williamsburg tavernkeeper. A strange old variety of affidavits attached to this deed 24 years later were given in statements attesting to the sale of this property for recording purposes. Michael Rappele, alderman from the City of Philadelphia dated February 23, 1816; Willis A Lee (Willis Atwood Lee) of the State of Kentucky General Court dated May 11, 1816; Robert Wharton elected 15 times as Mayor of Philadelphia dated March 27, 1816. William Murray who purchased this property had then gone to Natchez to be a leading attorney and died there in 1805. There has long been a mystery as to why these odd statements were given after so long a time especially with these people in Philadelphia. Willis Lee's uncle, Hancock Lee (b. 1736) was a surveyor for the Ohio Company in Kentucky. A home called Glen-Willis states: "While doing some surveying for the Ohio Company of Virginia, in 1775 Captain Hancock Lee, together with his brother Willis Lee, George Rogers Clark and some others did a little surveying of their own and set aside a few thousand acres for themselves at the buffalo crossing of the Kentucky River; and established Leestown. It was the first known white settlement in Franklin Country and is the oldest in Kentucky North of the Kentucky River.

George Rogers Clark made his home there and in a letter to his brother he said that “a richer more beautiful country has never been seen in America yet.”

Located on the trail travelled by thousands of buffalo, elk, and deer - the hunters soon followed, it became quite a stopping place for travellers both by land and by river. A main road from Lexington soon ran through it and ran westward to Louisville. It is shown on first maps of Kentucky, made by John Filson in 1784, on which Frankfort does not appear due to the fact that it hadn’t been founded yet."

Franklin County, Kentucky shows us a biography of Captain Hancock Lee in which the town of Leestown was named after them. Of course, they are from the same Lee family of Robert Edward Lee, famous Confederate General.

Wikipedia gives the history of the Ohio Company "In the mid 18th century, many within the British Empire viewed the Ohio River Valley, a region west of the Appalachian Mountains thinly populated by American Indians, as a source of potential wealth. In the 1740s, British and Irish businessmen such as George Croghan and William Trent were moving into the area and competing with French merchants in the lucrative fur trade. Land speculators looked to the Ohio Country as a place where lands might be acquired and then resold to immigrants. Thomas Lee, president of the Virginia Council of State, organized the Ohio Company of Virginia in 1747.

In 1747 a number of influential men organized the Ohio Company of Virginia in order to capitalize on these opportunities. The Ohio Company was composed of Virginians, including Thomas Lee as president, Nathaniel Chapman as treasurer (1709–1760),[1] John Mercer as the company's secretary and general counsel, John's son George Mercer as the company's agent to England, two of George Washington's brothers, Lawrence Washington (who succeeded to the management upon the death of Lee) and Augustine Washington, Jr., as well as Englishmen, including the Duke of Bedford, Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie, and John Hanbury, a wealthy London merchant. A rival group of land speculators from Virginia, the Loyal Company of Virginia, was organized about the same time, and included influential Virginians such as Thomas Walker and Peter Jefferson (father of Thomas Jefferson)."

In 1748, the British Crown approved the Ohio Company's petition for a grant of 200,000 acres (800 km²) near the "forks" of the Ohio River (present Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). In July 1749, the governor and council of Virginia made the grant on the condition that the company would, within seven years, settle 100 families in the area and erect a fort to protect both them and the British claim on the land. A secondary purpose of this settlement was to establish a regular trade with the local Native Americans, necessary in order to maintain friendly relations. The organizers in 1752 signed a treaty of friendship and permission at Logstown with the main tribes in the region.

In 1748-1750 the Ohio Company hired Thomas Cresap who'd opened a trading fort and founded Oldtown, Maryland (now part of Cumberland) on the foot of the eastern climb up the Cumberland Narrows along what was soon to be called the Nemacolin Trail, one of only three mid-mountain-range crossings of the Appalachian Ridge and Valley system outside the Hudson-Great Lakes route, or southern Georgia-Mississippi-Western Tennessee plains route. Cresap (MORE ON HIM LATER AND HIS CONNECTIONS TO GEORGE WASHINGTON AND LORD CALVERT) was given a contract to blaze a mule trail over the mountains to the Monongahela River, and then to start widening this road into a wagon road. In 1750, the Ohio Company hired Christopher Gist, a skillful woodsman and surveyor, to explore the Ohio Valley in order to identify lands for potential settlement. He surveyed by estimating the Kanawhan Region and the Ohio Valley tributaries beginning in 1750, 1751 and 1753. His journals provide valuable insights of the greater Ohio Valley and the Alleghenies. Gist travelled as far west as the Miami Indian village of Pickawillany (near present Piqua, Ohio). Upon the basis of his report, the Ohio Company settled in an area in Western Pennsylvania and present-day West Virginia; Gist and Cresap both receiving sizable settlements on the west side of the mountains. In 1752 the company had a pathway blazed between the small fortified posts at Wills Creek (Cumberland, Maryland), and at Redstone Old Fort (Brownsville, Pennsylvania) overlooking Redstone Creek and the Iroquois' ancient Monongahela River ford, which Cresap and Nemacolin had established in 1750.

The Ohio Valley was also claimed by France, however, as it was nominally part of the vast territory of New France. The French feared the British settlements would cut off the links between Quebec and the Mississippi Valley. To forestall British expansion, in 1753 the French began constructing a series of forts in the Ohio Valley. Robert Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia as well as a shareholder of the Ohio Company, responded by sending a military unit under the command of George Washington to the region, which led to the outbreak of the French and Indian War. The war and its sequel, Pontiac's Rebellion, prevented the Ohio Company from fulfilling its obligation to establish settlements.

Ultimately, the Ohio Company was merged into the Grand Ohio Company, also known as the Walpole Company or the Vandalia Company, an organization in which Benjamin Franklin was interested. In 1772, the Grand Ohio Company received from the British government a grant of a large tract lying along the southern bank of the Ohio as far west as the mouth of the Scioto River. A colony to be called "Vandalia" was planned. However, the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War interrupted colonization and nothing was accomplished. The company, based in London, ceased operations in 1776. An entirely different "Ohio Company" was organized in 1786, composed largely of New England veterans who had certificates for land from Congress for their services during the Revolution

Others, but not limited to, involved in these same lands were John Mercer, Christopher Gist, George Croghan, George Washington.

George Rogers Clark is best known for his celebrated captures of Kaskaskia (NOW RANDOLPH CO. ILLINOIS WHERE MORE OF MY ANCESTORS FROM ABBEVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA SETTLED AROUND 1804/6, IE THOMPSON, MCBRIDE, ANDERSONS) (1778) and Vincennes (1779), which greatly weakened British influence in the Northwest Territory. Because the British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Clark has often been hailed as the "Conqueror of the Old Northwest." Afterwards he led militia in the opening engagements of the Northwest Indian War, but was accused of being drunk on duty. Despite his demand for a formal investigation into the accusations, he was disgraced and forced to resign. He left Kentucky to live on the Indiana frontier. Never fully reimbursed by Virginia for his wartime expenditures, Clark spent the final decades of his life evading creditors, and living in increasing poverty and obscurity. He was involved in two failed conspiracies to open the Spanish-controlled Mississippi River to American traffic. After suffering a stroke and losing his leg, Clark was aided in his final years by family members, including his younger brother William, one of the leaders of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Clark died of a stroke on February 13, 1818. His sister, Frances Eleanor Clark married James O'Fallon, who wrote the letters from Clark's home in Kentucky to the Spanish government in a plot to separate Kentucky and make a separate government.

Letter from Patrick Henry Patrick Henry, Williamsburg, to General Hand, Pittsburgh Williamsburgh Jan 2, 1778 I have to request that you will please to furnish MAJOR G R CLARK with boats sufficient for conveying seven companys of militia on an expedition of great consequence. Besides the immedate advantages arising from the succefs of it the consequential benefits will be many. A good understanding with ORLEANS is adefirable object .... It is needless to inform you how necessary it is that the WHOLE AFFAIR SHOULD BE KEPT IMPENETABLY SECRET P. HENRY

After the revolution, officers were given land grants to this land in what became known as the Illinois Regiment granted to George Rogers Clark. However, at that time they had no right to convey these lands. Here is a survey map and description of land granted to George Rogers Clark in Illinois. These lands eventually became what is now Clark Co. Indiana across the Ohio river from Louisville, Kentucky. This land was for 150,000 acres.

I have a copy of a deed I found at the Filson Society Library in Louisville, Kentucky where PHILIP NOLAN was an agent for John Girault, who went to Natchez and surveyed there. In the Mississippi Archives are the Girault Family papers. John Girault, son of John and Perina Girault, was born in London, England, on February 24, 1755. Settling in the colony of Virginia prior to the Revolutionary War, Girault served under Colonel George Rogers Clark in 1778 and was later promoted to captain in 1781. Girault married Mary Spain, daughter of Helen and Francis Spain of Amelia County, Virginia, on May 1, 1788. The couple later settled in the Natchez District in present-day Adams County, Mississippi, where Girault established himself as a planter. Girault was also serving as secretary to Spanish colonial governor Manuel Luis Gayoso de Lemos y Amorin by July 1799. John and Mary Girault had thirteen children, including Francis Spain (b. October 23, 1790), John Ruffine (b. May 6, 1792), James Augustus (b. August 6, 1793), and Ann Mary (b. October 15, 1797). John Girault died at Bayou St. John, Louisiana, on May 28, 1813.

Francis Spain Girault, eldest son of John and Mary Spain Girault, was born on Retreat Plantation near present-day Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi, on October 23, 1790. A merchant and planter, Girault divided his time between Natchez and New Orleans. He married Jane Kempe, an aunt of future Confederate first lady (WIFE OF JEFFERSON DAVIS) Varina Howell Davis, on March 24, 1818. Francis Spain Girault died on Bellevue Plantation near Natchez in December 1833.

Spanish Colonial Natchez Marker Inscription. Following acquisition of the Natchez District in 1779, the Spanish founded the City of Natchez ca.1790 to serve as the capital. Under Governor Manuel Gayoso, the city was planned and surveyed by John Girault in a typical Spanish grid plan around a central plaza and church with a common, on the bluff of the Mississippi River.

In his youth, John emigrated to the American colonies (N.Y.) and drifted into the Illinois country prior to the American Revolution. At Kaskaskia, he joined the forces of George Rogers Clark early in 1778. He embarked from Ft. Nelson, Louisville, KY, on June 4, 1782, for the Natchez District. Abt. 1786, he settled at Uniontown, MS. Girault info. taken from "A Soldier of the Revolution", John Girault of the Natchez District. MS Genealogy and Local History, V ol. 5, 1976. The Spanish founded the city of Natchez ca 1790 to serve as the capital. Under Gov. Manuel Gayoso, the city was planned and surveyed by John Girault in a typical Spanish grid plan around a central plaza and church with a common on the bluff of the Mississippi River.

17 Mar 1777: John Girault purchased a tract of land from Father Gibault at Cahokia, in the Illinois country, where a large community of French-speaking Americans lived. He had come west in late 1776.

01 Aug 1777: Letter from Thomas Bentley, dated at Missilimackinac, to Daniel Murray at Kaskaskia mentions Girault, then a Notary appointed by Rocheblave, Commandant at Fort Gage (later renamed Fort Clark), as being in Kaskaskia,(10) only a few miles from Cahokia.

04 Jul 1778: Kaskaskia surrendered to George Rogers Clark. Two days later John Girault was installed as his French/English interpreter.(11) Note especially that Girault did not go west with Lewis and Clark as family tradition had it. The confusion may be due to his service with this other noteworthy Clark. Later information makes much of his abilities in English, French and Spanish--of value then in French-speaking Kaskaskia and later in his duties in Natchez. (Some sources say he also knew Creek; I have found no record of that so far but other sources say he had studied Greek as a London schoolboy.)

03 Feb 1779: Girault was mentioned in a letter of this date from William Clark (George Rogers Clark's cousin) as one of the officers going overland with Clark's expedition to capture Hamilton at Vincennes, 180 miles away.(13) This fascinating episode was part of an American effort to shorten the war by attacking the British from the west. Several novels, including Lancaster's The Big Knives,(14) tell the story of that brilliant, but arduous, midwinter campaign.

05 Jun 1779: John Girault commissioned as Virginia's first State Attorney for the Illinois District.

31 Dec 1781: John Gerault, Lt. and Capt., appears on an undated Pay Roll of Officers of Clark's Illinois Regiment. He received £289-6-5 for service from 30 May 1779 to 31 Dec 1781.

04 Jun 1782: John Girault, "Captain in the Illinois Reg. in service of the State of Virginia being about to embark for Natchez" appoints and gives power of attorney to "my trusty and loving friend William Clark, Lt. in the aforesaid" and states: "I have set my hand and seal at Fort Nelson at the Falls of Ohio [now Louisville, KY] 13 April 1782."

Mar 1784: Girault granted a military bounty of 4,000 acres of land for his service with Clark

18 Oct 1785: Letter from John Dodge, Kaskaskia, to William Clark asks, "I hear that you have Mr. Geroults affairs in your hands and as I have considerable demands against him as well as Perroult would take it as a protickler favor if you would let me know whether it will be possible for me to recover anything from them."

08 May 1786: Girault's letter of this date from New Orleans to William Clark(25) asks to have most or all of his 3,000 acres (in tracts of 500 acres) awarded to him for his Revolutionary War service, sold "or exchanged for negroes." He continues, "I have not been able to do anything yet in this country, all I have done is just to have worked myself clear. . ." He further mentions his desire of "setting up at the Natchez" to "get myself fix'd at that place, where I would if (I could) begin a small plantation. . ." He mentions that he is owed "$8,602 paper dollars for recruiting money," a reference to the bounty he earned for having enlisted nineteen men for military service.

1798: Governor Sargent promoted John Girault to Lieut. Colonel and named him Commander of Militia for Pickering (now Jefferson) County.(WINTHROP SARGENT)

02 Nov 1803: Edward Turner, U.S. Land Office Register, wrote to U.S. Senator John C. Breckinridge (KY) in refutation of "some clamors respecting my appointment." In it he referred critically to several Mississippi officials, including John Girault. He wrote: "to identify two of the greatest opponents to my appointment: the one of them is Mr. Dunbar, the other a Colol Girault, both of them are members of our Legislature;--the former, was elected as a federalist, by federalists; the latter as a republican, in a republican county--he having made public declarations that he was a republican, & so deceived many of the people: ... Girault is a European, but an old, and almost constant inhabitant of the European Colonies in America. He was a short time in the army under Genl Clark, at the Illinois, after which he again resided in the Colonies, until the Spanish Treaty of 1795, from which time he has thought proper to live under the American Government. He is what may be called a genteel, sensible, cuning little fellow, upwards of 50 years of age, of not much learning or reading, except that he is acquainted with the Spanish and French languages, with the duties of a Clerk, and in general with the little detail of business. Those who knew him in the Army under Genl Clark, and those who know him now say, that he is not a man of principle ..."

11 Jun 1807: John Girault of the Mississippi Territory, through his attorney in fact Worden Pope, deeded 500 acres in the County of Clark and Indiana Territory to Christopher Buckhanan "for the some of five hundred Dollars specie."


Is it not strange that men who are either accused or deny their involvement with the Burr conspiracy end up in key government positions, who either get off scot free or were ever prosecuted at all?? Denial is the first defense for themselves, but documented extenuating circumstances and their actions speak so much louder than words. If it were you or me, we'd be hung out to dry in the name of treason. And it brings to my mind the question of their integrity so much hailed in our history, and what did they really have in mind? The Filson Club Society in Louisville, Kentucky is so full of documents it's almost hard to fathom going through them. They hold a huge collection of James Wilkinson, who was on the Spanish payroll, yet is kept as a General in our U. S. forces, appointed by GEORGE WASHINGTON. The mystery surrounding his treasonous activities with Burr and so many hailed men like George Rogers Clark, who's brother in law, James O'Fallon, writes letters to the Spanish Government from George Rogers Clark's residence in Kentucky, I have in my possession, trying to make a deal with them to initiate a settlement separate from the U.S stating that GW was quite aware of, and if they didn't take him up on it would take other avenues such as England, brings into question others he was involved with as questionable to say the least. Why would such men of supposed integrity allow themselves to be associated with such men as the likes of James Wilkinson if there wasn't some kind of ulterior motive or planned scheme amongst them? So where is the burden of proof? Many will say you can't prove it, which is true, but how many "suspicious" activies does it take for somebody to finally realize that something is definitely wrong with this picture? Conspiracy "theory" you say, well look at the evidence that does exist.

Like I said before, everywhere I research George Washington's name turns up in some kind of "other than reputable" transactions taking place, or those he has either appointed or are his very close allies. These were the things that got my attention to it in the first place, and as I started digging deeper it just became so massive it was hard to turn my attention away from it. So why is it that the first 4 presidents, George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison chose to look the other way when they ALL knew James Wilkinson was on the Spanish payroll, but continued to appoint him to military positions and he ends up being Governor of Louisiana? Documentation is not lacking as to the knowledge of Wilkinson's behavior and it sure was no secret of his Spanish connections. Then, as now, politicians are famous for issuing appalling statements to one thing or the other, when in fact they're right in the very heart of it all. And if somebody gets in the way they either disappear or commit suicide or are hung out to dry in one form or the other. I can remember when Nixon was exposed and Watergate was discovered and how he lied through his teeth trying to make it look like he never knew anything about it until the evidence showed otherwise. Then there was Clinton and Monica, he lied as well trying to cover that scandal all up. So it's nothing new of what they are capable of doing.

So what is the common denominator to lead me to make such a statement as to the ulterior motives of these men? After I had finally come to a decision as to what they were really up to and the real cause of the revolution, I still didn't have a final link that would verify that George Washington had a true connection to all of this until I found a newspaper article in the Dallas News in 1939. This was the final document I needed that would connect all of these "treasonous activities" back to GW. I don't know if anyone has ever known about this document, but if they did it was suppressed because it would change everything in our history that had so long been told and believed. I still don't know who the person was that owned this document, but I do know who ended up with it. Below I have told about the Potomac Company and what their goals were in linking the waterways to the Mississippi and their grandious plans for obtaining huge land grants for settlement, especially along the Ohio River to the Mississippi. They stood to make huge profits from these ventures they were investing in with all their schemes. However, this one document was a supply request from Philip Nolan and approved by George Washington. I don't know the date of the document yet, but my best guess is in the 1790's because this is the time frame when so many plans were being made for the secret military base in Illinois, the letters to the Spanish government combined with the activities that were going on in Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia, Mississippi, New Orleans and other locations. I think when GW died things were continued by the others who eventually ended up being accused, so there was never any questions that would arise or ever point to GW or his group of cronies, but there is no question in my mind the others knew and is probably the reason Wilkinson got appointed so many times, he knew too much and if they didn't keep him on the payroll he would squeal, plus if he was serving on the Spanish payroll they would always know what the Spaniards were up to, which was key to them getting control of shipping on the Mississippi and all the lands for settlement. Another thing is when Edward Everett Hale who wrote "Man without a Country" the story of Philip Nolan, went to Louisville, Kentucky and met with a grandson of James Wilkinson, he has revealed that the grandson had a trunk of documents and he spent half a day reading through them, he just never told what they contained. He tried to get the archives to buy the documents but they wouldn't. As a result the grandson, Ludovic Bigot, ended up burning those documents because he was so disgusted at what was in them. There is no doubt it was Bigot that he met with as I found documentation at the Filson Library in Louisville, Kentucky when Bigot sold a painting that hangs in the Filson of James Wilkinson and his written statement how he was related to Wilkinson and stated he was his grandson (read it below). I also know that Bigot married in Kentucky and had two children there, his wife dying 1878 and the two children are living with the grandmother in 1880. Hale was pretty evasive about who he met with by name or what was contained in that trunk, but one can only imagine based on what records we do have about Wilkinson and the others. Wilkinson in his own memoirs talks about his connection with Philip Nolan and bits and pieces of what I have found also connects Nolan to the separation from the U. S. and in connection with Spain. So it's my guess that Hale saw documents that linked GW in horror and due to the political connections of his own family, plus the Wilkinson connections in New Orleans he was either warned or decided not to reveal the contents, and Bigot as well. I think Bigot just wanted to live a low key life so no one could really connect him from the shame he felt from it all. Hewitt Clarke has the information and we are currently trying to track down this document that ended up in Texas. It is the only known document that can tie GW to all of these activities. Does it prove he was involved? Well if he wasn't, why on earth would he be having dealings with Philip Nolan and all the surrounding mysteries historians have never been able to figure out? God forbid our national hero be involved in such disgrace, let alone all of the other politicians so well revered and hailed for their greatness and service to our country. The other thing that gives me cause to pause is that nothing has really changed with how our government and officials manipulate, lie, and work in such secrecy to keep control of their coffers. They play these ridiculous games and WE THE PEOPLE are the ones who suffer and pay the consequences in the name of national security, patriotism, and freedom. Since before the beginning our nation and after the revolution this country has been constantly at war with somebody. Each and every war the atrocities that are committed by this group of men, who seem to have no conscience, is appalling. It's no wonder people in other nations hate us so much, putting our citizens in harms way, even though we aren't the ones behind it all, we still take the blame as a nation. Look at 911, and all our service men who have served, who are maimed for life and those who lost their lives. I had a friend of mine tell me here a while back he had been studying the Spanish American war and couldn't believe what he was finding out about what the U. S. did in that war and I told him well you think that's bad did you know that U. S. company IBM was the one behind supplying Hitler with machines and cards that were shipped out of the U.S. during war time, making millions of dollars, and were the ones who knew about the Holocaust victims, experimentation, and concentration camps. They supplied the machines for the SS military operations, trains, concentration camps, experimentation, you name it AND our own government knew it because they supplied our government with the same machines and were all in cahoots together, again lining their pockets. If you think anything has changed, you need to take a serious look and dig for yourself, because you'll soon learn the truth. It certainly is not in the history books, that's a fact. And I think one of the things that really gripes me the most is the statement Mitt Romney made about the entitlement programs and how we are looking for a hand out. Our people have suffered at the hands of our government for years and still do so today and we're the ones lining the coffers for these people. These "great" men did some pretty fancy manipulating and had to change their plans on many occasions to obtain their goals, whether it be with spies, changing the laws to suit their needs, or whatever. I think when they stirred up the revolution from Virginia they thought they were so powerful they could gain the needed control to achieve their means, but once the revolution was over they met with resistance from some of the men who really were much greater for trying to stand up to them, but it boiled down to who had the key to the finances. Why was our government set up in such secrecy? The meetings were always done behind closed doors and they distrusted Benjamin Franklin so much they had him followed around Philadelphia on a regular basis. So what were they afraid he would tell? This, I believe, is why there was so much bickering when our constitution was written and still goes on today because it's based on who of them can benefit the most from it all. I think they stirred up the revolution so they could gain control of the land and commerce away from England and line their own pockets that they accused England of doing because the very taxation they were squawking about they turned around and implemented on the general population. Look at the Whiskey Rebellion as an example. Another thing that gets my attention is how they politely excused themselves from paying debts to their factors after the revolution and later after France supported the revolution here, these same men turned around and didn't pay their debts to France which put us in another "unofficial" war called the Quasi war when the French started ceasing our ships. They were always scheming a deal with somebody and never paying their debts, and over spending like no other. Now we have all of these old plantations, etc as their mark on our country which shows the extravagance in which they lived. I still will never get over how GW always seems to claim to be in dire straights when he married one of the richest women in Virginia after knowing her for 3 weeks and the property he owned. He never failed to be involved in "magnificent" lifestyle and material goods. In his own letters he uses Martha's Custis children's money to buy lavish items and in one particular letter he wrote to Robert Cary in London, his agent there, he ordered a piano out of Patsy Custis' money and wrote a note to Cary to make sure he didn't put their name on it when it was shipped,but charge it to her account. So why would he make such a request if he wasn't up to something that wasn't anything but on the up and up with the kid's money. So what about Benedict Arnold that everyone is so appalled about his actions? He sure wasn't any different then the very men who were his accusers. He left our country in disgust at what was going on and later said so. He knew what they were up to because he and GW were close at that time. And why was Benedict Arnold let go when he could have been captured, as stated by the very man who was within reach of him, Lt Joseph Edes? He was the man that John Shreve met 22 years after the war in New Orleans when John was taking a load of flour to the West Indies and Edes was the captain of the ship he was on. When Shreve realized who he was Edes told him he could have caught him, but thought it best to let him go. So what did Edes really know? It's no wonder there is so much mystery involved in the history of this country.

Another must read website about Wilkinson, Daniel Clark and others gives more details of letters and their lies that they didn't know or even hated each other. The testimony given in the lawsuits of Myra Clark Whitney Gaines by her own mother, Zulime Carriere coincides with what was going on. Zulime married as her 3rd husband, Jacques/James Gardette, a dentist, who made a set of false teeth in Philadelphia for George Washington reflected in a painting of Gilbert Stuart in 1796. The "Miss Caton" given in her testimony where she states Daniel Clark was engaged to her leads again back to Maryland and the Catholic Carroll family. The Miss Caton was Marianne, daughter of Richard Caton and Mary Carroll, daughter of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, signer of the declaration of independence. After Marianne's 1st marriage to Robert Patterson she married 2nd Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellsley. The Daniel William Coxe of Philadelphia mentioned in the testimony of Zulime was a partner of Daniel Clark. Daniel William Coxe was a Philadelphia merchant who turned to speculation in Spanish Grant lands. In 1793 he formed a mercantile partnership with Daniel Clark of New Orleans, La., and in 1801 they joined forces with Beverly Chew and Richard Relf, also New Orleans merchants. Chew and Relf were the one's who tried to steal the lands from Daniel Clark's daughter, Myra. Beverly Chew's wife was the granddaughter of Lord Stirling, William Alexander.

Letter, To: Daniel W. Coxe From: Daniel Clark Junior, June 27, 1795. Transcribed by: Gail Dornenburg 06/22/12 Notes by: Susan A. Ottignon 07/06/2012

[Front p. 1] New Orleans,1 27 June 1795 Mr Daniel W Coxe2 My Dear friend

Since my last to you I have had the pleasure of receiving yours of the 20th April in which I perceive that your prospects are flattering and after you you advantages which I hope no more sinester3 accidents may prevent you from reading I have endeavored on my part to forward your views by giving every assistance in my power to Mr Carson4 in collecting and shipping your property from this country and I hope by the end of the year to make a shipment for you’re a/ct5 of something considerable arising from the funds already in the Country which I propose forwarding to you under the care of Mr6 Porter

Had you on your return from Europe last year given me the advice which you sent at a subsequent period I could in all probability have hastened the remittances which I propose sending you and made investments at a lower rate than it will be possible to do when payments become due For the present I have in compliance with your order made some remittances to Reed & Forde on your a/ct7 the amount of which Mr Carson can inform you of, as well as every other Business entrusted to my care on which I have given him ample information for your satisfaction & government, [Inside p. 2-3]

By the return of the spring I hope to have affairs here in such a situation as to permit me to bid adieu to the Country for ever, which I shall do without any other regret than having already lost so much time and injured my constitution by the fatigues I have undergone in it and it will add considerably to the Happiness I promise myself I shall enjoy in the United States to find you there on my arrival and renew those ties of friend ship & Business which time and circumstances have interrupted I thank you sincerely for the mention you made of me to your family to whom I shall not fail of paying my respects whenever an opportunity shall present itself & be assured that you have not only my warmest wishes but likewise that all my endeavour will be exerted for your service which a better state of health than I enjoyed last year will permit me to do to the utmost of my power I remain Dear Coxe

Your Sincere Friend Daniel Clark Junior

8 Letter, To: Daniel W. Coxe From: Daniel Clark Junior, June 27, 1795.

Transcribed by: Gail Dornenburg 06/22/12 Notes by: Susan A. Ottignon 07/06/2012 1 New Orleans (La.) 2 Coxe, Daniel W. (Daniel William), 1769-1852. ; For more information on Coxe and Clark friendship, see: "Appendix : No. XXXIV: Deposition of Daniel W. Coxe." Memoirs of My Own Times. Vol. 2. By James Wilkinson. Philadelphia : Abraham Small, 1816. Google ebook. Accessed 6 July 2012. Clark 3 Misspelled; sinister 4 Carson, Robert. 5 account 6 Best guess personal name 7 account 8 Clark, Daniel, 1766-1813. ; ". . .the first Delegate from the Territory of Orleans to the United States House of Representatives. . . " Daniel Clark (Louisiana). Wikipedia. Accessed July 6 2012. 9 "Mr (= title used before a man's name) used before the names of two or more people, usually in the title of a company. " Messrs. Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus © Cambridge University Press. Accessed 6 July 2012. 10 Merchants ; "Plumsted & McCall, merchants, 166, So. Front St." The Philadelphia Directory and Register. 2nd ed. By James Hardie, A.M. Philadelphia : Jacob Johnson & Co., 1794: 122. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Library Ebook. Internet Archive. Accessed 6 July 2012. 11 account 12 Perpendicular and centered 13 Philadelphia (Pa.) P.S. I have forwarded to Messr9 Plumsted and Mc Call10 copies of their a/ct11 sales & other papers and shall shortly remit whatever balance may be due on them [Back p. 4]12 Mr Daniel W Coxe Merchant Philadelphia13 P Favor of Mr Robt Carson

Daniel Coxe, brother of Tench Coxe and their mother, Mary Francis, daughter of Tench Francis, was the sister of Margaret Francis , mother of Peggy Shippen who married BENEDICT ARNOLD. Margaret Francis had married Chief Justice, Edward Shippen. Edward Shippen, son of Edward and Sarah (Plumley) Shippen, was born in Philadelphia on February 16, 1729. Edward's father was a prosperous merchant, who encouraged his son to study law, and by age 17 Edward was working with noted Philadelphia lawyer Tench Francis. In 1748, Edward traveled to London to continue his legal studies at Middle Temple, working for several years as a barrister as well. Afterwards he returned to the colonies, and in 1752 was appointed Judge of the Court of Admiralty in Philadelphia. Over the next two decades he developed a distinguished legal career, winning appointments to several other prominent positions. However, when the revolution broke out in 1775, his professed loyalty to Britain resulted in the loss of several key appointments, as well as a severe restriction on his movements.

Fortunately for Shippen, his judicial stature was such that these were not permanent recriminations, and in 1784 he was appointed Judge of the High Court of Errors and Appeals of Pennsylvania, a position he held until 1806. He was appointed to other judicial posts as well, including Associate Justice in the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, which he held from 1791 to 1799. In that year, Chief Justice McKean was elected governor, and appointed Shippen to take his place as Chief Justice, a position he held until 1805. Edward Shippen was a member of the American Philosophical Society, as well as a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania, which bestowed upon him an honorary LL.D. degree in 1790.

In 1753 Edward Shippen married Margaret Francis, daughter of prominent lawyer Tench Francis, who for many years was the agent in America of the Penn family, and who at one point was Attorney General of Pennsylvania. Together, Edward and Margaret had seven children: Elizabeth (b. 1754), who married Edward Burd; Sarah (1756-1831), who married Thomas Lea of Philadelphia; Mary (b. 1757), who was the second wife of Dr. William McIlvaine; Edward (1758-1809), who married Elizabeth Juliana Footman; Margaret (1760-1804), who married Benedict Arnold; John Francis (1762-1763); and James (1766-1769). In 1805, as a result of failing health, Shippen resigned his position as Chief Justice, and on April 16 of the following year he died.

So what would be the purpose of this next revolutionary plot? The Americans on the Eastern seaboard wanted to impose taxes and keep the Mississippi closed in order to invigorate the Atlantic trade with England and Europe. So if they separated they would protect their investments on the Ohio River to the Mississippi River shipments to the Gulf of Mexico and all their lands along the Ohio River and in the Southern states.

Gee what a nice little knit web so well interwoven.

Now we turn to a man named GILBERT IMLAY, a partner of James Wilkinson, in Kentucky. So what do we learn of him? And lo and behold none other than good ole GW. In the book "Vindication: A Life of Mary Wollstonecraft" By Lyndall Gordon pg 193 In January, 1777 Gilbert, aged twenty two, joined up as 1st Lieutenant and paymaster in Colonel David Forman's regiment of Continental Troops. Four months later, he persuaded seven out of eleven loyalist prisoners to change sides and join his regiment. Surprise attacks leading to American victories at Trenton and Princeton were helped by SECRET AGENTS PAID BY WASHINGTON TO CROSS THE LINES CARRYING GOODS FOR SALE. SIGNED UP FOR DURATION OF THE WAR, BUT DISAPPEARS AFTER JULY, 1778, PROBABLY A SPY FOR GW, HE WAS OMITTED FROM HIS REGIMENT. AFTER THE WAR, HE REAPPEARED AS CAPT IMLAY Imlay surfaced in 1783. Imlay was speculating in Kentucky land as early as April of that year. Earliest deals were with Isaac Hite, who never recovered what Imlay owed him. On Nov 11, Imlay acquired vast tracts amounting to 17,400 acres, on the Licking River in Fayette County.

Nine or so years after Boone broke through the Cumberland Gap, Imlay appropriated ten thousand of Boone's lovliest acres, near Limestone, worth at the time L2000.

Took an alternate route, travelling from Pittsburgh in March, 1784, a journey of five days on a flatboat down the Ohio River as it flowed towards the Mississippi. His arrival and quick plunge into the ferment of land speculation are registered on a scrap of rough paper recently acquired by the Beinecke library. It's scrawled note in a looped hand, sent from the furtherest outpost of the frontier, on the WESTERN EDGE OF KENTUCKY, TO THE NEW JERSEY COMMANDER COLONEL HENRY "LIGHT FOOT HARRY" LEE WHO WAS NOW SETTLED IN LEXINGTON. FALLS OF OHIO, 21 APL 1784. (NOTE: HENRY LEE WAS THE FATHER OF CONFEDERATE GENERAL, ROBERT EDWARD LEE. He also wrote the famous epitaph of George Washington, "First in War, first in Peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." He commanded the troops sent by President George Washington in 1794 to end the Whisky Rebellion. A member of the Federalist Party, he served as a Congressman from 1799 to 1801. By 1807 his fortunes were in steep decline from which they would never recover. He inherited Stratford Plantation that consisted of 4,000 acres after his wife died in 1790. Ten years later they were reduced by half, squandered by Henry's financial mismanagement and reckless speculation. According to tax records, by 1802 only 236 acres remained. In the spring of 1809 the former war hero and statesman was sentenced to debtor's prison where he spent a year.)

In Feb 1785, he(GILBERT IMLAY) entered into another bout of buying, from JOHN MAY AND HIS PARTNER MR BEALL. (SAMUEL BEALL)

1792 Imlay reemerged as an author in London

last residence, the border world of an island lying between France and England, a smuggler's haven.

Imlay's Finnish agent, ELIAS BACKMAN. On 27 February 1797, Washington (in his last months as President) and Timothy Pickering as Secretary of State, appointed Backman Consul for the port of Gothenburg and adjacent areas-the first American counsul in Sweden.

In a very long letter in the file of James Wilkinson at the Filson Library in Louisville, which I have in my possession, one JOHN MAY addresses a letter dated 27 June 1786 in which he discusses taking depositions of various people in Jefferson, Nelson, Fayette counties regarding land involving Capt IMLAY and on the 4th page of the letter he states "I wrote you fully my ideas with respect to the bargain with IMLAY, since which nothing has happened to change my sentiments. HIS PARTNER HERE, GENERAL WILKINSON...

Prototype of American con man' came from area New book explores life of Gilbert Imlay. "Gilbert Imlay, who was born in the Monmouth County municipality ofUpper Freehold Township in 1754 and is the subject of the new book "Gilbert Imlay: Citizen of the World" by Wil Verhoeven, a professor of American Culture and chairman of the American Studies Department at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. Imlay is chiefly remembered as the lover of proto-feministMaryWollstonecraft, with whom he had a daughter, Fanny. He later abandoned them both. Imlay went on to become a big-time land speculator in Kentucky, during which time he cheated Daniel Boone out of 10,000 acres of prime land. Imlay went into business, smuggling food supplies and essential goods into France past the British blockade, and smuggling silver and diamonds out of France by way of payment. Much of that booty was stolen from guillotined French aristocrats. Imlay was on personal terms with the "who's who" of his era, including people like Boone, Gen. James Wilkinson, Gen. "Light-Horse" Harry Lee, the Girondist leader Brissot de Warville, Joel Barlow, Thomas Paine and General De Miranda." "Gilbert Imlay: Citizen of the World" is published by Pickering & Chatto, London, and is available at

National Heritage Museum "However, most also note that Imlay takes the genre a bit further and describes Western expansion as the obvious extension of the American Revolution. According to Verhoeven, Imlay foresees "the wilderness frontier as the centre of a future American empire."

While Topographical Description.... includes detailed reports of roads, waterways, soil, flora and fauna and, basically, any and all information anyone thinking of settling in America would need to know, he also includes four maps. Pictured above is 'A plan of the rapids of the Ohio'. In 'Letter III....about Ohio", Imlay writes: "The Rapids of the Ohio lie about seven hundred miles below Pittsburg, and about four hundred above its confluence with the Mississippi. They are occasioned by a ledge of rocks that stretch across the bed of the river from one side to the other, in some places projecting so much, that they are visible when the water is not high...The fall is not more than between four and five feet in the distance of a mile; so that boats of any burden may pass with safety when there is a flood; but boats coming up the river must unload."

The other maps include: 'A map of the western part of the territories belonging to the United States of America drawn from the best authorities', 'A map of the Tennassee (sic) government formerly part of North Carolina taken chiefly from surveys' by Gene D. Smith and other, and 'A map of the State of Kentucky from actual survey by Elihu Barker of Philadelphia'.

There's no evidence Gilbert Imlay ever returned to America, but surely his work encouraged many to emigrate, and still others to write about it. Irish Poet Thomas Moore, in highlighting the romantic nature of his work, proclaimed it 'would seduce us into a belief that innocence, peace, and freedom has deserted the rest of the world for...the banks of the Ohio." Add 'marketeer' to the list of ways to describe Gilbert Imlay! Imlay was the author of a book "The Emigrants" and in an article Karsten H. Piep, "Separatist Nationalism in Gilbert Imlay's The Emigrants" these comments about the novel as follows: Limited as it may be, the critical reception of The Emigrants has provided valuable insights with respect to the work's internal contradictions. Despite its demand for radical social reforms, the novel tends to reinscribe traditional gender roles and class hierarchies. "Rescued" by chivalric men from "barbarian slavery" in England as well as "the [Native-American] savages," the women in Imlay's ideal state, solely preoccupied with fostering "domestic bliss" in the backwoods, remain excluded form self-government (241, 216). Likewise, access to education is restricted for females in Imlay's utopia, as P.P -- makes clear to Caroline: "I will say nothing of the education of girls, for the amendment of the one, would naturally lend amelioration of the other" (107). Similarly, the common male settlers "who served in the late war" are at the mercy of the benevolent STEWARDSHIP OF GENERAL W-, Captain Arl-ton, and the Honorable P.P-, who "teach them appropriate knowledge" pertaining to "agriculture … all useful arts," and "the science of government and jurisprudence" (247, 233). And despite the novel's indictment against "the system of slavery" as well as its fairly sympathetic depiction of Indians (a band of which is briefly shown as "going to Pittsburgh for the purpose of burying the hatchet, that white people and Indians might live together like brothers"), there is no place for racial or cultural diversity in Imlay's ideal community(61, 49). As Caroline's states after her "rescue from the savages," Bellefont is a "select society" of gallant Anglo-American males and their wives (247). In the end, Imlay's patriarchical and patronizing "model of society" does not look all that different from that of the Founding Fathers, for active political participation remains circumscribed by gender, class, and race. Despite these obvious shortcomings, however, the novel's "revolutionary rhetoric" as well as the "separatist" and "transatlantic" qualities of Imlay's imagined community deserve closer scrutiny. Since the novel commences after the Revolution had already officially ended in America (and was written as the Revolution began to devour its own children in France), Imlay's rhetoric might perhaps be best understood as post-revolutionary, centered on imagining the contour, shape, and character of a new community that was to emerge out of the actual revolution. It is precisely here that the dual experience of being late and, simultaneously, being ahead of time assumes significance."

Date: Wednesday, March 8, 1786 Paper: Pennsylvania Journal (Philadelphia, PA) Issue: 2058 Page: 1 List of letters remaining in the Post Office, Philadelphia, March 4, 1786 GILBERT IMLAY EFQ

List of Letters remaining in the Post-Office, Philadelphia, April 7th, 1787 Captain Gilbert Imlay (2)

Date: Saturday, March 10, 1894 Paper: Repository (Canton, OH) Page: 9 LO, THE POOR INDIAN A Question of Numbers The strangest feature, however, is that the strictly official accounts differ quite as widely as those of casual travelers, and strangest of all, it is impossible to determine from the census report just how many Indians there are in the United States. The first estimate was made in 1780 and set the entire number at 76,000. TWO YEARS LATER GILBERT IMLAY collected the reports of travelers and MILITARY MEN and placed the number at 60,000, LOUISIANA TERRITORY AND FLORIDA HAVING BEEN ANNEXED, in the year 1820 Superintendent Morse estimated our Indians at 471,086.

Date: Wednesday, April 7, 1824 Paper: Frankfort Argus (Frankfort, KY) Volume: XVII Issue: 7 Page: 1 land sale notice 4,000 acres on the Cumberland river, in the name of Henry Lee 13,976 acres on Triplett's creek in the name of GILBERT IMLAY 4 ACRES TOWN LOTS IN LEESTOWN, TO WHICH GILBERT IMLAY WAS ENTITLED AND ALL THE BENEFIT OF THE FOUR FOLLOWING TRACTS OF LAND IN THE NAME OF R. B. LEE AND EDMUND LEE 361, 4,340, 87, 1216 ACRES LYING ON MAIN LICKING MARCH 18, 1824 (think land in Lincoln Co KY)

Date: Thursday, July 14, 1803 (SAME AS ABOVE LAND Paper: Palladium (Frankfort, KY) Volume: 5 Issue: 50 Page: 3 COMMISSIONERS CHRISTO. GREENUP EDMUND THOMAS

The Tragedy of a Pioneer Suffragist Date: Saturday, July 1, 1922 Paper: Kansas City Star (Kansas City, MO) Volume: 42 Issue: 287 Page: 6 In 1792 Mary went to Paris, then in the first throes of revolution, where she met GILBERT IMLAY, LATE CAPTAIN IN WASHINGTON'S ARMY, and there in the days of the Terror she was living with him as his wife.

Date: Thursday, February 9, 1922 Paper: Lexington Herald (Lexington, KY) Issue: 40 Page: 11 A copy of the book, "The Emigrants" by Gilbert Imlay, the first Kentucky novel, very rare and almost priceless, is to become the property of TRANSYLVANIA COLLEGE library through the will of W CLARK DURANT, OF DOBBS FERRY, NY according to a letter Mrs Charles F Norwood, librarian, received from Mr. Durant. The book was presented to Mr Durant, author of a sketch of Imlay, for magazine publication by John Wilson Townsend of Lexington. It was published in London 1794. Imlay was born in New Jersey and was in Kentucky from 1784 to 1792. The book contains many interesting impressions of American scenes and manners.


John May was a surveyor and was killed by the Indians on 20 May 1790 only a few years after writing that long letter I have. Maysville and Mays Lick, Mason Co. Kentucky are both named after the May families. He was from Petersburg, Virginia. The EARLY KENTUCKY LAND RECORDS, 1773-1780 by Neal O. Hammon tells about the problems with Virginia and eventually Kentucky lands and their land title problems. He tells of how there are some "questionable" land entries made that seem very curious. He states "To preserve the priority of the claims, the act allowed those with military warrants or settlement certificates to enter their claims with the county surveyor at any time. Preemption claims could not be entered before 26 April 1780; treasury warrants could not be entered before 1 May 1780. However, the records show that there are several unusual entries found in the Kentucky County Entry Book, such as that of George Mason of Fairfax, Virginia, who claimed land for importing several hundred people into Kentucky at his own expense. George May allowed him to enter a claim for this service, but as it had no basis in law, he was not allowed any land for his trouble. On 13 April 1780, there is also an entry by John May, the brother of the county surveyor, for 800 acres "upon old Treasury rights"; such an entry would have been illegal since this type of warrant was not supposed to be entered until after 1 May 1780, but perhaps being related to the county surveyor entitled him to a few privileges. Another unusual entry by Richard Johnson, dated 29 April 1779, is for the withdrawal of an entry made at the Blue Lick in 1774 upon a governor's warrant and the re-entry with another warrant. Perhap Johnson thought that the governor's warrant would not be valid since it was signed by Lord Dunmore who had fled Virginia in 1775. By keeping track of the number of claims made on each day during 1779 and 1780, we find that the often-quoted story that George Rogers Clark closed the land office in order to recruit men for his expedition against the Shawnee is just another fabricated tale made up at a time when historians were not too concerned about accuracy. Unfortunately, such tales are often repeated in modern times, when historians are not too serious about research." Of these entries is: Crawford, William Washington, George Fincastle Entry Book 8 land marked for him"

An interesting note is: Charles May, (another brother) was dispatched by Gen. Wayne with five others as spies to bring in an Indian to find out the intention of the enemy. They are speaking of General Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 – December 15, 1796) was a United States Army general and statesman. Wayne adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality quickly earned him a promotion to the rank of brigadier general and the sobriquet of Mad Anthony. He and his regiment were part of the Continental Army's unsuccessful invasion of Canada where he was sent to aid Benedict Arnold, during which he commanded a successful rear-guard action at the Battle of Trois-Rivières, and then led the distressed forces at Fort Ticonderoga. His service resulted in a promotion to brigadier general on February 21, 1777. In July 1779 Washington named Wayne to command the Corps of Light Infantry, On January 1, 1781, Wayne, then the commanding officer of the Pennsylvania Line of the Continental Army, was faced with a mutiny over pay and conditions that was one of the most serious of the war. The mutiny was successfully resolved by dismissing about one half of the line, which Wayne then had to rebuild. President George Washington recalled Wayne from civilian life in order to lead an expedition in the Northwest Indian War. Washington placed Wayne in command of a newly-formed military force called the "Legion of the United States". Wayne established a basic training facility at Legionville to prepare professional soldiers for his force. Wayne's was the first attempt to provide basic training for regular U.S. Army recruits and Legionville was the first facility established expressly for this purpose.He then dispatched a force to Ohio to establish Fort Recovery as a base of operations. On August 3, a tree fell on Wayne's tent. He survived, but was rendered unconscious. By the next day, he had recovered sufficiently to resume the march.[3] On August 20, 1794, Wayne mounted an assault on the Indian confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, in modern Maumee, Ohio (just south of present-day Toledo), which was a decisive victory for the U.S. forces, ending the war. Wayne then negotiated the Treaty of Greenville between the tribal confederacy and the United States, which was signed on August 3, 1795. The treaty gave most of what is now Ohio to the United States, and cleared the way for that state to enter the Union in 1803. Two memorials one and two at find a grave mark his history.

This very interesting story tells of the death of John May by the Indians.

Maysville, Kentucky was also a very important underground railroad crossing for slaves into Brown Co. Ohio. The stories of which are told by Harriett Beecher Stowe in her book "Uncle Tom's Cabin."

Samuel Beall (b 1748 d 1793) married Ann Booth and was a merchant in Williamsburg, Virginia. He was from old Maryland families and his parents were Samuel Magruder Beall and Eleanor Brooke.

The Filson Historical Society holds a collection of the Beall-Booth papers which reveals many names associated with their dealings of others mentioned here in Kentucky, some of which end up in the conspiracy of Aaron Burr. Correspondence regarding land speculation, surveys, and division of vast tracts of land in Kentucky, as well as the legal and financial problems associated with their landholdings; land records for acreage along the Kentucky, Ohio, and Green rivers; orders of payment and receipts regarding Norborne Beall's personal business; accounts and ledgers from Williamsburg and early Louisville, Ky., stores and merchants; and legal records. The letters and records also chronicle the hardships and dangers of frontier Kentucky, slave concerns, Kentucky economics, and politics. Correspondents include John May, George May, John Marshall, George Mason, Robert Morris, George Nicholas, Richard M. Johnson, Joseph Hamilton Daviess, Samuel Griffin, Robert Breckinridge, Basil Holmes, David Meade, James Mercer, David Ross, Robert Lewis, Henry Clay, Robert P. Letcher, and others. One particular correspondent in the collection reveals "Imlay, Gilbert, 1754?-1828?" Others include: Gist, Christopher, d. 1759; Hardin, Benjamin, 1784-1852; Innes, Harry, 1752-1816; Jackson, Andrew, 1767-1845; Marshall, Humphrey, 1760-1841; Marshall, John, 1755-1835 ; Mason, George, 1725-1792; Morgan, Daniel, 1736-1802; Nicholas, George, 1754?-1799; Taylor, Zachary, 1784-1850; Todd, Charles Stewart, 1791-1871; Wilkinson, James, 1757-1825.


1784 – Philadelphia, PA. Peter Muhlenberg writes to president of Congress: The Gentlemen who received the Illinois Grant of 150,000 acres opposite Louisville on the west side of the Ohio, have already laid off a Town in that district, which is settling fast, and this would probably give rise to an immediate quarrel. [Potts, p. 80, sidebar] The Continental Congress has paid George Rogers Clark’s Illinois Regiment with a land grant on lands which the United States does not own, i.e. Indiana. The men have moved to claim their grants, which turn out to be less than half of the land promised to each man, Congress having estimated less than half of the men entitled to land. [Potts, p. 80]

Cantonment Wilkinson, Pulaski County, Illinois, Mark J. Wagner Staff Archaeologist Center for Archaeological Investigations Southern Illinois University, Carbondale In a deposition given during James Wilkinson's treasonous activities, Andrew Ellicott, (remember Ellicott surveyed for George Washington, so be sure to read his find a grave memorial I authored to see all the lands he surveyed by clicking on link to his name) testifies that he met Philip Nolan at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi River. This location is near present Cairo, Illinois and Paducah, Kentucky. In the last few years, a secret military base was discovered in what is now Pulaski Co. Illinois that has never been reported in our history. No one knew anything about it in all the 200+ years of U. S. history. If you click on the link above you will learn about this important piece of our history because it links our presidents, Alexander Hamilton, and James Wilkinson, and members of the Lewis and Clark expedition who were stationed here. It certainly is strange for the timeframe in the fact that all of these men involved were trying to form a separate government from the U.S. Letters I found in the Filson Library in Louisville, Kentucky which are in the Spanish archives and have been translated are dated in the early 1790's by Dr James O'Fallon, brother in law of George Rogers Clark. Is it not also strange that the Lewis and Clark members were stationed here during this same timeframe? So my question is again, what were the ulterior motives of George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and James Wilkinson and the many others who were involved? My best guess is involving the lands and waterways that they could get their hands on and control to make themselves a tidy sum of money. I think the revolution and the government subsequently set up did not satisfy their greed and they proposed another means to obtain their goals they had proposed by the Mississippi Company when the King refused to give them land grants to these lands by issuing his proclamation in 1763. The evidence certainly points in that direction and by this would mean that our own first president would be involved himself in treason of this country. But at the same time they had the advantage of using our government to obtain the needed appointments in government officials they could use to change the laws as needed to achieve these goals. So they too played both sides of the coin.

In part it states "This was the northernmost point of a crescent shape between present Paducah and Cairo. They could see movement on the river just past Paducah to the mouth of the Tennessee River. Lewis and Clark deliberately passed on the far side of this spot, likely wary of the motives of Wilkinson. Archeologist Mark Wagner has done extensive work on the cantonment. The cantonment had its inception in a late 1790s diplomatic crisis between the United States and France. The French had begun seizing American ships on the high seas and it appeared that all-out war was imminent. In response, George Washington and Alexander Hamilton developed a plan for a large American military base or cantonment in the Ohio River valley. Once the war started, troops from this Reserve Corps; would move into the Mississippi River Valley and capture the river and New Orleans and from the Spanish who were expected to ally themselves with the French. General James Wilkinson was put in charge of this operation despite rumors that he was a traitor in the pay of the Spanish. Wilkinson ordered smaller posts such as Ft. Massac to be abandoned and added their garrisons to the Reserve Corps. The majority of the troops moved to the mouth of the Tennessee River following Colonel Strong's death with Major Jonathon Williams, a grand-nephew of Benjamin Franklin and the later founder of West Point and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, left in charge of approximately 70 soldiers including those sick who could not be moved. The 2nd Infantry troops at the mouth of the Tennessee River returned to the cantonment in the fall of 1801, raising the garrison strength to approximately 800 men."


The Filson Club, Louisville, KY, Temple Bodley Collection, Pontalba Papers, A B668 82 pg 252 Communication No. 18 Enclosure No 2 James O'Fallon to Sr Don Esteban Miro Residence of General Clarck, near Louisville, December 17, 1790


The last of the three letters which I have had the honor of writing to your Honor, after arrival in these Western Settlements, I delivered to General Wilkinson, a friend of your Honor's, who has assured me that he sent it by the last flat boats which he despatched to New Orelans with Tobacco. The two former ones must have been delivered to your Honor by Mr. January, who has already returned to this country, and the other by MR. NOLAN.

These three letters stated equally and without mistake or subterfuge, not only the firm and sincere desire of the COMPANY but also those of my heart, to have immediately a settlement and an organized territory as a free state, independent and sovereign, without any connection with Congress and firmly allied with Spain, providing that she be a sincere and true friend, but of course, she must at the very beginning see in the state an ally stronger and more formidable and which will radiate the principles that will promptly break up the Union of States and originate a new confederacy from them on this side of the alleghany Mountains. The revolution must have its beginning with us, and all things are now ripe for this great operation.

Your Honor cannot but know that if we desire other alliances in Europe we could easily find them, but to your Honor we direct our first offers, and Spain alone must be blamed if we abandon her.

Congress KNOWS this, and also the advantage which the ground affords us for operating as we wish, and to separate Kentucky from its jurisdiction, as also FRANLIN (WHICH IS STATE OF FRANKLIN WHICH WOULD BECOME TENNESSEE), Cumberlland, etc, so that in a letter recently written by the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES (GEORGE WASHINGTON) to the Board of Proprietors, the forces of the Union are offered to support our Settlement if we require or desire it, and he requests besides that the Company's General Agent report regularly to the National Executive any affairs of importance that may occur with regard to the conduct of the Spaniards or their allies, the Indians, and offers besides to pay from CONGRESSIONAL FUNDS the Regiment of 750 men which I have raised, reimbursing all advances that we have made for cannons, ammunitions, equipment of our cavalry and all military stores. This is the present condition of our business, this is our actual position. We are keeping this offer as a last resort.

The rapidity with which I recruited my troops and colonists in this district, as in Franklin, Cumberland and North Carolina, prevented me from going to New Orleans at the time I had desire to do so. I also awaited the arrival of some remittances which I have received, I had understood (although decidedly I did not believe it) that your Honor had desired to incite the Indians against our Colony even after having received my letters and that GENERAL ...of this intended slaughter. Of this there exists the declaration of a man named LEE, to whom this was told by some Chiefs of the Choctaws and Chicachas and who swore that they had shown him your Honor's letters in which your Honor recommended to them that they should kill me and my friends. He adds also that the adjutant of the Fort of Natchez, informed him that WILKINSON, INNES and BROWN hold commissions as Colonels in the service of Spain, bribed by the Court of Spain to act as spies of your Honor. The name of the adjutant is MINOR (STEPHEN MINOR). LEE is a distiller in Mr. Ellis' employ.

These rumors may possible ruin poor Wilkinson. COLONEL MARSHALL, who as Magistrate received Lee's declaration, sent them to the National Executive for action. Lee's conversation with the Indian Chiefs was during last August.

If I had given credit to the story of the premeditated massacre, I would not now write to your Honor, nor would I renew my first assurances of friendship. I have never believed this and I fear a great deal more the treachery of the Secretary of War, and through him that of the Treasurer of these States, who look with eveil intentions upon our Settlement. These parties, whether for the purpose of flattering your Honor or the Company, or to favor Great Britain in case of a war with Spain which may result from the present negotitations, have published notices with reference to a contract to supply during one year the garrison of the Yazoo and another Post higher up than Coles.

This act, which really alarmed the Company and myself, I am determined to resits.

Therefore, this is the reason why I have excessively increased my troops, I mean the regular ones, at the same time made my miltia formidable. This is the reason why I now have cannons and mortars of all kinds, ammunition and supplies, Cavalry, Artillery, Infantry, Riflemen and an Artillery Corps, and finally this is the reason why I am going down with Colonists and troops and will not be able to present myself to your Honor as I should and expected to do, until aftger having disembarked my forces nine miles higher up than the Yazoo, when I shall immediately go to New Orleans to arrange all the matters of which I am charged, in the manner which I have explained to you in my former letters, settling with you all that may be conducive to the defense of this Government and my Colony against anything that may be attempted by their enemies.

In case of war with Great Britain or of any insurrection of the inhabitants of the district of Natchez, which I have reason to suspect may occur, my foreces will be those of your Honor. I have with me 1000 regular troops or thereabouts, and four thousand well equipped militiamen. If any federal troops attempt to enter or aim to enter in my territory, I have determined if it is possible for me to do so, not leave one alive to carry the news. The Ministers cannot do more than the three Companies. One year after my arrival I will have over ten thousand combatants. All GEORGIA, NORTH AND SOUTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, KENTUCKY, FRANKLIN AND CUMBERLAND are preparing to emigrate to our Colony and all the Notables of these parts are interested with us. In case of danger GENERAL CLARK(the her of Illinois) will assume supreme command; he is a manof credit, a friend of Spain, much interested in our Plan and my agent in Kentucky, Virginia, and Pennsylvania: GENERAL SEVIER (at present in Congress) is my agent in Franklin and Colonel James Robertson for Cumberland.

I have MCGILLEBRAY, one of our proprietors, bbehind the CHOCTGAWS, his old enemies, in case they make any movement: GENERAL MOULTRIE, the present GOVERNOR OF SOUTH CAROLINA, GENERAL HUGER, GENERAL MARIAN, GENERAL MCDOWELL, GENERAL MCINTOSH, MR. FELFAIR, THE GOVERNOR OF GEORGIA, and other proprietors of our Company, each with his respective forces, will pass to our Settlements through the Creek or Talapuche Nation.

As I expect just as soon after landing above the Yazoo to make a visit to your Honor, I earnestly beg that you arrange for my safe conduct in order that I may not be troubled on my journey for a lack of proper passport, which your Honor may have already sent me through COLONEL BRUYN, as I solicited in my last letter. I expect to see you about the first of March, or before if your Honor requires my services and so notifies me.

At the same time I beg to advise that the Company expects as the first proof of a reciprocal good disposition on your part that your Honor will exert all of his good offices so that the Choctaws and Chicachas may favor our cause, and the Company will do the same with the people of that Government. (This sentence is not very clear, and O'Fallon evidently refers to the fact that he will use his influence so that "the Government", i. e., the U. S., should favor Spain)

Otherwise we shall find ourselves comelled to draw the sword one against the other and finally come to blows, for your Honor may depend on it that the Company also has its friends in BOTH NATIONS. (my note: U.S. and Spain) Your Honor will keep in mind MCGILLEVRAY'S desertion and a friendly condescensiion on the part of the Company will place all the interest of the Confederation on the side of these Indians, once this is begun, you will have us, the Talapuches, the Choctaws and Chicachas as combined and inexorable enemies. The prudent conduct of your Honor in the present circumstances may make us all everlasting friends, for the Colony has an ample field from which to choose, -America, England, the Indians and will your Honor care to destroy us?

I beg that your Honor send me an immediate reply; to that end I shall pay the expenses of a special messenger; kindly direct your letter to EDWARD PAYNE, SENIOR, near Lexington. I have been ill for several weeks and I can hardly write. I greatly desire to see your Honor, and remain with true and sincere esteem your Honor's surest and most devoted servant JAMES O'FALLEN - SR GOBERNADOR DN. ESTABAN MIRO

Other references on O'Fallon:

The Intrigues of Doctor James O'Fallon John Carl Parish The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 17, No. 2 (Sep., 1930), pp. 230-263 Published by: Organization of American Historians

Side by side with the machinations of James Wilkinson in the unquiet region of the ..... About the time O'Fallon arrived in Kentucky, Miro, alarmed at Wilkinson's

Charles Gayarré - 1854 - Louisiana - 649 pages Governor Sevier's Letter to Gardoqui — Dr. James White's Letter to Miro ... a Spy on Wilkinson — Miro praising Wilkinson — James O'Fallon's Letter to Miro

Justin Winsor - 2005 - History - 608 pages One Dr. James O'Fallon, a man about forty-five, and an adventurer, was made agent of ... He wrote on May 24, 1790, from Lexington to Miro

James O'Fallon James O'Fallon: (1749 - bef.1795) He was born in Athlone/County of Roscommon, Ireland and was educated as a physician, by the time he came to America, shortly before the Revolutionary War. He married, Frances ("Fanny") Eleanor Clark (daughter of John Clark & Ann Rogers) in 1791 at Louisville, Kentucky and they had sons: John B.(17911-1865) & Benjamin (1793-1842). Fanny was the sister of the "Father of the West", George Rogers Clark (1752-1818) & William Clark (1770-1838) of the "Corps of Discovery", both played a major role in clearing the way for European settlement of the northern half of the middle west.

James crossed the atlantic in (shipwrecked off the coast, shortly before the colonies revolted) 1774, going to Wilmington, North Carolina and in 1776 found himself jailed, "as a man dangerous to the patriotic cause". During the Revolutionary War, James served as a captain in the rebel calvary in 1777 and as a senior surgeon in Washington army in 1779. After the war he moved (1780's) from Philadelphia to Charleston, South Carolina with Major Pierce Butler & Alexander Gillon, later settled in Louisville, Kentucky where he became involved with the South Carolina Yazoo Company.

In 1789 (the year the states unite under the Constitution & George Washington as President), O'Fallon found himself on "hot" real estate. The British in the western Great Lakes were sending allied northern tribes on raids into Kentucky, while also on the brink of war with Spain and planning [Lord Edward Fitzgerald - Major of the 54th Reg't.- leaves Mackinac on what is presumed to be a military survey of the Mississippi from over 100 miles above the Falls of St.Anthony (probably to Robert Dickson's post at Sauk Rapids) to New Orleans] an invasion down the Mississippi to Spanish Louisiana. At the same time American settlers were depopulating Illinois Country for the safety of the west bank of the Mississippi where the Spanish welcomed them with opened arms and free land. Mean while, the new U.S. government sends Lt.John Armstrong on a information gathering mission to St.Louis & the Missouri River.

Late in 1789, Governor Telfair of Georgia and the colonies General Assembly, sold to the S.C.Yazoo Co. 5 million acres of land on the east side of the Mississippi River (for $60,000) for the purpose of settlement. As the companies Agent General & Attorney, O'Fallon was given the task of settling the land grant area. During the winter of 1789/90 he raised a volunteer army of settlers from Kentucky, formulating detailed plans for the colony. On 16 July 1790, James wrote to the Spanish Louisiana Governor, Estavan Miro, regarding the plans of colonizing of the companies land grant, "...I have been extensively commissioned and secretly charged, to negotiate with your Excellency and personally to wait upon you, at New Orleans...through the policy which I have urged them [the partners in the company] to the adoption of, with Spain, that they have unanimously fallen in with this plan, of uniting with the Spaniards...It is a fact well known and acknowledged throughout the whole of this Western Country...that the inhabitants thereof, can derive no commercial or political advantage whatever, by their being subjected to Congressional Supremacy placed in the Atlantic States; and that their last hope of ever rising into any consequence, as a people, must be founded, on confederating, independently, among themselves, on the basis of a Separate Sovereignty from that of the present Congress...the Company will, at all events, push forward their settlement, with system, precaution & force...The Company consists of Gentlemen of great fortune & reputation, highly connected and by their dependants posts and Grants of lands to characters of weight and of the same antifederal principles with themselves, forming a chain of mighty interest from New York, from the very midst of Congress itself...All this I am clearly confident I can be instrumental in bringing about, with the aid of our mutual friend, General Wilkinson...". On December 17, 1790 James writes to Col.Brian Bruin, who resides in the Washitaw settlement near Natches, " the month of March, I expect to be down in the neighbourhood of the Yazoo River, with a Regular Batallion consisting of 750 privates...With these go between 3 and 4000 Militia men, well armed, with their respective familys...These are my recuits. Those of the Company are to start, about the same time, through the Creek nation, 2000 from Georgia, 700 from South Carolina and 500 from North Carolina. Gen.MacDowell, Col.Farr & Major Christmas head the 3 divisions...Gen.[George Rogers] Clarke the Illinois Hero, is to command the whole, Regulars & Militia, when met. Gen.Sevier (now in Congress) is second in command. The whole is under my direction...No colony ever settled, commenced with such force...". Again on December 21, 1790, James writes to Col.Bryan Bruin, "...our fixed purpose is, immediately to become organized into a Separate Government, like Vermont, unconnected with the Atlantic States, and to ally ourselves with Spain, offensively & defensively, as the impregnable barrier of Louisiana, if they will have us...All we want of Spain, is a small indulgence in our trade and to unite with us, sincerely in reconciling the Choctaws & Chickasaws. If they do not, the British offer it. And if neither do it, Congress will attempt it. And if all fail, why, Congress, The Creeks and our own force will unite, in exterminating them, should they prove hostile. But our first offer is to Spain...".

Early in 1791, O'Fallon's must of realized his plans were falling apart. He fires a letter off to Spanish Gov.Mira, charging him of inciting the colonies neighboring tribes [Col.Bruin & Gen.Wilkinson, loyal to the Spanish, informed them of O'Fallon's designs], than President Washington issued a Proclamation in the previous August "...against the whole enterprise..." and again in March a Proclamation stating, "Whereas it hath been represented to me that James O'Fallon is levying an armed force in that part of the State of Virginia which is called Kentucky, disturbs the public peace and sets at defiance the treaties of the United States with the Indian tribes...that those who have incautiously associated themselves with the said James O'Fallon may be warned of their danger, I have therefore thought fit, to publish this proclamation here by declaring that all persons violating the treaties and act aforesaid shall be prosecuted with the utmost rigor of the law. And I do, moreover, require all officers of the United States whom it may concern to use their best exertions to bring to justice any persons offending in the premises...". In May of 1791, Washington is joined by Thomas Jefferson in condemning O'Fallon by his letter to the Attorney of the District of Kentucky, "Sir, A certain James O'Fallon is, as we are informed, undertaking to raise, organize and commission an army, of his own authority, and independent of that of the government, the object of which is, to go and possess themselves of lands which have never yet been granted by any authority...with an avowed design to hold them by force against any power, foreign or cannot be permitted that all the inhabitants of the United States shall be involved in the calamities of war and the blood of thousands of them be poured out, merely that a few adventurers may possess themselves of lands...they may be assured, that if this undertaking be prosecuted, the whole force of the United States will be displayed to punish the transgression..."

James may have not been concerned with these threats from the fledging government, for by this time the new United States had attempted to protect it citizens by sending Gen.Harmar with 1,500 men into Indian Territory to "chastise" the tribes who were allied to the British, but this force was soundly defeated on the Maumee. Unable to deal effectively with the northern problem Washington sent Gen.St.Clair with a force to Natchez Country to oust the colony and arrest O'Fallon (in October of 1791 the Spanish Crown ordered his arrest from New Orleans). St.Clair was successful with his mission in the lower Mississippi but failed in his mission to the north, where his army of 2,000 troops were defeated (about 900 killed) by the British allied northern tribal confederacy (led by Miami Chief Little Turtle) at the headwaters of the Wabash.

The remainder of O'Fallon's life is still somewhat of a mystery to me but he apparently survived his squabble with the U.S. and is found practicing his profession at Fort Steuben (the fort was ironically built on the Ohio River in 1786/87, by Maj. Hamtramck & an American Regiment, sent by the Continental Congress to protect surveyors mapping the Northwest Territories & to keep settlers out of the Ohio Valley). In February of 1793, his friend Thomas Paine wrote him words of encouragement to keep writing and in September of 1793 another friend, Anthony Wayne, writes offering him a position as Senior Surgeon for his planned punitive military expedition against the British allied northern tribes. By March of 1794 O'Fallon's estate is being distributed by his wills executor, William Crogan.

John Benjamin O'Fallon: (1791 - 1865) He was the son of James O'Fallon & Frances E.Clark and married Harriett Stokes and married Ruth Caroline Sheets. His children were: Ellen, William, Harriett, Caroline (m. Dr.Charles Alexander Pope), James J. (m. Ann Harris), Benjamin ( Sallie Champe Carter & Mary Shreve Carter), Henry A. & John J. (m. Caroline Mastin). His father died when he was young and was raised & educated by his mother, step-fathers & uncles.

John fought in the War of 1812, rising to the rank of captain. After the war he returned to St.Louis where he became an assistant to his uncle, William Clark, who was Indian Agent there. He later contracted to the U.S. Army, furnishing supplies and re-invested his growing fortune into promoting railroad ventures. He died at his home in St.Louis on 17 December, 1865.

Benjamin O'Fallon: (1793 - 1842) He was the son of James O'Fallon & Frances E.Clark and married to Sophia Lee. His children were: Fannie C., John, William C. (m.Miss McCreary), Charles T., Emily R. & Ellen.

American troops arrived at Prairie du Chien in June of 1816 and constructed Ft.Crawford there. Benjamin later became the Indian Agent at Ft.Crawford and a reference was made of him on 10 Feb.1818, "...A duel fought this morning between Mr O'Fallon, Indian Agent and Lt.Shade of the garrison-the latter received the second shot in his under jaw-O'Fallon unfortunately(?) escaped without injury...". And on 16 feb.1818, O'Fallon the Amer.Ind. agent at Prairie du Chien writes; "...What do you suppose, sir, has been the result of the passage through my agency, of this British nobleman? (Lord Selkirk)...Two entire bands, and part of a third, all Sioux, have deserted us and joined (Robert) Dickson, who has distributed to them large quantities of Indian presents, together with flags, medals, etc...A courier, who had arrived a few days since, confirms the belief that Dickson is endeavoring to undo what I have done and secure to the British govt. the affections of the Sioux...Dickson, as I have before observed, is situated near the head of the St.Peter's, to which place he transports his goods from Selkirk's Red River establishment, in carts...He is directed to build a fort on the highest land between Lac du Travers and Red River, which he supposed will be the established line between the two countries. This fort will be defended by 20 men, with 2 small pieces of artillery...". Benjamin goes north to council with the Sioux, returning to Prairie du Chien on the 28th of February. Again that spring O'Fallon leaves (10 April) Prairie du Chien with 50-60 soldiers for a council with the Sioux at the Falls of St.Anthony. In a letter written by Dr.Samuel Peters at P.D.C., on 25 jul.1818, we find out what happened on this trip, "...Mr.O'Fallen, Deputy Indian Agent & Lt.Armstrong with 60 soldiers sailed in 2 armed boats from Prairie du Chien up the Miss. to River St.Peter by order of Lt.Col.Wm.Chambers to intercept Col.Robert Dickson coming [as they thought] with 500 Indians to take the Fort and villiage of P.D.C. and they met Col.Dickson near River St.Croix in 2 birch canoes with his wife & 3 children-when W.O.Fallon arrested Col.Dickson as his prisoner & put him under a sergeant & his guard & sailed back to P.D.C. where he arrived on 27 april with his prisoner and after a salute to the garrison the prisoner was conducted under a guard to the garrison & there examined by Col.Chambers and then permitted to go to his family then in P.D.C...". Dickson was on his way from his post on Big Stone Lake to Prairie du Chien when arrested by O'Fallon at the mouth of the St.Croix River, for having no passport - Dickson was sent to St.Louis by Col.Chambers, on charges of attempting to alienate the Sioux to the U.S. Government. In May, Dr.S.Peters writes again of the incident, "...Col.Robert Dickson was married to Madam Elizabeth Weenenow & she was baptized the same day Col.Dickson was ordered on board an armed boat under Lt.Armstrong and a guard of soldiers and W.O.Fallon and sailed a prisoner down the Miss. to St Lewis 600 Miles there to be judged by Gov.Clark. I was informed by ___ ___ that the articles alledged against Col.Dickson were: 1) He had come within the U.S. without a passport. 2) He had traded with the Indians within the line of the U.S. 3) He had engaged 500 Indians & more to join him to come & take the garrison & village of P.D.C. 4) He was come a spy into the U.S. 5) He had furs and peltry coming down the River St.Peter which was contrary to law & of course were forfeited to Congress of the U.S..." A letter written by Dickson (18 jun.1818) at Green Bay reaches Mackinac saying, "...he had been discharged very honorably by Gov.Clarke & he was waiting at Green bay for the arrival of his family which was daily expected & then he should be at Mackinaw - He added that O.Fallon was dismissed from being Intendant of Indians & Col.Chambers was ordered to attend at Washington..."

Fort Snelling was established at the mouth of the Minnesota River and a couple of years later Lawerence Taliaferro, the Indian agent at the new fort writes to Benjamin of Sacs & Fox attacking Southern Yancton near O'Fallon and Sisseton/Wahpacoota near the Blue Earth. Total of 60 Sioux killed & 12 prisoners - Taliaferro rescued a woman (Yankton) prisoner at Fox village near the lead mines. She was at agency awaiting the Sissetons & Northern Yankton arrival. The Sac were claiming 11 prisoners at their village on the des Moines R.- they are attempting to possess the hunting grounds of the River Des Moines to it's source.

Council Bluff (Lewis & Clark held council with the Oto and Missouri Indians on August 3, 1804, which gave the locale its name of "Council Bluff) was the site of the Upper Missouri Indian Agency, with headquarters at Fort Atkinson. The agency was managed by Benjamin O'Fallon and sub-agent John Dougherty. O'Fallon arranged for a delegation of Mexicans to visit the Council Bluff in September 1824 to conclude a peace treaty with the Pawnee and in 1825 he visited the tribes along the Missouri and Platte with General Henry Atkinson to negotiate a hands-off agreement for Americans traveling to Sante Fe. Benjamin was present at the treaty "...between the United States and their citizens, and the Teton, Yancton, and Yanctonies bands of the Sioux tribe of Indians, the President of the United States of America, by Brigadier-General Henry Atkinson, of the United States army, and Major Benjamin O'Fallon, Indian Agent,...Done at Fort Look-out, near the three rivers of the Sioux pass, this 22d day of June, A.D. 1825,..." [also present were: Maw-too-an-be-kin (the Black Bear), Wacan-o-hi-gnan (the Flying Medicine), Wah-ha-ginga (the Little Dish), Cha-pon-ka (the Musqueto), Ta-tan-ka-guenish-qui-gnan (the Mad Buffalo), A. L. Langham, secretary to the commission, H. Leavenworth, colonel, U. S. Army, S. W. Kearney, brevet major, First Infantry, G. H. Kennerly, U. S. S. Indian agent, P. Wilson, U. S. S. Indian agent, Wm. Armstrong, captain, Sixth Regiment Infantry, Wm. Gordon & Jean Baptiste Dorion, Interpreters].

Benjamin was one of the principal partners the Missouri Fur Company, headed by Dr. Pilcher and at the same time one of the most efficient United States Agents for Indian Affairs. He was largely instrumental in bringing about the treaties between the U.S. Government and the various Indian tribes to the west & north of St. Louis. Benjamin and his brother John are mentioned as St.Louis slave owners, in the "Narrative of William W. Brown, an American Slave".

Col John O'Fallon

Colonel O'Fallon was descended from a long line of Irish kings on one side & the exploring Clarks on the other. After winning his military title in the War of 1812, he donated land for St. Louis University & built Pope Medical College which became Washington University.

Col John O'Fallon Annals of St. Louis in its Territorial Days From 1804 to 1821 by Frederic L. Billon; St. Louis, 1888

Born at Mulberry Grove, near Louisville, Kentucky, the residence of his uncle, Jonathan Clark, on Nov'r 17, 1791. His father, Doct. James O'Fallon, born at Athlone, Ireland, of a very ancient family, had served under Washington as a surgeon in the Continental Army; his mother was Francis Clark, the youngest sister of Gen'ls Geo. Rogers and William Clark, born at Mulberry Hill near Louisville, the residence of her father, John Clark, Sen'r. They were married in 1790. Doct. O'Fallon died in Louisville in 1793, leaving two sons, John, two years of age, and Benjamin, an infant.

Mrs. O'Fallon's second husband ,was Cha's M. Thruston, of Louisville, by whom she had two sons and two daughters; and her third, Judge Dennis Fitzhugh, of Virginia, by whom she had one daughter. She survived the three for several years.

When of a proper age John was sent to school at an Academy at Danville, Kentucky. In 1810 he went to Louisville to complete his education, and his brother Benjamin came to St. Louis to stay with his guardian, his uncle Gen'l ,William Clark, and went to school in St. Louis.

In the fall of 1811 Jno. O'Fallon, then 20 years of age, marched with the mounted Kentucky Volunteers, under Col. Jos. Davies, to the Indian Towns on the Wabash River, and was severely wounded at the battle of Tippecanoe, where Col. Davies was killed. After the battle he went to St. Louis, remaining with his uncle until well.

In Sept., 1812, he was appointed an Ensign in the first U. S. Infantry. In January, 1813, he was promoted to 2nd Lieutenant. In May, Aid-de-camp and acting Adjutant-General at the siege of Fort Meigs. In August, 1813, to 1st Lieut. 24th U. S. Infantry. March, 1814, Captain in the 2d U. S. Rifle Regiment. And resigned July 31, 1818, at Mackinaw.

After he left the army he settled in St. Louis and commenced business as a contractor for army supplies, &c., &c.

He was twice married, first, in 1821, to Miss Harriet Stokes, an English lady, who died Feb. 14, 1826, and secondly, on March 15, 1827, to Miss Caroline Sheets, from Baltimore.

During his long residence in our community Col. O'Fallon was one of our most prominent and public spirited men, filling many positions of trust, and exercising great influence with the people.

He died Dec. 17, 1865, at the age of 74 years, leaving four sons and an only daughter, Caroline, who was the wife of the late Doct. Chas. Pope.





Society for the Promotion of Useful Knowledge


The Danville Political Club was a debating society based in Danville, Kentucky from 1786 to 1790. Little is known of this group, but some of the members would later be implicated in the Burr Conspiracy. A list of these members follows, with founding members listed in italics: Thomas Allin, (surveyor for the Transylvania Company, Joshua Barbee, John Belli (FOUNDER, Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army from 1792 to 1794. The first settler in Scioto County, Ohio, ), James Brown, ( lawyer, U.S. Senator from Louisiana and Minister to France. served as secretary to the Virginia Governor in 1792. On June 5, 1792, Isaac Shelby, the first governor of Kentucky, nominated Brown as Secretary of State) John Brown Abraham Buford, Robert Craddock, Robert Dougherty, Baker Ewing, Willis Green (clerk of court of Lincoln County in 1783), Christopher Greenup (FOUNDER, BURR CONSPIRACY & 3rd GOV OF KENTUCKY) Harry Innes (FOUNDER, BURR CONSPIRACY AND 1ST U. S. FEDERAL JUDGE IN KENTUCKY BY GEORGE WASHINGTON on September 24, 1789, which was still part of Virginia when appointed) Gabriel Jones Johnson, William Kennedy, William McClung,(federal judge on the United States circuit court for the Sixth Circuit) Samuel McDowell, ( He served under George Washington in the French and Indian War, served as an aide-de-camp to Isaac Shelby in Lord Dunmore's War, and was part of Nathanael Greene's campaign in the Revolutionary War. Following the Revolutionary War, he relocated to Kentucky and became a surveyor. Later, he was appointed one of the first district court judges in what would become the state of Kentucky.) William McDowell, George Muter,*was an early settler of Kentucky and served as chief justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals) James Nourse, Stephen Ormsby, (became Deputy Attorney General of Jefferson County, Kentucky in 1787, judge of the district court of Jefferson County in 1791, as a presidential elector in 1796, and as a judge of the circuit court 1802-1810) James Overton, John Overton, Jr. Benjamin Sebastian (BURR CONSPIRACY and JUDGE OF KENTUCKY COURT OF APPEALS), Peyton Short ( land speculator and politician in Kentucky. He was a member of the first Kentucky Senate. He was the brother of William Short; he married the daughter of John Cleves Symmes, and was a brother-in-law of future President William Henry Harrison. PARTNER OF JAMES WILKINSON AND "STRAW MAN" FOR GEORGE WASHINGTON FOR PURCHASING LANDS IN KENTUCKY - SEE BELOW), James Speed Thomas Speed (The existence of the Club may never have been known if not for the discovery made by Thomas Speed II in 1878. Speed, the grandson of the Club secretary Thomas Speed, discovered a bundle of papers labeled "Political Club papers" while cleaning out his grandfather's desk.), Peter Tardeveau, Thomas Todd (1ST COUSIN OF HARRY INNES THROUGH THE RICHARDS FAMILY), U. S. FEDERAL JUDGE APPOINTED BY THOMAS JEFFERSON, he was mostly involved with land and survey claim disputes, was also a Freemason. He was married as 2nd wife to Dolly Madison's younger sister, Lucy Payne, wife of GEORGE STEPTOE WASHINGTON, SON OF SAMUEL WASHINGTON AND ANNE STEPTOE, BROTHER OF GEORGE) HIS SON BY 1ST MARRIAGE TO ELIZABETH HARRIS, CHARLES STEWART TODD MARRIES DAUGHTER OF GOVERNOR ISAAC SHELBY, LETITIA SHELBY. ANOTHER SON, JOHN HARRIS TODD MARRIES MARIE KNOX INNES, DAUGHTER OF HARRY INNES AND ANN HARRIS.) ANN HARRIS WIFE OF HARRY INNES AND ELIZABETH HARRIS WIFE OF THOMAS TODD ARE SISTERS. David Walker (major on the staff of Governor Isaac Shelby of Kentucky) , Matthew Walton. The Kentucky Society for the Promotion of Useful Knowledge was closely associated with the Danville Political Club


Peyton Short accompanied Charles Scott to Kentucky in 1785. (December 17, 1761 – September 1, 1825) was a land speculator and politician in Kentucky. He was a member of the first Kentucky Senate. He was the brother of William Short; he married the daughter of John Cleves Symmes, and was a brother-in-law of future President William Henry Harrison. Charles Scott (April 1739 – October 22, 1813) who was elected the fourth governor of Kentucky in 1808 and was Benjamin Tallmadge's superior. General Charles Scott, served as Washington's Chief of Intelligence, and Tallmadge was permitted some experimental leeway to try a new method involving a chain of agents with the creation of the Culper Spy Ring, George Washington's network of spies.

In October 1783, the Virginia Legislature authorized Scott to commission superintendents and surveyors to survey the lands given to soldiers for their service in the Revolutionary War. Enticed by glowing reports of Kentucky by his friend, James Wilkinson, he arranged for a cabin to be built for him near the Kentucky River, although the builder apparently laid only the cornerstone. Scott first visited Kentucky in mid-1785. Traveling with Peyton Short, one of Wilkinson's business partners, he came to Limestone (present-day Maysville, Kentucky) via the Monongahela and Ohio Rivers. Scott and Short then traveled overland to the Kentucky River to examine the land they would later claim. Scott's stay in Kentucky was a short one; he had returned to his farm in Virginia by September 1785.

On his return to Virginia, Scott employed Edward Carrington, former quartermaster general of the Southern Army, to set his financial affairs in order in preparation for a move to Kentucky. Carrington purchased Scott's Virginia farm in 1785, but allowed the family to live there until they moved to the frontier. In 1787, Scott settled near the city of Versailles, Kentucky. Between his military claims and those of his children, the Scott family was entitled to 21,035 acres (8,513 ha) in Fayette and Bourbon counties. Scott constructed a two-story log cabin, a stockade, and a tobacco inspection warehouse. In June 1787, Shawnee warriors killed and scalped his son, Samuel, while he was crossing the Ohio River in a canoe; the elder Scott watched helplessly from the riverbank. Although a small party of settlers pursued the Shawnees back across the river, they were not able to overtake them. In volume three of Theodore Roosevelt's The Winning of the West, he stated that Scott "delighted in war" against the Indians after the death of his son.

Scott focused on the development of his homestead as a way to deal with the grief of losing his son.[63] The settlement became known as Scott's Landing, and Scott briefly served as a tobacco inspector for the area.[63] Determined to make Scott's Landing the centerpiece of a larger settlement called Petersburg, he began selling lots near the settlement in November 1788. Among those who purchased lots were James Wilkinson, Abraham Buford, Judge George Muter, and future Congressman and Kentucky Governor Christopher Greenup

Letter from James Wilkinson and Peyton Short to Isaac Shelby CREATED/PUBLISHED 1789-12-19 SUMMARY One of two documents concerning a co-operative tobacco venture. Though Isaac Shelby would not be elected Kentucky's governor until 1792, he was a well-respected community leader and war hero when Wilkinson and his business partner Peyton Short contacted him. Their letter outlines a co-operative venture in which the partners would serve as agents at New Orleans for Kentucky tobacco farmers, pooling and selling the commodity in bulk. Wilkinson and Short asked Shelby to support their scheme by signing the accompanying subscription and urged him to encourage his friends to do the same.

The Political Club, Danville, Kentucky, 1786-1790: By Thomas Speed Pg 77

Peyton Short was an elector under the first constitution, and was one of the first Senators of the State, representing Fayette County from 1792 to 1796. He was born in Surrey County, Virginia, in 1761, being twenty-five years of age at the organization of the club.

Pg 78

He was the son of William Short and Mary Skipwith, she being a daughter of Sir William Skipwith, of England. Peyton Short and his brother William were educated at William and Mary College. Peyton came to Kentucky in 1785 with General Charles Scott. His letters show that he came down the Ohio River in preference to coming through the wilderness. Landing at the Falls, he made his way to Lincoln County, and stopped at Danville. He wrote in great praise of the beauty and fertility of the country. In 1788 he married Maria Symmes, eldest daughter of John Cleves Symmes, who he met two years before at the house of GENERAL JAMES WILKINSON. The youngest daughter of John Cleves Symmes afterward, in 1795, married GENERAL WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON. William Short, brother of Peyton, was Secretary of the Legation when Thomas Jefferson was Minister to France under the Congress of the Confederation. Afterward, in 1792, he was sent to Spain to negotiate concerning the navigation of the Mississippi. Subsequently he was appointed Minister to France by PRESIDENT WASHINGTON. Peyton Short lived continuously in Kentucky, owning large tracts of land in various sections. He died in 1825.

Washington, George, 1732-1799. The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library *To THOMAS MARSHALL Mount Vernon, March 30, 1798.

Dear Sir: General Spotswood, in my behalf, has requested Mr. Short to purchase a small piece of land (from a Mr. Hite) adjoining one of the tracts I hold on Rough Creek, in the State of Kentucky; and wch, it is said, would add much to the value of mine. Should this purchase take place, and a good and sufficient conveyance thereof be made, and duly executed to your satisfaction, I hereby authorise you to draw upon me in payment thereof, for any sum, not exceeding Three hundred pounds or One thousand Dollars, at Sixty days sight, and the Bill shall be punctually paid. I have had no further draughts upon me for the non-resident tax upon the 5000 Acres of Land which I hold on the Rough Ck. of Green River, but shall be ready to pay at all times such Bills as may be presented for this purpose. With very great esteem etc.

To ALEXANDER SPOTSWOOD Mount Vernon, March 30, 1798.

Dear Sir: Your letter of the 23d. instant only got to hand last night, and whether this reply to it may reach you in time, is questionable. Your suggestion I have adopted; and you will perceive by the enclosed letter to Colo. Marshall, left open for your perusal, sealing, and forwarding, that I have authorised that Gentleman in case Mr. Short should make the purchase from Mr. Hite, to draw upon me at Sixty days sight for any sum not exceeding Three hundred pounds, upon due execution of conveyance of the same to me. Mrs. Washington will have an opportunity this day of informing Mr. Lewis of the recovery of his daughters health, as she proposes to call there. This family are all well, and unite with best regards to you and yours, with Dear Sir etc.

To ALEXANDER SPOTSWOOD Mount Vernon, July 15, 1798. 8

[Note:The "Letter Book" copy in the Washington Papers dates this July 16. ] Dear Sir: Your favour of the 6th inst. has been duly received, but it came to hand when I was so much engaged, as not to be able to give it an earlier answer. With respect to the land which Mr. Short was authorised to purchase for me, I have nothing to add; save a wish that he would get it as much under the price limited, as he can; for I have been disappointed in the receipt of money where I thought no disappointment could have happened. But will, notwithstanding, honour any draught of Mr. Short's that is made conformably to my former letter. As the business committeed to Mr. Field, went no further (if I recollect rightly) than to make preparatory enquiries, nothing further need be said on that head, until his report is received. But from your Acct. of Colonel Marshall's inactivity, corroborated by his silence, it seems indispensible that the situation of my lands on Rough Creek should be looked into without delay; and if Mr. Short would be so obliging as to do this, and would pay, or give me advice of what taxes are due upon those lands, it would intitle him to my best thanks; which should be rendered with a re-fund of any expence he may incur in the business the moment it is made known to me. The family here, are much as usual, and unite with me in best regards for you, Mrs. Spotswood and all with you. With very great esteem I remain. PS. I have written a Letter to Mr. Short,9 and placed it under cover with this, for you to read, seal, and deliver, or to forward, as the case may be. [Note:See Washington's letter to Peyton Short, July 16, 1798, post]

To PEYTON SHORT16 [Note:Then in Kentucky. ] Mount Vernon, July 16, 1798.

Sir: General Spotswood having informed me of the trouble he was about to give you on my account, I have only to hope that it may not be great, at the same time that I assure you, that whatever is done under that Power and conformably thereto, shall be strictly complied with on my part. One trouble Sir, frequently draws on another. It is some years since I requested my old acquaintance and friend, Colo. Marshall, to see that the Lands I hold on Rough Creek, in two tracts, of three and two thousand Acres, were not involved in any difficulty on acct. of the non-payment of Taxes. It is now sometime since he has drawn on one for the amount; to what cause owing I am unable to say. It is incumbent however on me to enquire, as I always have been willing, and still am ready, to pay whatever is due on them. Will you permit me, my good Sir, to request the favour of you to make enquiry into this matter; and inform me of the result. And if time and the circumstances of the case, will not await a remittance from hence; that some means may be devised to pay the money there, which shall be returned with thanks and interest, so soon as it is made known to Sir Your etc.

QUOTAS OF TROOPS FROM SOUTHERN STATES39 [Note:To augment the regular Army. ] Mount Vernon, October 15, 1798.

By the Act "To augment the Army of the United States, and for other purposes" Twelve Regiments of Infantry, and six Troops of light Dragoons are to be added to the present force. By the Establishment of them, the first will consist of 7,680 Rank and File, and the second of 354. If four Regiments of the former, and all the latter, are to be raised in the States South of the Potomack, the quota of each State, agreeable to the Population, to the present Representation, and to a medium between the two, will be as follow Virginia (GIVES NUMBERS) No. Carolina (GIVES NUMBERS) The remoteness of Kentucky and Tennessee from the Sea board, where it is presumed the Theatre of the War will be; is opposed to the raising of Dragoons in either of those States. And to avoid broken Companies of Infantry, or Troops of Dragoons, in any other State, the following plan of arrangement, of both Officers and Privates, conformably to the preceeding calculation and principle (as nearly as the case will admit) is made The appointments of Adjutants, Quarter Masters, Paymasters, Surgeons and Surgeons Mates; Sergeant Majors, Quarter Master Sergeants and Senior Musicians, does not press; and of necessity must be postponed where Regiments are composed of Troops from different States until they have united, or are about to unite. The Corporals, Saddlers, and Farriers are included in the above Rank and file The Lieutt. Colo. Commandant of the Dragoons is not assigned to any State, because it is not known from whence the most eligable character can be obtained; another Majr. of Dragoons is also wanting. If Major Talmadge would accept the command of this Corps, I know of none who is [more] preferable. A Captn. Watts 40 of this State, and Officer of celebrity in the Revolutionary War, is very highly recommended by General Lee, as is a Captn. Armstrong 41 (now of Georgia) by the same, but what the conduct of these Gentlemen have been latterly, and what their politics now are he knows not. Perhaps the oldest Captain of Dragoons, now in Service, or both of them, may be meritorious Officers; and entitled to consideration. [Note:John Watts. He was commissioned lieutenant colonel commandant of the cavalry regiment in January, 1799; honorably discharged in June, 1800. ] [Note:James Armstrong. He was commissioned major in the Fifth U.S. Infantry in July, 1799; honorably discharged in June, 1800.

To THOMAS MARSHALL, JUNIOR Mount Vernon, October 22, 1798.

Sir: Your favor of the 4th. of August came safe to my hands under cover from Mr. Colston, whom I have authorised to draw upon me for the full balance as stated in the a/c transmitted by you. It dwells however upon my mind (but not perfectly) that the first item therein, viz, £8.17.3 has been paid to some person who appeared authorised to receive it; but as my voluminous Papers (brought from Philadelphia) are not yet all opened and assorted, I am not able to ascertain this fact, or speak with the least decision on the subject, and therefore have, as before mentioned, desired Mr. Colston to draw upon me, in favor of his correspondent in Alexa, for the whole amount. If, hereafter, it should be recollected by Colo. Marshall, or appear by any receipt I shall find, that the above sum of £8.17.3 has been paid, it can be allowed in the next account. I feel much obliged by your kindness in paying the Taxes of my land upon Rough Creek, for the years 1796 and 1797; and for the services you have rendered me in entering them at the Auditors Office for future taxes, agreeably to your late Act of Assembly, relative to Non-residents. and you would add to the obligation by continuing to pay the dues thereon as they arise, and drawing upon me for the amt. But previous to this, let me request the favour of you to enquire of Mr. Short (if you should see him) whether he has done any thing in this matter, or not; for not having heard for a long time in what Situation, or jeopardy the Land might be, Genl. Spotswood who had business to transact with that Gentleman, and he understood it was threatened, was requested to ask him to examine, and do what was needful to rescue it, if really in danger, from the threatned evil, which he kindly promised to do. My best wishes and respects are offered to Colo. Marshall. I am etc.





His memorial. Wikipedia The Spanish Conspiracy Innes was admitted to the bar in 1773, and worked briefly as a lawyer in Bedford County, Virginia. He worked in a variety of government jobs from 1776 until 1782, as an administrator for the Lead and Powder Mines, Blue Ridge Mountains, Virginia from 1776 to 1777, a land claims adjuster for Western Virginia from 1777 to 1780, and an escheator for Bedford County, Virginia from 1780 to 1782. In 1782, he was made an assistant judge of the Supreme Court of Judicature for the Kentucky District of Virginia. Innes' work as a judge still allowed him time to practice law, farm, and invest in real estate. He was also a trustee of Transylvania University. Innes resigned as presiding judge in 1784 after he was appointed Attorney General for the western district of Virginia, an office that he held from 1784 to 1789.

1779 Appointed by Virginia legislature to determine claims to unpatented lands in district around Abingdon, Va.

1785 Moved to Kentucky. He represented clients, many of whom were residents of other states or were absent from Kentucky, in registering and investigating land claims, collecting debts involving mortgaged lands, overseeing property, and in litigation over land surveys.

Innes was a member of eight of the ten conventions leading to the separation of Kentucky from Virginia, and was a vocal proponent of separation. He also served as president of the first electoral college which chose Kentucky's first Governor and Lieutenant Governor.

On September 24, 1789, President George Washington nominated Innes to be the first federal judge of the United States District Court for the District of Kentucky, created by 1 Stat. 73, and at the time still a part of Virginia. Innes was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 26, 1789, and received his commission the same day.

After Kentucky separated from Virginia, Innes was selected to be chief judge of the Kentucky Court of Appeals (then the state's highest court), but declined the appointment, remaining instead on the District Court. He was the only federal judge in Kentucky until the Judiciary Act of 1801 made what had been the Kentucky District Court a part of the new Sixth Circuit. In 1802 the Judiciary Act of 1801 was repealed and Innes was once again the judge of the District of Kentucky. He remained in office until his death on September 20, 1816, in Frankfort, Kentucky.

He was implicated in the conspiracies linked to General James Wilkinson, which sought to separate Kentucky. Congress did not impeach Innes and he pressed libel suits against his accusers.

Innes Collection consists of two letters written by Harry Innes to William Taylor. The letters were dated, Dec. 17, 1809, and August 2, 1815, respectively. The two documents concern the land of Mildred Lightfoot. The first discusses her land survey, while the second is concerned with Philip Lightfoot's claim to the land. Philip came "to this country for the purpose of gaining information respecting the title", of the land. Innes requests Taylor to take Lightfoot to the claim and also forwards money for expenses Taylor might incur. The letters were mailed from Franklin County to Shelby County, Kentucky. ********


One of the first judges of the Kentucky Court of Appeals was Benjamin Sebastian.

In 1803, Kentucky had been fairly well populated, and some one thousand people inhabited Breckinridge County. In this year (1803) Thomas Jefferson, president of the United States, succeeded in purchasing from France for the sum of $15,000,000 what is known as the Louisiana Purchase. This doubled the size of the United States. Alexander Hamilton had been challenged by Aaron Burr to a duel in which Hamilton was killed.

Because of this duel, Burr became very unpopular in the East and came to Kentucky. On arriving in the West, Burr spent a few days in Lexington after making the acquaintance of Benjamin Sebastian and James Wilkinson. He later went to Nashville, Tennessee, where he spent some time with Andrew Jackson. It was on this trip that Burr decided to take over the Louisiana Territory and become King Burr. Right at this particular time, which was just prior to our second conflict with England (War of 1812) Kentucky was experiencing trouble with the Indians of the Northwest and our only trade outlet was down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans. Burr conceived the plan of trading Kentucky to the Spanish for their support in securing the Louisiana Territory. It was about 1806, that Judge Sebastian became one of the foursome (Aaron Burr, Judge Innes, James Wilkinson, and Benjamin Sebastian) in what is known as the Burr Conspiracy or Spanish Conspiracy. It was discovered the Judge Sebastian, while he was a member of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, was drawing a pension of $2,000 a year from King Charles of Spain and on December 6, 1806, the Kentucky House of Representative voted the articles of impeachment against Judge Sebastian. He, together with Aaron Burr and Wilkinson, was indicted. Henry Clay was the attorney for Aaron Burr and Ben Hardin, formerly of Elizabethtown or Hines Fort as it was originally called, was attorney for Judge Sebastian. This Ben Hardin is the same one, who was the first Commonwealth Attorney of Grayson County. Henry Clay was undoubtedly the greatest lawyer in the west and Burr was acquitted upon the technicality that no overt act of conspiracy upon his part had be established. Mr. Ben Hardin saw that it was a foregone conclusion that the senate would convict Judge Sebastian upon the articles of impeachment, so he asked for a compromise, whereby the charges would be dismissed, if Sebastian would resign as the Judge of the Court of Appeals. It is my opinion that Judge Sebastian was a loyal Kentuckian who had been misled into believing, due to geographical conditions, Kentucky would prosper more as a Spanish Colony. Judge Sebastian, with this blemish upon his character, in order to get away from the public gaze, went to what is now Falls of Rough in both Breckinridge and Grayson County and purchased several thousand acres of land. Some years later he went to Washington D. C. and met with the older Willis Green who at that time was a member of Congress. While he was in Washington he sold to Willis Green his entire holdings in Kentucky.

Colonel Willis Green came in possession of this land in 1820. In 1823, he built the house, store, and mill that stands there today. George Wilson built the first dam and Benjamin Sebastian built the second one across the river. It too was made of logs and did not last too long. It washed out after Mr. Green took it over. Mr. Green built the dam out of rock but made the mistake of running it straight across the river even though it was tied well at each end. It lasted for several years but a flash flood hit the same in 1855 and it split in two in the middle and opened up like a giant double gate that’s hinged on each end and fastened in the middle. At this time the Green estate had fallen into the hands of Mr. Lafe Green. Money was scarce at the Green plantation and he had to make some move so he borrowed $20,000 from B. F. Beard in Hardinsburg to rebuild the dam. Mr. Beard had just recently returned from California, where he had participated in the ’49 Gold Rush, and was one of the fortunate ones who struck it rich. His wealth, however, was not gained by pick, shovel, and gold pan. He was one of the smarter ones who made his fortune in straight business deals and lived to bring it home. After borrowing the $20,000 Mr. Green rebuilt the dam from stone. The work was done by a Mr. Edgar Bennett, one of the finer stone masons of Basin Springs. Each stone in the base layer had a hole drilled in it and a matching hole drilled in the solid bedrock in the bottom of the riverbed. An iron pin was put in these holes making it impossible for the base of the dam to move. This rock dam was built on an angle where the pressure above only tended to strengthen it and it stands today a tribute to the ingenuity of its builder. Willis Green and George Washington "1st Pres US" are 2nd cousins 1 time removed. Their common ancestors are Augustine Warner and Mildred Reade.

Collection #SC 1728, OM 0084 BENJAMIN SEBASTIAN (1745–1834) PAPERS, 1795–1807 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sebastian was a Kentucky attorney and judge of the Kentucky Appellate Court (1792-1806). He participated in the intrigues with Spain to break Kentucky and the western country away from the United States (1796); received a pension from Spain; and resigned his judgeship after public disclosure of his Spanish ties (1806). SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE The collection consists of documents and letters relating to Sebastian’s involvement in the Spanish Conspiracy. Included are documents relating to the 1796 meeting between Sebastian and Francisco Luis Hector de Carondelet, Spanish governor of Louisiana; letters of Sebastian and his attorney, James Brown, regarding the accusations against Sebastian; and letters regarding Sebastian’s efforts to have his pension from Spain continued after 1806. Correspondents include James Brown, Francisco Luis Hector de Carondelet, and Henry Clay Manuscript and Visual Collections Department William Henry Smith Memorial Library Indiana Historical Society 450 West Ohio Street Indianapolis, IN 46202-3269


An Artist in Treason: The Extraordinary Double Life of General James Wilkinson By Andro Linklater, pg 11 Aged thirteen the boy (Wilkinson) was sent with several others, including his brother, Joseph, and JOHN CUSTIS, GEORGE WASHINGTON'S STEPSON, TO BALTIMORE, seventy miles away, to be inoculated against smallpox, an expensive precaution that was, he explained, restricted to "young gentlemen from the Southern provinces."

Biography. James Wilkinson Once Governor of Louisiana and the Man Date: Sunday, July 29, 1900 Paper: St. Louis Republic (St. Louis, MO) Volume: 93 Issue: 29 Section: Magazine Page: 6


James Wilkinson, born 1757 and died 1825, had a strange career. He was a solider of the revolution, leaving the service under a cloud, which was never satisfactorily cleared away. He was a trader in Kentucky in 1788, and afterwards, and was thought to be in league with Spaniards to alienate the colonists West of the Alleghanies from the Government of the United States. This suspicion was confirmed years after his death by his letters to Spanish officials in the archives at Madrid. He was Military Governor of Louisiana for several years after the purchase of Louisiana Territory. He was implicated in the Burr conspiracy, and finally warned the Government of the designs of that picturesque man. He was discharged from the service of the United States Army after the War of 1812, and removed to Mexico, where he died. A strange record, indeed!

Accused of traiterous designs, in at least two instances, he was doubtless unfaithful to the confidence put in him by his fellows. He had served with some distinction in the Revolution, but was deep in the "Conway cabal," for which it had for its purpose the disposing of Washington and the placing of Gates in the role of commander-in-chief. It was through him that the fact of the existence of the conspiracy leaked out. Adroit as he was, he could not explain his treachery to Gates, nor convince Washington that he was not connected with the disreputable conspiracy. Distrusted by his fellow officers he resigned his brevet rank as General, but retained his commission as Colonel. He was not again actively employed till toward the end of the Revolution, when he served for a time as clothier general of the army.

Again, when Military Governor of Louisiana, with the troops under him at New Orleans, he was deep in the scheme with Burr. When the critical moment came, however, he failed to set in accordance with the plan, and sent information against Burr to the Government at Washington. Burr always spoke with bitterness towards Wilkinson, and called that General a "traitor" to him.

This solider of the revolution, Wilkinson, removed to Kentucky about the year 1784. The history of the colonies South of the Ohio river is closely connected with Spanish intrigue. The Spaniards held New Orleans and they refused to allow the planters of the transalleghany country to navigate the Mississippi. Thus the colonists had no market for their produce save by the extremely ardous method of transporting across the mountains eastward. It was safer to let it rot in their barns than undertake such a journey. Besides this difficulty, the colonists had another pressing danger to face-the danger of incursions from the Indians. Supplied with arms and set on by Spain, the Creek Indians headed by the notorious half breed Alexander McGillivray, kept the colonists in a constant state of alarm. Spain wished to drive the pioneers from their homes, thus crippling the power of her enemy, the United States. The American Government itself was kept too busy with questions of diplomacy, the adjustment of the affairs with European nations to do more than make tentative efforts to relieve the settlers of the West. Their was much disaffection among the settlers of the Mississippi Valley, and there were those who contemplated setting up a separate government. Wilkinson was prominent among these men. He was in the pay of the Spaniards for the accomplishment of this very purpose Spain was jealous of the power of the United States, and she had sought to exterminate the hardy settlers by means of her allies, the Indians, but now another policy was to be pursued.

Writing in his history of Kentucky, Humphrey Marshall says: "Nature herself had gratuitously furnished Wilkinson with a passport which insured his favorable reception wherever he was seen and heard-a passport expressed in a language which all mankind could read, whose influence every one felt, and none which would suspect, or scrutinize on the first perusal. A person not tall enough to be perfectly elegant, was compensated by its symmetry, and the appearance of health and strength, a countenance open, mild, capacious, and beaming with intelligence; a gait firm, manly and facile, manners bland, accommodating and popular; an address, easy, polite and gracious, invited approach, gave access assured attention, cordiality and ease. By these fair forms he he conciliated; by these he captivated. The combined effect was greatly advantageous to the General, on a first acquaintance-which a further intercourse contributed to modify."

In Kentucky Wilkinson saw he could make a fortune if he could obtain a concession enabling him to navigate the Mississippi. He set about the attainment of this object with a shrewdness that would have been admirable had he been actuated by any but the most morbid personal motives. The ulterior project he might prosecute or abandon, as circumstances should render expedient.

In his "Advance Guard of Western Civilization," James R Gilmore, records that "a dense mystery overhung the whole transaction (Wilkinson's concessions from the Spanish Government) for all of fifty years, and until the curtain was lifted from it by the Spanish Government, consenting to the examination of Wilkinson's correspondence and Miro's dispatches. Then it was discovered that this native-born American, only recently in the official service of his country, and soon to be elevated to the chief command of her armies, had bargained to barter away the District of Kentucky, and in deed, the whole territory as far East as the Alleghanies, for a mass of Spanish pottage.

"It has been questioned whether Wilkinson went further than to deceive the Spanish authorities with a pretended disloyal intent towards his own Government. He exaggerated, it has been said, his own importance and influence and promised much to the Spaniard which he never could have performed, and scarce thought of performing. And he did so purposely, that he might extract the money which his extravagance required. He kept no promise made to the Spanish Intendant, but regularly received the King's money. In other words, he was a traitor to both the Spaniards and his own countrymen."

The plans of Wilkinson to swing the Western settlements away from the Union were not fulfilled, and the purchase of Louisiana by the United States Government forever settled the question of the ownership of the Mississippi River. Wilkinson had been made military commander of Louisiana. To him came Aaron Burr, whose disastrous duel with Hamilton had occurred a short time previously. It seems that Burr's project to found a great Southwestern empire came slowly into shape, and that Wilkinson was a party to the plan. Wilkinson gave to Burr a letter of introduction to Daniel Clark, a prominent citizen of New Orleans.

"My dear Sir-This will be delivered to you by Colonel Burr, whose worth you know well how to estimate. If the persecutions of a great and honorable man can give title to generous attentions, he has claims to all your civilities and all your services. You cannot oblige me more than by such conduct, and I pledge my life to you it will not be misapplied. To him I refer you for many things improper to letter, and which he will not say to any other. I shall be in St. Louis in two weeks, and if you were there, we could open a mine, a commercial one at least."

The phrase "many things improper to letter" is significant. Clark's own comments on Wilkinson's letter are as follows, written Pardon in his "Life of Burr": " the things which it was improper to letter to me are pretty plainly expressed in a communication made about the same time (by Wilkinson) to General Adair. The letter is dated Rapid of Ohio, May 25, 1805/6 (?) and contains these expressions: "I was to have introduced my friend Burr to you, but in this I failed by accident. He understands your merits and reckons on you. Repair to me and I will tell you all. We must have a peep at the unknown world beyond me' The letter to me I think fully proves that some secret plan of Burr's was known to Wilkinson in May, 1805. That to General Adair leaves no doubt on the subject. Immediately after this he went to St. Louis, where his very first act, before he had broken bread in the territory was an endeavor to bring Major Bruff into his plans. He tells him that he had "a grand scheme" that would make the fortunes of all concerned; and although Major Bruff's manor of receiving this overture put a stop to any further disclosure; yet we may judge of the nature for it was introduced by a philippie against democracy, and the ingratitude of Republican Governments."

The plan to conquer Mexico and establish a government with Burr at the head seemed feasible with Wilkinson's aid. Wilkinson was at New Orleans, with well drilled troops at his command, and it seemed that war with Spain was imminent. "The summer of 1805 was a busy one indeed, with Wilkinson." writes Mr. Parton. "What with fortifying New Orleans, transporting troops to the Sabine, and writing long dispatches to the Secretary of War, the portly General had his hands full. He had never before been such an important personage. Besides being Governor of a Territory, he was the commander-in-chief of the army; and the critical relations existing between Spain and the United States fixed upon him, for the time, the eyes of two nations.

"At the last moment Wilkinson shrank from the work expected of him. The probability is strong that he always meant to do so. That he was a weak, vain, false, greedy man, is likely enough. That carried away by the magic of Burr's resistless presence, and hoping the scheme would never involve him in its folds, he suggested, encouraged, and aided it, is very probable. That he had given Burr to understand in some way that he would strike a blow which would begin war whenever it should be needed, is also probable. That he chose the part that he did choose from a calculation of advantage to himself, from motives mean and mercenary, rests upon evidence that convinces. Nevertheless, the fact remains, that he did not strike the blow; he did not involve two nations in war; he did not shape his course to the wishes of Aaron Burr, instead of the orders of Thomas Jefferson. If he was a traitor, he was a traitor to his confederates, not to his country, his commission, his flag.

"While Wilkinson was still in some doubt what course to pursue, he received a letter from an acquaintance in Natchez which (he says) decided him. It stated that a well-authenticated rumor was a float that a plan to revolutionize the Western country had been formed, matured and ready to explode; that Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, Orleans, and Indiana are combined to declare themselves independent on November 15. That proposals have been made to some of the most influential characters of St. Louis, by an accredited agent of the conspiracy, to join in the plan. And pages more to the same effect.

"Then it was that the General, perceiving the golden opportunity, fully resolved to set up in the character of deliverer of his country."

The fame of such an action of loyalty might have crowned a man was not destined to be General Wilkinson's. Although he has written a lengthy memoir, defending the various positions which he took and about which his loyalty was so much questioned, this work is not convincing. He was courtmartialed in 1811, charged with treasonable connection with Burr, and acquitted. At the close of the War of 1812 he was discharged from the United States service. He then removed to Mexico, where he owned much property. He died there December 28, 1825. The verdict of history seems to be that Wilkinson's claim to be a deliverer of his country is not in accordance with facts.


The American soldier and adventurer James Wilkinson was born in Calvert County, Maryland, in 1757. At the outbreak of the American Revolution he abandoned the study of medicine to enter the Continental Army, and he served with General Benedict Arnold in the Quebec campaign and was later under General Horatio Gates, acting from May 1777 to March 1778 as adjutant-general of the Northern Department. He was sent to Congress to report Gates's success against Burgoyne, but his tardiness secured for him a sarcastic reception. Gates recommended him for a brigadier-general's commission for services which another actually performed, and succeeded in gaining it, but their friendship was broken by the collapse of the Conway Cabal against George Washington in which both were implicated and about which Wilkinson had indiscreetly blabbed. Wilkinson then resigned (March 1778) his newly-acquired commission, but later rejoined the service in the quartermaster-general's department, and was clothier-general from July 1779 to March 1781. In common with many other army officers Wilkinson now turned toward the West, and in 1784 settled near the Falls of the Ohio (Louisville), where he speedily became a prominent merchant and farmer and a man of considerable influence. He began to take an active part in the movement for separate statehood for Kentucky, and in 1787 he entered into an irregular commercial agreement with the Spanish officials of Louisiana. At this time, as his own papers in the Spanish archives show, he took an oath of allegiance to Spain and began to intrigue with his fellow Kentuckians to detach the western settlements from the Union and bring them under the influence of the Louisiana authorities. His commercial connections at New Orleans enabled him to hold out the lure of a ready market at that port for Kentucky products, and this added greatly to the strength of the separatist movement. He neutralized the intrigues of certain British agents who were then working in Kentucky. For these various services he received until 1800 a substantial pension from the Spanish authorities, being officially known in their correspondence as "Number Thirteen." At the same time he worked actively against the Spanish authorities, especially through Philip Nolan. Wilkinson's ventures were not as lucrative as he hoped for, and in October 1791 he was given a Lt. Col.'s commission in the regular army, possibly, as a contemporary suggested, to keep him out of mischief. During this year he took an active part in the minor campaigns which preceded General Arthur St. Clair's disastrous defeat by the Indians. As brigadier-general (from March 1792) and second in command, he served under General Anthony Wayne in the latter's successful campaign of 1794 against the Indians, and in this campaign he seems to have tried to arouse discontent against his superior among the Kentucky troops, and to have intrigued to supplant him upon the reduction of the army. Upon Wayne's death in 1796, Wilkinson became general in command of the regular army, retaining his rank as brigadier and likewise his Spanish pension. He seems to have tried to stir up both the Indians and the Spaniards to prevent the survey of the southern boundary of the United States in 1797 and 1798, and succeeded in delaying Commissioner Andrew Ellicott for several months in this important task. At the same time his protege, the filibusterer, Philip Nolan, was engaged in a reconnaissance for him west of the Mississippi. In 1803 Wilkinson was one of the commissioners to receive Louisiana from France, and in 1805 became governor of that portion of the Louisiana Purchase above the 33rd parallel, with headquarters at St. Louis.

In his double capacity as governor of the Territory and commanding officer of the army, reasonably certain of his hold on Thomas Jefferson, and favorably situated upon the frontier remote from the center of government, he attempted to realize his ambition to conquer Mexico. For this purpose in 1805 he entered into an agreement with Aaron Burr, and in 1806 sent Zebulon Pike to explore the most favorable route for the conquest of the Southwest. Before his agent returned, however, he had betrayed his colleague's plans to Jefferson, formed the Neutral Ground Agreement with the Spanish commander of the Texas frontier, placed New Orleans under martial law, and apprehended Burr and some of his alleged accomplices. In the ensuing trial at Richmond the prisoners were released for lack of sufficient evidence to convict, and Wilkinson himself emerged with a much damaged reputation. He was then subjected to a series of courts-martial and congressional investigations, but succeeded so well in hiding traces of his duplicity that at the start of the War of 1812 he resumed his military command at New Orleans, and in 1813 was promoted major general and took possession of Mobile. Later in this year he made a most miserable fiasco of the campaign against Montreal, and this finally brought his military career to a dishonorable end. For a time he lived upon his plantation near New Orleans, but later appeared in Mexico City as an applicant for a land grant, incidentally acting as agent for the American Bible Society. Here on the 28th of December 1825 he succumbed to the combined effects of climate and of opium.

LATER INTRIGUES WITH THE SPANIARDS By ISAAC JOSLIN COX VOL. XIX., No. 4 JULY, 1914 The withdrawal of the Spanish garrison from Natchez in 1798 and the double territorial transfer at New Orleans in 1803 mark two conspicuous stages in the American advance to the Gulf of Mexico. As commander of our unpretentious army General James Wilkinson took an important part in both events. During the intervening years his routine dealings with the Spaniards apparently convinced both them and his superiors that he wished no friendship with them beyond the pale of national honor. Many of his contemporaries in New Orleans interpreted his attitude towards the French and his prominence in the formal transfer as a pledge of continued loyaltv to the American government. The Spaniards had first surmised this loyalty six years before when he rejected their proffer to assist him in becoming "the Washington of the West ". Shortly after, they yielded the Natchez district to his troops and ceased attempts to pay the pension previously assigned him. Yet in the midst of the turmoil and uncertainty that for a few months marked the American occupation of Louisiana vague rumor asserted that the general was renewing a dangerous intimacy with his former Spanish friends, and a sudden acquisition of newly- coined Mexican dollars apparently confirmed the charge. During the succeeding decade this report caused Wilkinson considerable annoyance, although his most persistent accuser, Daniel Clark, tailed to present legal evidence to substantiate it. But the crafty Spaniards who kept documents whenever they spent dollars, have preserved this evidence for us in the vast Archives of the Indies at Seville. Thus we may present additional testimony to the Proofs lA paper read at the meeting of the American Historical Association. December 30, 1913 2 Manuel Gayoso de Lemos to the Prince of the Peace, June 0, 1798. Archivo General de Indias, Seville: Papeles de Cuba, legajo 178 no_20. 3 Testimony of John McDonough in Clark, Proofs of the Corruption of General James Wilkinson, p. 27, and app. no. 24, p. 51- 4: Ibid., pp. 81 and 82. 5 The writer wishes to acknowledge the assistance, of unearthing this evidence of Mr. Roscoe R. Hill, whose researches in the Cuban Papers, under the direction of the Department of Historical Research of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, have greatly facilitated his own work. He is likewise under of the Corruption of General James Wilkinson, which the author of that famous diatribe was unable to secure

In February, 1804, Don Vizente Folch, governor of West Florida, chanced to be in New Orleans and while there renewed with the general those reprehensible relations that he elsewhere calls ancient History. As in his previous intrigues, Wilkinson took Se of secrecy. Thus fortified he began their first interview by making "various reflections upon the course that Spain should pursue to prevent the United States from profiting at its expense by the cession of Louisiana. The conspicuous part that he had taken in this act apparently did not deter him from offering to aid its former owner Folch may. have thought that he was simply trying to plav the double mercenary game that always characterized him, yet he seems to have found something valuable in his " Reflections ". Upon the governor's suggestion, therefore, the other promised to write them out in detail Folch was then to translate the work and send it to his immediate superior, Captain-General Someruelos of Cuba

At the conclusion of the interview Wilkinson brought up a matter which he confessed was of considerable embarrassment to him It shortly appeared that the embarrassment was of the chronic financial kind that he frequently experienced, which in itself will explain his continual double-dealing. He stated, so Folch tells us that some fifteen years before he had been promised an annual pension of two thousand dollars, but that for the past ten vears he had received nothing. He was about to go north to Washington and suggested that Folch should pay him the sum due on his pension his constant travelling expenses and other needs would make this very acceptable. In return he promised to furnish the text of his "Re- flections , and in addition to ascertain the plans and purposes of Jefferson and the cabinet ministers and report thoroughly thereon. He wouldd be able to do this for he knew "what was concealed in the heart of the President "an insight of which few of his contemporaries dared boast. But Wilkinson was trying to impress the Spanish governor.

Folch did not have enough money on hand to meet the ordinary expenses of his government, to say nothing of a demand like the present, even if it should be reduced by one-half, as Wilkinson speedily suggested. Nor could he refer the matter to the intendant, Morales, with whom neither he nor Wilkinson was on good terms. He suggested, therefore, that they should apply to the Marques de Casa Calvo, who, as boundary commissioner, was then in New Orleans to settle the limits of Louisiana with the Americans. The marques had recently received one hundred thousand dollars from Mexico, and from this he might readily and covertly furnish Wilkinson with a portion of his original demand. The other demurred at this.

I am afraid [he said], and you ought to guess why. You know better than I that the marques is entirely under the direction of his secretary; that the latter is not capable of keeping a secret, and he would hardly learn of my plan before communicating it unreservedly and in complete detail to his friend and comrade, the intendant. At present the latter is on very intimate terms with Mr. Daniel Clark, and they are like- wise associated in land speculations. I also ought to tell you that Clark corresponds with Jefferson, who has asked the former to give him his views regarding the kind of government to be established in Louisiana. I am a lost man, if the secretary should learn of what I propose.

Folch tried to calm his fears by offering to speak to Casa Calvo in person. " I see that you do not know the marques very well ", replied the anxious general. " It seems to me that both he and his secretary look upon you as a very serious rival, and as we have no other recourse, I prefer to open up the subject myself with the marques, and will do so next Sunday, using Mr. Gilbert Leonard as interpreter."

On the following Sunday evening, therefore, Wilkinson reported to Folch that he had broached the subject to the marques. The latter told him that he could not keep the affair from his secretary, but that he would vouch for the latter's silence ; nor could he give the whole twenty thousand dollars, but would pay such part as his limited resources permitted. Casa Calvo insisted that his secretary rather than Folch should translate the text of Wilkinson's "Reflections ", but Wilkinson was obdurate upon this point. For the next twenty days, therefore, Wilkinson busied himself in preparing his copy which Folch translated quire by quire. At the same time he wrote to the Secretary of War that he was "collecting topographical information in all directions and at some expense which I am persuaded you will find highly interesting".* So he was, but as usual he did not tell the whole story.

Wilkinson accompanied the memorial with an explanatory letter that seemed especially to arouse Casa Calvo's opposition. In this he stated that his course was inspired by his extreme interest in the prosperity of both countries. It is doubtful if such pretexts ever deceived the Spaniards who hoped to profit by his treachery. He certainly lacked a sense of humor or credited the Spaniard with lacking it, when he averred that while bound to the United States by the tie of birth, he was likewise united to the interests of Spain "by the most solemn obligations of gratitude ". The cultured official whom he thus assured doubtless knew that such ought to be the case and also the exact financial outlay by which his country had gained this gratitude. He seems to have doubted its potency, however, when expressed through several channels, for he strenuously objected to the brief list of his fellow-officials whom Wilkinson thought it necessary to inform of his "humble though zealous agency". Even Wilkinson's old friend Gilbert Leonard might not act as intermediary, and at the same time, to avert suspicion, serve as vice- consul in New Orleans. As Casa Calvo "did not possess the English idiom", he must perforce use his secretary, Don Andres Armesto, as interpreter. Wilkinson had previously told Folch that the secretary " could not keep a secret". Now he praised him to Casa Calvo for his "wisdom and probity".

Thesis of Austin Travis Wheeler Page 16 Another revival of literature on General James Wilkinson occurred during the first quarter of the twentieth century thanks in part to the discovery of correspondences in the Archivo General de Indias (A.G.I.) in Seville, Spain and the Archivo Histórico Nacional in Madrid. Also included among the Papeles de Cuba papers are Wilkinson letters written in cipher. A majority of the ciphers are decoded and reveal the intended message while some of the ciphers are incomplete, and the messages remain encrypted. What was so important and sensitive that Wilkinson felt it necessary to write to the Governors of Louisiana in code? If his true connections to the Spanish were purely commercial then why would it be relevant to correspond in cipher? The ciphers were composed by a series of numbers that corresponded with a pocket dictionary supplied to the governors by Wilkinson. On December 19, 1790 Wilkinson send a packet enclosed with two dictionaries to Gayoso and Miró. Within the dictionary were keys on how to decipher his future correspondence.24 Wilkinson never mentioned the specific dictionary he sent. Several historians have noted that it was an Entick pocket dictionary, but more than twenty differeThe first change to the cipher occurred on February 6, 1790. George Dunn was sent by Wilkinson to deliver to Esteban Miró two dictionaries that served as keys to future correspondence.27 In 1793 the ciphers key was changed again when the General sent a letter presumably to Governor Miró explaining he could not find the same edition as before. The letter was delivered again by George Dunn, the nephew of Isaac B. Dunn and former business partner of Wilkinson.28nt dictionaries were published in the United States before 1800, and that 24 James Wilkinson, Louisville, Kentucky, to Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, February 6, 1790, AGI, PC, legajo 2374, Seville, Spain.

Page 17

The first change to the cipher occurred on February 6, 1790. George Dunn was sent by Wilkinson to deliver to Esteban Miró two dictionaries that served as keys to future correspondence.27 In 1793 the ciphers key was changed again when the General sent a letter presumably to Governor Miró explaining he could not find the same edition as before. The letter was delivered again by George Dunn, the nephew of Isaac B. Dunn and former business partner of Wilkinson.28

Patent: VA 6644.0 Description: WILKINSON, JAMES in Kentucky Secretary of State, Grant Bk 14, pg 280, James Wilkinson, Bourbon Cty, 5000 acres, assignee of Alexander D Orr, land treasurey warrant no 19254, 25 April 1788, lying and being in Fayette and Bourbon Counties Kentucky, assigned 22 Aug 1789

Patent: VA 7858.0, Grant Book 11, pg 397 Kentucky Description: WILKINSON, JAMES warrant no 10216 for Daniel Boone 10,000 acres, 22 Dec 1782, entered 26 Dec 1782, Fayette Co , surveyed for James Wilkinson 4 Mar 1785

Patent: VA 7852.0 Description: WILKINSON, JAMES, assignee of Alexander D Orr, surveyed 8 March 1786 warrant no 19315 for Alexander Orr 10,625 acres 12 Sept 1783, Fayette Co, Patent: VA 7853.0 Description: WILKINSON, JAMES no 6316 Alexander D Orr 10, 625 acres surveyed 8 march 1786

The Natchez Court Records, 1781-1798, 68 Book B Natchez Court Records p. 300 27 June 1789 James Wilkinson to Jacob Phillis, of this district, a negro man "Benjamin" aged 23, nat. of North America for $460 in hand paid

p 301 30 June 1789 James Wilkinson to Richard Ellis of dist 7 negros (unnamed) native of the U S for $3500 specie, terms


Philip Nolan (his find a grave memorial) is listed in the Nacogdoches Census of 1792 with his birthplace listed as Belfast, Ireland. The Supplement to the Texas Handbook states Philip Nolan's father was Peter Nolan and that his mother was the former Elizabeth Cassidy. Nolan was a tall, dark haired man with a ruddy complexion. People of the time said he had amazing personal strength. Philip Nolan was raised for a time in the house of General James Wilkinson, who in 1798 was the ranking general in the United States Army.

Man without a country by Edward Everett Hale Nolan - It was his father’s badge of the Order of the Cincinnati. (WHICH IS THE SOCIETY OF CINCINNATI

Memoirs of My Own Times, Volume 2 By James Wilkinson, Page 117, Chapter IV New Orleans January 6, 1796

My dear General,

I wrote to you last year from Natchez, informing you of my then situation and my prospects, I am now again here in safety from my third trip to the unknown land. I brought 250 horses to Natchez, and left them in a rush brake, with my faithful Forester and two young Mexicans, and came to this place to do honor to the Baron. I have been called on by your friend Gilberto, to examine the state your accounts with Don Estephen Miro (who is reported dead). I demanded the balance, but he observed that it was stipulated between you and your friend, that it was to be paid by installments; and I could only get nine thousand dollars, which I will forward (to avoid dangers of the sea) by the Mississippi, as I cannot find insurance under (Pg 118) a premium of 12 1/2 percent. You have a copy of the account inclosed, as rendered by him to me, which leaves a balance of 2095 dollars in your favour. You will excuse me, when I recommend it to you to pay this sum to the heirs of Bouregard, who are much dissatisified with you, as they have not received satisfaction, for the money you were authorized by them, to collect from the state of Virginia. The Contador Don Morales is concerned in that claim; he of consequence is your enemy, and is disposed to give you all the trouble in his power. If you have any future commerical views to this place, you should endeavour to do away his prejudices.

I objected to the immoderate premium, on the money forwarded by our unfortunate friend Owen, but Gilberto observed that there was no regular office, and he was obliged to make a private contract; however, this may be, as matters have turned out, it is not for you to complain.

CLARK has called on me for 337 dollars, an error in the settlement made between his partner REES and yourself; I have informed him I would take your advice on the subject.


Expect me next summer, and believe me your devoted PHILIP NOLAN

Wikipedia reports about the House on Ellicott's Hill also known as Connelly's Tavern: "In 1797, before the house was built, Andrew Ellicott was sent by George Washington to mark the boundary between the United States and Spanish Louisiana, which had been set at the 31st parallel by the Treaty of San Lorenzo de Real. When he arrived on February 24, he set up camp on the bluff atop which the house is located, raising the American flag for the first time over the new territory.[5]" Philip Nolan was with Ellicott at that flag raising.

Memoirs of My Own Times, Volume 2 By James Wilkinson


APPENDIX NO V DEPOSITION OF DANIEL CLARK, WASHINGTON CITY, JAN 11, 1808 In obedience to the direction of the House of Representatives, express in their resolution of Friday last, I submit the following statement.

I arrived from Europe at New Orleans, in December, 1786, having been invited to the country, by an uncle, of CONSIDERABLE WEALTH AND INFLUENCE, who had been long resident in that city. Shortly after my arrival, I was employed in the office of the secretary of the government. In 1787, GENERAL WILKINSON, made his first visit to New Orleans and was introduced, by my uncle, to the Governor, and other officers, of the Spanish government.

In the succeeding year, 1788, much sensation was excited, by the report of his having entered into some arrangements, with the government of Louisiana, to separate the western country from the United States; and this report acquired great credit, upon his second visit to New Orleans, in 1789.

...The general project was, the severance of the western country from the United States, and the establishment of a separate government, in alliance, and under the protection of Spain. In effecting this, Spain was to furnish money and arms, and the minds of the western people, were to be seduced, and brought over to the project; by liberal advantages resulting from it, to be held out by Spain. The trade of the Mississippi, was to be rendered free, the port of New Orleans, to be opened to them, and a free commerce allowed, in the productions of the new government, with Spain, and her West India Islands.

...and that was in 1804, shortly after the General's departure from New Orleans. I HAD BEEN ABSENT FOR TWO OR THREE MONTHS, AND RETURNED TO THE CITY, NOT LONG AFTER GENERAL WILKINSON SAILED FROM IT.

PG 632 ANSWERS BY ANDREW ELLICOTT, PENNSYLVANIA, BOROUGH OF LANCASTER that before he left the city of Philadelphia in the year 1796, as COMMISSIONER ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES, TO CARRY INTO EFFECT THE SPANISH TREATY, PRESIDENT WASHINGTON COMMUNICATED CONFIDENTIALLY TO THE AFFIRMANT, THAT SUSPICIONS HAD SIGNIFIED TO HIM, OF CERTAIN CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES, improperly connecting themselves with the Spanish government, among whom GENERAL WILKINSON was mentioned, and requested this affirmant to pay attention to that subject, but in as PRIVATE A MANNER AS POSSIBLE, to prevent the increase of suspicions perhaps ill founded. ....SPY THOMAS POWER....THAT THE INSTRUCTIONS OF PRESIDENT WASHINGTON WERE VERBAL AND NOT WRITTEN.....THAT THE NAMES OF MR. SEBASTIAN AND MR BROWN (NOT SENATOR BROWN) WERE ALSO MENTIONED BY THE PRESIDENT TO HIM...34TH interrogatory - knows nothing of the intercepting letter in question; but it was laid before him, at the HOUSE OF DANIEL CLARK, WHERE HE LODGED, either by MAJOR MINOR, NOLAN, OR CLARK. 49th and 50th interrogatory-no person applied to him for information on the subjects, before mentioned, unless MR DANIEL W COXE, OF PHILADELPHIA , who called on him, in the month of January last, and told him, the affair between General Wilkinson and Clark, was becoming very serious, and asked him, if he was willing to take a trip to Washington

The sixth interrogatory, he answers, that he became acquainted with PHILIP NOLAN, about the beginning of JANUARY, 1797, AT THE CONFLUENCE OF THE RIVERS MISSISSIPPI AND OHIO

To Lyman Harding, 1 Atty. for the United States The Grove near Natchez Mississippi Territory April 9th, 1800 Sir

It is encumbent upon me to call your Particular and im- mediate attention to service for the United States, in my View at this Juncture, highly important to National Dignity and In- terests and specially essenial to the safety and Welfare of the Good people of this Territory - 'Tis legally to Effect the Resto- ration to my Order for the Use of Government, of an Indian Interpreter who has been forcibly withdrawn from his Duty, 'Lyman Harding, first Attorney-General of Mississippi Territory.

GOVERNOR WINTHROP SARGENT. 221 by a Mr. John Minor and a Mr. Nolan now Residing within this Territory and in direct Violation of express stipulation Verbally made with his Master, by myself in behalf of the United States: your application will no doubt be to one of the Terri- Territorial Judges and that you may urge sir upon the indispensi- ble necessity for this Measure, that causes of Mutual Complaint and Crimination are almost every day arising between the White and Red people, absolutely Requiring the services of an Interpre- ter for amicable adjustment - and that I am not authorized to employ any other than the one I demand Indeed that I know of no other adequate to the purpose who could be engaged, and that from his detention therefore, will probably accrue very serious and alarming Consequences - His name is Cesar, He was placed under my direction, in the service of the United States, in the October of 1798 - by Mrs - Minor, her husband (his Master) being then absent, and upon his return very soon after, I Received from him positive assurance that he should Continue in Public Service during my pleasure, for a Compensation which he fully submitted to me to name, and which I fixed at fifteen Dollars per Month - the highest Wages I had known to have been given to a Prime slave, and made my Report to the proper De- partment Accordingly - To all which, I am ready to make sol- emn Oath.

With much esteem I am, Sir, your obedient humble servant Signed Winthrop Sargent

Mr. Harding Attorney

April 11th - Evening

I open this Letter sir, to add through you for the information of the Judges, that from an affray between some Indians and White people, death will probably ensue to one of the former,

1 Philip Nolan, a protege of Gen. Wilkinson.

222 MISSISSIPPI TERRITORIAL ARCHIVES. who are now numerous in the Country and threaten Vengeance - My interference can not be made for want of an Interpreter

To John Minor. The Grove Evening gir of April 3d. 1800 From your note of this date, I write what I have verbally expressed to you, and I believe also to Mrs Minor, that the Major at or about the time of his leaving this Country, offered to sell Cesar x to me for the sum of three Hundred Dollars, or to Con- tinue him in Public Service, under my direction, and during my pleasure, with such pay as I might deem adequate Compensation He Sir, made no Stipulation for 30 Dollars per month, or indeed any sum whatever and my Estimate to the Department of State for Cesars Services, is but the Moity of your Expectation.

I am desirous of Promoting Major Minors interest, and fully satisfied, that when we meet, there will be no difference of senti- ment upon this Business.

At present Public Service seems to Render it essential that Cesar should Remain Subject to my Order — On this Condi- tion Sir you may draw upon me in behalf of the Major, for the sum of three Hundred Dollars

I am with esteem &c your

Obt. humble Svt Winthrop Sargent

Mr. John Minor

'A negro slave, the property of Major Stephen Minor, who had been employed by Gov. Sargent as an interpreter in his dealings with the Indians.


This slave, Cesar, was with Philip Nolan on his final expedition into what became Texas when Nolan was subsequently killed by the Mexican's on an ambush 21 March 1801 somewhere near south of Clebourne, Texas. On 19 Dec 1799 at Lintot Home, Adams Co. Mississippi, Philip Nolan married Francis Lintot, the daughter of Bernard Lintot. Another daughter of Bernard Lintot, Katherine, was already married to STEPHEN MINOR who served as Gov. Manuel Gayoso's right hand man and was a friend of James Wilkinson. Stephen Minor was the brother of John Minor above.

The Minor papers are scattered in various locations:

Minor Family Papers, 1763–1900

MAY 8, 1790 Arriving by flatboat from PENNSYLVANIA

An Englishman's 1797 visit to Natchez and the story of Stephen Minor



Gayoso, Minor & Concord: Final days of Spanish Natchez


Gov Winthrop Sargent's (May 1, 1753 – June 3, 1820) was a United States patriot, politician, and writer; and a member of the Federalist party. In 1786, he helped to survey the Seven Ranges, the first lands laid out under the Land Ordinance of 1785. With inside knowledge of the area, he went on to form the Ohio Company of Associates, was an important shareholder in the Scioto Company, and as of 1787, secretary of the Ohio Company. Sargent was appointed by the Congress of the Confederation as the first Secretary of the Northwest Territory, a post second in importance only to the governor, Arthur St. Clair. He took up his post in 1788, and in 1789 he married Roewena Tupper, a daughter of Gen. Benjamin Tupper, at the settlement of Marietta in the first marriage ceremony held under the laws of the Northwest Territory. Like St. Clair, Sargent would function in both civil and military capacities; he was wounded twice at the Battle of the Wabash, on November 4, 1791. He also served in the Indian wars of 1794-5 and became adjutant general. On August 15, 1796, he would, as Acting Governor, proclaim the establishment of Wayne County, the first American government in what is now Michigan. President John Adams then appointed Sargent the first Governor of the Mississippi Territory, effective from May 7, 1798 to May 25, 1801. His last entry as Northwest Territory's secretary was on May 31, 1798; he arrived at Natchez on August 6, but due to illness was unable to assume his post until August 16. His grandson Winthrop Sargent (23 September 1825 Philadelphia – 18 May 1870 Paris) was an author. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1845, and from Harvard Law School in 1847, and settled in Philadelphia, and afterward in New York City, where he practiced law. He wrote for the periodical press, especially on genealogical and historical subjects. His publications include History of an Expedition against Fort Duquesne in 1775, under Major-General Braddock, edited from Original Manuscripts, which was commended by George Grote, the historian, and was described by Washington Irving as “ably edited, with an admirable introductory memoir” (Philadelphia, 1855); The Loyalist Poetry of the Revolution (1857); The Journal of the General Meeting of the Cincinnati (1858); Loyal Verses of Joseph Stansbury and Dr. Jonathan Odell, with Introduction and Notes (Albany, 1860); Life and Career of Maj. John André (Boston, 1861); and Les États Confédérés et de l'esclavage (The Confederacy and Slavery; Paris, 1864). For many years he was engaged in preparing a catalogue raisonné of books relating to America, which he left unfinished.

Sargent's sister, Judith Sargent was an author and whose books were purchased by George Washington.

Washington, George, 1732-1799. The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library To JUDITH SARGENT STEVENS MURRAY Mount Vernon, June 4, 1798. Madam: Strange as the relation of it may appear, it is not less true, that your letter of the 29th. of March did not get to my hands untill yesterday; at which time your other favour of the 28th. Ulto was also received; for they came by the same Mail.

The Books, which were reed. in very good order, and has been read with very great pleasure; came at the times, and in the manner you directed, and are entitled to my best thanks. This acknowledgment would have been made at an earlier period had I not waited expecting to be advised, to whom, or how I should make payment (having forgot the terms of the Subscription) and request now to be informed.

Had I received your favour of the 29th. of March with the first set of the Gleaner, I should, however I might have been indebted to your goodness for an excuse, have reproached myself severely for any delay in the acknowledgment of it, and of those favourable sentiments which on all occasions that have occured, you have been pleased to express in behalf of Madam Your etc.

P.S. Mrs. Washington and Miss Custis are grateful for your kind remembrance of them and requests that their compliments may be presented to you in acceptable terms.

Judith was married to a minister, JOHN MURRAY. He was suspected of being a British spy, but in 1775 was appointed chaplain of the Rhode Island Brigade before Boston by General George Washington despite petitions for his dismissal by other chaplains over his rejection of belief in hell.


Letter from Daniel Clark to Thomas Jefferson New Orleans 12 November 1799 SIR

I have had the pleasure of receiving the letter you wrote me in June last, and of delivering that which was inclosed for Mr Dunbar who thinks himself honor'd by your application to him. Whilst at his House we had the satisfaction of seeing Mr Philip Nolan arrive from New Mexico, he has brought with him 1000 head of Horses and by a singular favor of Providence has escaped the snares which were laid for him - Gayoso the late Governor of the Province of Louisiana, a few months before his Death wrote to the Governor of Texas the Province confining on this to the Westward to arrest Nolan on his return as a Person who from the Knowledge he had acquired of the interior parts of New Mexico, might one day be of injury to the Spanish Monarchy, the thing would have been effected according to his Wish & Nolan might probably have been confined for Life on mere suspicion, but fortunately the Governor of Texas died a few days

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before the Letter reached San Antonio the Capital of his Government- The person exercising the Office of Governor pro. tem. knowing that another had been appointed by the Vice Roy refrained from opening the Letters directed to the late Governor and during this interval Nolan who was unconscious of the machinations of his Enemies passed thro' the Province, was treated as usual with the utmost attention, and only learned the Circumstance from me a few days ago when preparing to go to the Frontier of Texas to bring in a small drove of Horses which he had still remaining there.

The certainty that this blind yet suspicious people would never believe that he could correspond with a Person in your high station on any Subject unconnected with Politics induced me to request you would give nothing to the World which could be traced to him, for any Communication how innocent soever in itself would be suspected & in case of discovery would have been fatal-He has no longer any thing to fear on this Head and he proposes shortly forwarding you the information

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you require.

In company with him is a Person a perfect master of the Language of signs of which Mr Dunbar has made mention in his Letter to you; I have proposed to Nolan to send him on to the U.S. that you might have an Opportunity of learning from him many curious particulars respecting his Country, and have offered to defray his Expences till his return here and make him beside a compensation for his time-if he can be induced to undertake the Voyage I shall take the Liberty of giving him a Line to you that you may know the Man. As the manners Customs, situation of the Country Strength, Population &ca are altogether unknown to the People of the U.S. you will not I hope take the liberty amiss, and the Novelty will probably compensate the trouble of acquiring the information.

Should any particulars respecting this Country strike you on which I could procure intelligence I would spare no trouble in getting it, and where connected with Subjects with which I may be unacquainted, my connexions here are

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such that I flatter myself I could obtain it by applying to none who have had better Opportunities & more leisure than myself to attend to the pursuits of Science. In your Letter to Nolan I think you hinted that Horses are found no where in a wild state but in America, I some time ago by accident stumbled on a Work entitled Voyages aux Peuples Samreides in which mention is made of some found Wild in Siberia or in Tartary, they are represented as small, exceedingly fleet, & hard to catch living on the borders of the Settlements & of great injury to the Inhabitants by the destruction of their Crops, I paid no attention to the thing at that time but if the Book falls again in my Way I shall forward it to you, as it may contain other particulars on the same subject which I do not recollect, the title may however be sufficient for you to procure it.

As this Country produces excellent Oranges, I have presumed to send to the care of Mr Daniel W Coxe of Philadelphia a barrel hand picked & well put to be delivered to you and a Box of Paccan Nuts, these are

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not I understand common in the Atlantic Parts of the U.S. they grow every where on the Banks of the Mississippi Maps » from the Ilinois River Maps » to the Sea, generally in the low grounds and even Places occasionally overflowed by the annual rise of the Waters, the Tree grows to the usual size of Forest Trees and affords a delightful Shade in summer, it might be worth while to cultivate it in Virginia for use & ornament. I propose to send you shortly by way Baltimore if no Opportunity offers direct for Virginia a Bag or superior kind which I am promised by a Friend and will occasio take the liberty of sending you any thing which I may suppose either rare or curious with you that I can procure here.

I remain with Respect Sir Your most obedient & most h Servant

Daniel Clark Junr

Thos Jefferson Esqr.


Daniel Clark to Thomas Jefferson, February 12, 1799

Source: Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress Overview: Daniel Clark, of New Orleans, writes to Thomas Jefferson on behalf of Philip Nolan, promising a summary of Nolan's information and impressions about New Mexico and the Louisiana Territory. Clark also uses the letter to introduce Jefferson to the work of William Dunbar.

New Orleans 12 February 1799


You will pardon the Liberty I take in addressing you when I inform you that your Letter of the 24th. June of last Year directed to Mr Philip Nolan (with whom for many Years I have been connected in the strictest Friendship) has in his absence come into my possession. That extraordinary and enterprising Man is now and has been for some Years past employed in the Countries bordering on the Kingdom of New Mexico either in catching or purchasing Horses, and is looked for on the Banks of the Mississippi Maps » at the fall of the waters Maps » with a thousand Head which he will in all probability drive into the U.S. Having directions from him to peruse all Letters addressed to him previous to their being forwarded that in case of accident, no expression contained in them should awaken the Jealousy of the suspicious people among whom he has by a coincidence of fortunate Circumstances introduced himself, I have by this means acquired a knowledge of the object of your researches, & shall feel particular pleasure in affording my mete of assistance to forward your Letter in safety to him.

You judge right in supposing him to be the only person capable of fulfilling your Views as no Person possessed of his talents has ever visited that Country to unite information with projects of utility.

Shortly after his return, but not before on acct. of the impossibility of applying himself during his travels with that attention he could wish to the subject, I will be responsible for giving you every information he has collected, and it will require all the good Opinion you may have been led to entertain of his veracity not to have your Belief staggered with the accounts you will receive of the numbers, & habits, of the Horses of that Country and the people who live in that Neighborhood whose Customs & ideas are as different from ours as those of the Hordes of Grand Tartary. Did it not interfere too much with your other occupations I would presume to request you would point out particular subjects on which my Friend should enlarge, as some which would be probably very interesting to you, might be overlooked or seem too trivial to him to notice from having come so often under his observation. In this case your Letters addressed to the care of Mr Tench Coxe of Philadelphia to be forwarded to me will shortly get to Nolan's hands, and I take the Liberty of referring you to Mr Coxe for a knowledge of my Character, that you may not be under any apprehension concerning the Person to whom you write.

Mr. Ellicott the Commissioner on the part of the U.S. for running the Line of demarcation with Spain being now Visitor in my House

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and having at his arrival in this Country been acquainted with Nolan who gave him considerable information on the subject in Question, I have hinted to him your Wish of acquiring the same Knowledge, and he will doubtless think himself happy in contributing as far as lies in his power to this End until Nolan himself can have an Opportunity of giving you perfect Satisfaction.

In the mean time I must suggest to you the necessity of keeping to yourself for the present all the information that may be forwarded to you as the slightest Hint would point out the Channel from whence it flowed and might probably be attended with the most fatal consequences to a man, who will at all times have it in his Power to render important Services to the U.S., and whom Nature seems to have formed for Enterprizes of which the rest of Mankind are incapable.

Should any accident happen which would deprive the World of this extraordinary Character, his Papers which are confided to me & a mutual Friend now in the Spanish Service, shall be carefully examined, and every thing relating to that Country shall be forwarded to you with such other remarks as both of us from our own Knowledge & information have acquired.

The desire I have that you should be possessed of every information and the certainty that the Philosopher & Politician will excuse the freedom of the Persons interesting themselves in procuring such as may be useful embolden

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me to mention Mr William Dunbar a Citizen of Natchez in the Mississippi territory as a person worthy of being consulted by you on subjects relating to this Country its productions, or any philosophical Question connected with them.

He was for some time employed by the Spanish Government as their Astronomer on the Line of demarcation, but has retired to his Estate, and for Science, Probity & general information is the first Character in this part of the World. His long residence in this Country still but little known to Men of letters, its Situation with respect to many Savage tribes, some of which lately inhabited the very Place where he resides & where their Vestiges are still perceptible, the extensive Communication with remote parts presented by the Mississippi Maps » and concourse of Indians & traders, have given him many Opportunities of making Observations which may not have presented themselves to others & may not probably occur in future, to these may be added those he has made on the Country itself, its population, manners Customs of the Inhabitants, the different Changes in their Government for the last 40 Years, the Climate, soil & Trade which are but little known abroad and they will I hope appear so important to a person whose reputation is so great as yours as to procure me your Indulgence for the Liberty I have taken.

I have the Honor to remain with Sentiments of the greatest respect & Esteem Sir Your most obedient & most humble Servant

Daniel Clark Junr


Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Dunbar

Title: Thomas Jefferson to William Dunbar, January 16, 1800 Source: Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress Overview: Thomas Jefferson writes to William Dunbar, thanking him for promised communications about Native languages from Western groups and meteorological observations that may be used in comparative studies. Reports from Dunbar were read at the American Philosophical Society and several appear in the "Reports" section of this archive.

Philadelphia Jan. 16. 1800 Sir

Your favor of Oct. 6. has been duly recieved & I am much flattered with the prospect of your communications. The vocabularies of the Western Indians are much desired; and your meteorological observations will also be very acceptable; as they will furnish materials for a comparative view of Climates. Your letter gives me the first information I have ever had of the language by signs used among the Indians. I can entertain no doubt of it's perfectibility after what I have myself seen practised by persons born deaf. A very particular account of it will be considered as a valuable acquisition. Mr. Clarke writes me that a person accompanies Mr. Nolan who is deeply versed in it, & expresses a thought of sending him on to this place. But I rather think it is best that the account should be taken from him with you, where your knolege of the subject will enable you to do it better, and he might be disappointed in the object of his journey here by that dispersion into the distant parts of the Union which takes place among us after the rising of Congress. We are not without hopes that Mr. Nolan may decide to try the Virginia market with his horses. In that case as my residence is on his best route, I may have the pleasure of seeing him personally and perhaps of purchasing one of his fine animals for the saddle, which I am told are so remarkable for the singularity & beauty of their colors & form. Accept assurances of the great regard & esteem of Sir Your very humble servt.

Th: Jefferson

William Dunbar esq. at the Natchez


Letter from Daniel Clark to Thomas Jefferson

Title: Daniel Clark to Thomas Jefferson, May 29, 1800 Source: Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress Overview: Daniel Clark writes to Jefferson of Philip Nolan's departure for the United States, and notes that an inhabitant of the land "West of the Mississippi" accompanies him for Jefferson's edification, so that he may be "the first to acquire particular information of a Country now almost unknown to the U.S." page 1

New Orleans 29 May 1800 SIR

I should have answered before this your letter of the 20th. January, the duplicate of which forwarded by Sea as well as the original by Post having reached me, had I not entertained hopes that Mr. Brown would have forwarded the Busts agreeable to your directions, and that I should have the pleasure of advising you of their reception - I have however heard nothing of them and the Season being already far advanced, am fearful unless you put him in Mind of his promise, they will not reach you as soon as you desire. On their getting to me, you may be assured I shall spare no trouble in procuring a safe & speedy conveyance for them. There is now in the possession of the Bishop of this Place a small stone Image which I believe has formerly served as Bowl to an Indian Pipe, it was found some Years ago in the district of Opelousas a little to the West of the Mississippi Maps » buried in an old Indian Mount, and bears a strong resemblance to the Indians of that Country, it is of a very hard Stone, the figure is kneeling

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with the hands joined and raised as high as the Breast, in the attitude of a person at Prayer, the workmanship is rude it is true, but it surpasses what I thought such unskilful Carvers as Indians capable of, before the introduction of European Instruments. Those acquainted with the characteristic Marks of the Indians could easily tell what Nation the individual was of whom the figure was intended to represent, but I think the Idea of a Person kneeling in the attitude of devotion is a strange one to Indians, if it was not meant for a supplicating Posture, the Back of the figure would be turned to the Person smoking, & the Bowl of the Pipe is either in the head or Shoulders, and the whole figure from 4 to 6 Inches long, as well as I can recollect, it being some Years since I saw it-if I cannot obtain it I will have a drawing of it made and send it to you with an acct. of what kind of Stone it is made of.

Mr Nolan has by this time or will shortly set off for Virginia with a number of Horses and will avail himself of your permission to wait on you, he has with him a Horse such as I hope will suit you and which I intreat you will do me the favor

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to accept-in your Country where fine Horses are so common he will be only remarkable for Colour-had I been sooner informed of your desire of having such a Horse I could have sent you a very elegant and uncommonly spotted one, which is unfortunately no longer in my possession-you will I trust take the Will for the deed, and permit me if I should see anyone in future that I think worthy your acceptance, to offer it to you.

When in my last I mentioned my intention of sending the Inhabitant of the western Country to the place of your residence, it was with the Idea that you might think it worth while to be among the first to acquire particular information of a Country now almost unknown to the U.S., tho destined by nature to have at no remote period a close connexion & great intercourse with them, independent of the information he possesses respecting his own Country & its Inhabitants who are plunged in Ignorance & Want & groaning under despotism civil & religious, in the heart of one of the finest parts of the World, he is perfectly acquainted with the manners of the Indians to the West of the Mississippi, and as he

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now accompanies Nolan, you may if you think proper learn from him many particulars, which few but yourself will have any information of, it is but very lately that the people he lives among have heard of the Americans or their Government, and they almost look up to both already with that Veneration & respect with which their own Ancestors were received on their first landing in America.

I am happy to learn that the few Pacans I sent you are likely to turn to such good account, and sincerely wish your Grove of them may flourish, if there are any other Trees, Shrubs or any thing else which this Country produces & hitherto either not naturalized or neglected with you I would take pleasure in procuring any you might desire, and forward them in safety to you

I remain with respect Sir Your most obedient & most humble Servant Daniel Clark Junr

Thos Jefferson Esqr.



Report from William Dunbarto the American Philosophical Society Title: William Dunbar to the American Philosophical Society, via Thomas Jefferson, read January 16, 1801. Source: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. IV. Philadelphia, 1804.

Overview: This letter, with several other missives and reports written by Dunbar, were forward by Jefferson to the American Philosphical Society, where they were read before the Society and later published in the Transactions of the Philosophical Society of America in 1804. Dunbar describes the sign language used by Native Americans between the Mississippi River and the "Western American ocean."

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TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, &c. No. I. On the Language of Signs among certain North American Indians. By William Dunbar, Esq. of the Mississippi Territory, communicated by Thomas Jefferson, President of the Society. Read 16th January, 1801. NATCHEZ June 30, 1800.

SIR MR. Nolan's man of signs has been here, but was so occupied that a long time elapsed ere I could have an opportunity of conversing with him, and afterwards falling sick was seized with such an invincible desire of returning to his own country, that I had little hopes of gaining much upon his impatience.

A commencement however we have made, and although little has been done, it is sufficient to convince me, that this language by signs has been artfully and systematically framed. In my last I took notice of some analogy which I conceived to subsist between the Chinese written language and our Western language by signs; I had not then read Sir George Staunton's account of the British Embassy to China. I will here beg your permission to transcribe a paragraph or two from that work, which appear to strengthen my ideas of the probability of their common origin. "Almost all the countries border

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ing on the Chinese sea or Eastern Asia, understand and use the written Chinese, though not the oral language. About 200 characters mark the principal objects of nature; these "may be considered as roots of language, in which every other word or species in a systematic sense is referred to its proper genus or root. The heart is a genus represented by a curve line, somewhat of the form of the object, and the species referable to it, include all the sentiments, passions, and affections that agitate the human breast, each species being accompanied by some mark denoting the genus or heart." Now Sir if the commencement of this extract was altered and we were to say "Almost all the Indian nations living between the Mississippi Maps » , and the Western American ocean, understand and use the same language by signs, although their respective oral tongues are frequently unknown to each other," the remainder of the paragraph would be perfectly descriptive of the organization of this language by signs, and would convey to an adept a full and complete idea of the systematic order which has been observed in its formation. Permit me to refer you to the short and very imperfect list of signs enclosed, where you will find water to be a genus, and rain, snow, ice, hail, hoar-frost, dew, &c. are species represented by signs more or less complex, retaining always the root or genus as the basis of the compound sign.

We are also informed that "if any uncertainty remains as to the meaning of a particular expression, recourse is had to the ultimate criterion of tracing with the finger in the air or otherwise, the form of the character and thus ascertaining at once which was meant to be expressed:" here also is a strong analogy between the language and practice of those countries so far separated from each other, for those Western Indians are so habituated to their signs that they never make use of their oral language, without instinctively at the same time tracing in the air all the corresponding signs, which they perform with the rapidity of ordinary conversation. I cannot avoid concluding that the custom of the Chinese of sometimes tracing the characters in the air, is a proof that this language by signs was at early periods of time universally used by them and by all the nations of the east coast of Asia; and perhaps if enquiry

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be made it may be found that the usage of this universal language is not yet totally neglected. In the above-mentioned account of the embassy, we are told only, I think, of three Chinese characters, the sun represented by a circle, the moon by a crescent, and man by two lines forming an angle representing the lower extremities; those three signs are precisely the same which are used by the Western people: in order to represent the two first mentioned, the thumb and fore-finger of the right hand are formed either into a Circle or Crescent, and the sign of man is expressed by extending the fore-finger of the right hand. and bringing it down, until it rests a moment between the lower extremities.

It is probable that Chinese Sailors or others, may be found in your maritime towns, who might give some useful information, and it cannot I suppose be difficult to procure a collection of Chinese characters with English explanations, which would afford an opportunity of making farther comparisons upon a future investigation of this curious subject. I think Captain Cook says, some where, that in some of the Islands of the Western pacific he found persons who possessed a great facility of communicating their ideas by signs and made much use of gesticulations: this was probably no other than the language by signs; and if it is found that the Chinese actually use at this day upon some occasions a language by signs, actual experiment alone will convince me that it is not the same which is used by our Western Indians. Hence would spring forth an analogy and connection between the Continents of the New and Old World which would go directly to the decision of your question, without. being involved in the ambiguity arising from the imperfect resemblance of words.

WILLIAM DUNBAR. Thomas JEFFERSON, President A. P. S. page 4

Signs made use of by the Indian Nations to the West of the Mississippi Maps » , referred to in the foregoing letter. White, with the under side of the fingers of the right hand,. rub gently upon that part of the left hand which corresponds with the knitting of the bones of the fore-finger and thumb. Egg. The right hand held up with the fingers and thumb extended and approaching each other as if holding, an Egg within. Stone. The right hand shut give several small blows on the left. The same or similar to what went before, Place the two fore-fingers parallel to each other and push them forward a little. Water. The hand formed into a bowl and brought up to the mouth passing a little upwards without touching, the mouth. Rain. Begin with the sign of water, then raise the hands even with the forehead, extending the fingers outwards and give a shaking motion as if to represent the dripping of water. Snow. Begin with the sign of rain, then the sign of air or cold and conclude with the sign of white. Ice. Begin with the sign of water, then of cold, then the earth and lastly a stone with the sign of sameness or similarity. Hail. Begin with the sign of water, then the sign of cold next the sign of a stone then the same, then the sign of white and lastly conclude with the sign of an Egg; all which combined gives the idea of hail. Frost. Begin with the sign of water, then the sign of night or darkness then the sign of cold, then the sign of white and lastly the earth. Cloud Begin with the sign of water, then raise the two hands as high as the forehead and placing them with an inclination of 15[degrees] let them gently cross one another. Fire. The two hands brought near the breast touching or approaching each other and half shut, then moved outwards moderately quick, the fingers being extended and the hands a little separated at the same time, as if to imitate the appearance of flame. Bring, fetch or give me. The hand half shut with the thumbs pressing against the fore-finger, being first moderately extended either to the right or left, is brought with a moderate jerk to the opposite side, as if something was pulled along by the hand. Consequently the sign of water preceding this sign would convey the expression "give me water."

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Earth. The two hands open and extended, brought horizontally near each other opposite to either knee, then carried to the opposite side and raised in a curve movement until brought round and opposite to the face. Air. The right hand held perpendicularly upwards and brought forwards with a tremulous or vibratory motion until it passes beyond the lace. Big, great or large. The two hands open placed wide apart on each side the body and moved forwards. Fear. to he afraid, to cause fear. The two hands with the fingers turned inwards opposite to the lower ribs, then brought upwards with a tremulous movement as if to represent the common idea of the heart rising up to the throat, the three last signs placed in the order given, would convey the idea of a violent hurricane. Sun. The thumb and finger forming a circle elevated in front towards the face. Moon. The thumb and finger open are elevated towards the right car; this last sign is generally preceded by sign of the night or darkness which Night is the two hands open and extended crossing one another horizontally. Heat. The two hands raised as high as the head and bending forwards horizontally with the points of the fingers curving a little downwards. Cold. The same sign as for air, but when applied to a person the right hand is shut and held up nearly opposite the shoulder and put into a tremulous motion. I. The fingers of the right hand laid against the breast. This last sign with that preceding placed after it would signify I am cold. Smoak. Begin with the sign of fire then raise the hand upward with the fingers open as if to represent smoak.

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Clear. The hands are uplifted and spread both ways from the head. Bow The left hand being a little extended, the right hand touches it and makes the motion of drawing the cord of the bow. Thunder. The sign of rain accompanied by the voice imitating the rumbling sound of thunder. Lightning. First the sign of thunder, then open or separate the hands and lastly bring the right hand down towards the earth in the center of the opening just made. Cow. The two fore-fingers brought up to the side of the head and extended outwards so as to represent the position of the horns. Male and Female. Note, to distinguish between the Male and Female in all cases add for the male a fillip, with the fore-finger of the right hand on the cheek and for the female, bring the two hands open towards the breast, the fingers approaching and then move them outwards. Gelt. Bring the fingers and thumb of the left hand together as if something was held by them, then approach the right hand and make the motion of cutting across what is supposed to be held in the left hand, and then draw off the right hand as if pulling away what has been cut. Dunghill fowl. Bring the thumb and fingers of the right hand together, and holding the hand moderately elevated, move it across imitating the motion of the head of a cock in walking. Turkey. The open hands brought up opposite to the shoulders and imitating slowly the motion of the wings of a bird, to which add the last sign. Duck. The last sign, then the sign. of water, and lastly the sign of swimming which last is performed by the fore-finger of the right hand extended outwards and moved to and fro. Horse. The right hand with the edge downwards, the fingers joined, the thumb recumbent, extended forwards. Deer. The right hand extended upwards by the right, ear, with a quick puff from the mouth. Man. with the fore-finger of the right hand extended and the hand shut describe a line beginning at the pit of the

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stomach and passing, down the middle of the body as far as the hand conveniently reaches holding the hand a moment between the lower extremities. Woman. The finger and thumb of the right hand partly open, and placed as if laying hold of the breast. Child. Bring the fingers and thumb of the right hand and place them against the lips, then draw them away and bring the right hand against the fore arm of the left as if holding an infant. Should the child be male, prefix the sign of a man before the last sign, and if a female, do so by the sign of the woman. Boy. Bring the fingers and thumb of the right hand to touch the lips, then extend the hands and make the sign of man, then raise the hand with the fingers upwards and placed at the height of a boy. Girl. Begin with the above sign and make the sign of woman, and then raise the hand to the height of the girl. You. The hand open held upwards obliquely and pointing forward. He, or another. The fore-fingers extended and hands shut, and fingers brought over one another, or nearly touching and then separated moderately quick. Many or much. The flat of the right hand patting on the back of the left hand; which is repeated in proportion to the greater or lesser quantity. Know. The fore-finger of the right hand held up nearly opposite to the nose, and brought with a half turn to the right and carried a little outwards. Place any of the articles before the last sign; which will then signify, I know, you know, he knows -both hands being made use of in the manner described, implies to know much. Now, or at present. The two hands forming each an hollow and brought near other and put into a tremulous motion upwards and downwards. Come here. The hand stretched outwards with the palm under, and brought back with a curve motion downwards and inclining to the body. Go. The back of the hand stretched out and upwards.

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What say you. The palm of the hand upwards and carried circularly outwards and depressed. No, nothing, I have none. The hand held up before the face, with the palm outwards, and vibrated to and fro. From whence come you, say. First the sign of you, then the hand extended open and drawn to the breast and lastly, the sign of, what say you? Come. The fore-finger moved from right to left with an interrupted motion as if imitating the alternate movement of stepping. Mine. The hand shut and held up to the view. House. The hand half open and the fore-finger extended and separated, then raising the hand upwards and give it a half turn, as if screwing something. Done or Finished. The hands placed edge up and down parallel to each other, the right hand without, which latter is drawn back as if cutting something. Spring Season. The sign of cold, to which add the last sign of being done or finished. Body. The hands with the fingers pointed to the lower part of the body and then drawn upwards. Hair. The movement of combing.


Kenner papers Location T:30 Box 2, Folder 10-11 Land patents [at Amite] for 120,000 acres in the name of D. Clark and for 60,000 acres in the name of Thomas Power held by the House of Chew and Relf as collateral for sums due them, and inquiry as to patent issued to Major S. Minor for 59,000 acres of land, June 10;



It never ceases to amaze me how a group of greedy men just continued on and on to get their hands on everything they could. They were never satisfied, always wanting more and they didn't care who they had to use to get it. Then to insure the wealth was held onto they made certain their sons and daughters married into the same wealthy families. I have to laugh when I see somebody put a flower on find a grave trying to make sure everybody knows they're related in some way or another, ie The great grandmother of wife of 1st cousin 5x removed or something strange like that.

I'll bet Thomas Jefferson was miffed when old GW took his father's map and conveniently extended the boundaries so he and his troop could try to get their hands on more land. Soon after the Seven Years War he and this group sent an agent to London to trying to plea their case to get a 2.5 million acre land grant from the King. However, it backfired and they didn't get it, but the settlers were sent anyway and the lands they didn't own were deeded. Did you ever wonder why there was so many problems all over the country with land titles? First one then the other would claim them and was the hard working common man who suffered the consequences. I love how the Mississippi company decided they were more worthy to own the lands than the "poor" "unintelligent" settlers that they lured. At least they had the guts to go and live there while the idle rich stayed on their plantations with their slave labor doing all the work. And I don't mean just Blacks, but white indentured servants as well. I saw a comment here a while back that someone made about GW and his slaves stating how he released them when he died!!! That was the most outrageous statement I think I've ever seen. What about while he was alive?? He got so mad one time while he was living in "Robert Morris' palace" in Philadelphia when one of his slaves escaped to an abolitionist in New England, he hired somebody to track her down when she tried to bargain for her family and her own freedom. But no, there was no dealing with these morons in his eyes. Thank goodness she got away, but she had to leave her entire family behind to never see them again.

No these men weren't satisfied with the 1000's of acres of land they already owned, but they went to every location west of the mountains and down into Tennessee and North Carolina. And that caused more land titles to have problems. If you have ever noticed the courts are just loaded with law suits and guess who always wins?? That's because all of their appointed cronies sit on the Supreme Court when these historic land decisions were made. And let me just tell you the old story of GW and his dad and the cherry tree is a fabricated story. And I just love the term "land speculator" that has been adapted to use as an outright "land grab." I just love this gentleman's website and his conclusions. He says "If you are as confused as I am, welcome to the world of early measuring, and imagine what it was like for some poor b in the early 18th century trying to figure out how much land he owned, and how to buy a barrel of wheat or corn or flour or beer --- all of whose measurements varied from state to state and often from city to city. And the American Revolution? We've been led to believe that it started because we were miffed over taxes the English put on our afternoon tea so in 1774 our forefathers climbed aboard ships in Boston Harbor, dumped the tea in the bay, and then, a short while later, Paul Revere left his silver shop and rode all night to tell the colonists that the redcoats were coming and so they got their muskets together and by sheer foolhardy native good sense, ran the b's out of town and out of the country. Fortunately we have Andro Linklater to set the record straight, and if you want to knock your history teacher on his pins, tell him that it all came about not because of import duties on tea, not at all --- but rather on 7 October 1763, King George issued a proclamation, what the author calls "a feudal proclamation," that stated that despite the general movement to the west by Americans hungry for land, all territory beyond the Appalachians was reserved for the king and the king alone. And those families who had moved into that area were to "remove themselves from such settlements. It was no accident, says the author, that the first resolution to come before the Continental Congress was that Americans are "entitled to life, liberty, and property." And if you think our forefathers were only mildly interested, the land companies created to buy this land before the 1763 proclamation included the Mississippi Company (George Washington, founder), the Illinois and Wabash Company (Patrick Henry), and the Vandalia Company (Benjamin Franklin)." There is much more on his webpage well worth reading.

In 1749 the Loyal Company appointed Thomas Walker to lead an expedition to explore and survey its grant of 800,000 acres in what is now southeastern Kentucky. (NOTE: This is known as the Walker line) In 1750, seventeen years before Daniel Boone’s legendary adventures in Kentucky, Thomas Walker traveled through the Cumberland Gap (which he named), explored much of eastern Kentucky, and built the first house in Kentucky. Upon returning home, Walker produced a map from the information he gathered on this expedition. He presented it to the House of Burgesses in 1769 during a debate over the boundary between Virginia’s western settlements and Indian lands. George Washington, who was then head of the Mississippi Company, modified this map in 1769 and included it in that land-speculating company’s petition for 2.5 million acres near the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. The map shown in this exhibition is a facsimile of the Walker-Washington map; the original belongs to the Library of Congress. Thomas Jefferson had a dream, one might almost say an obsession. It began in his youth, when his father, Peter Jefferson, was involved in a company promoting westward settlement to Kentucky and Tennessee. Peter was one of the first of the tidewater planters to move out to the Piedmont area of Virginia. He helped survey the state and create the Jefferson-Fry map of Virginia, published in London in 1751 under the Royal Geographer, Jeffreys. In 1749, Peter Jefferson, Joshua Fry, Dr. Thomas Walker, and James Maury formed the "Loyal Land Company" to buy and promote land purchases west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Walker was the first non-Indian to cross the Blue Ridge into Kentucky, and charted the Cumberland Gap.

Thomas Ludwell Lee, Sr. (December 13, 1730 – April 13, 1778) was an editor of the Virginia Declaration of Rights. He was the older brother of Richard Henry Lee, Francis Lightfoot Lee, William Lee, and Arthur Lee. He was a member of the House of Burgesses from 1758–1765, but refused to enter into national politics. John Adams, quoting George Wythe once said he was "the delight of the eyes of every Virginian, but would not engage in public life".[1] On October 14, 1776 he was appointed to a committee headed by Thomas Jefferson and including George Wythe, Edmund Pendleton and George Mason to revise, amend or repeal any Virginia law subject to the approval of the Virginia House of Delegates. Lee was born at Stratford Hall Plantation in Westmoreland County, Virginia to Thomas Lee and his wife Hannah Harrison Ludwell. He was the couple's third son and the second one to survive into adulthood. Much about Lee's early life is unknown although it is assumed that he studied in England along with this brothers.[2] Thomas resided at "Belleview" in Stafford Co., Virginia. This home was the site of the first annual meeting of the MISSISSIPPI COMPANY, at which George Washington (1732–1799) and his brother John Augustine Washington attended in September 1763.

The Mississippi Land Company was a land company formed in 1763 following the British victory in the French and Indian War (1754–1763) in North America. The company was formed to acquire land grants in the vast former New France region between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River ceded by France to Britain after the war. The Mississippi Land Company was formed by colonial Virginians including George Washington, John Augustine Washington, Richard Henry Lee, Arthur Lee, and William Fitzhugh. The company hoped to establish a new colony in the Mississippi Valley by petitioning the Crown for 2.5 million acres (10,000 km²) in what is now Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee, including where the Ohio River flows into the Mississippi.


Now we get into the real nitty gritty of the Mississippi Land Company and the boys!! This should be a real eye opener for ya!!

The American Historical Review Vol. 16, No. 2, Jan., 1911 Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Historical Association Documents relating to the Mississippi Land Company, 1763-1769 Clarence E. Carteri. Documents relating to the Mississippi Land Companty, I763-I769

The following documents, found among the (WILLIAM PITT) Earl of Chatham's. papers, serve to phase of the movement for the coloni-zation of the West in the eighteenth century.

Immediately after the announcement of the formal cession of the West to Great Britain in February, I763, a number of companies were organized for the purpose of exploiting the territory.

Among these was the Mississippi Land Company, in which George Washington, the Virginia Lees, and a number of prominent merchants and planters of the colonies of Virginia and Maryland were interested.

The proposed colony, the exact boundaries of which are printed elsewhere,2 was to com-prise two million five hundred thousand acres situated in the present states of Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky.

The efforts of the company to secure a grant were temporarily checked in the year of its organization by the issuance of the royal proclamation of I763, designed to pacify the western Indians by reserving to them the territory west of the Alleghany Mountains.

After 1767 the opposition of certain members of the ministry, notably Lord Hillsborough, who were not persuaded of the utility of such colonies, successfully circumvented the efforts of the company and its friends.

By I770 activity on the part of the company appears to have ceased. (NOTE: OH REALLY??? I DON'T THINK SO, THEY JUST TOOK ANOTHER AVENUE)


At a meeting of the Committee of the Mississippi Company Sept. 26th I763. Present Richard Henry Lee, Francis Lightfoot Lee, Rich. Parker, John Aug. Washington, Wm Booth, being members of the Committee, and also Charles Digges, George Simpson and Wm Beale Junr.4

1 The bundle of papers relating to the Mississippi Company bears the following endorsement: " Mississippi CoS. Papers, sent to the Right Honble William Earl of Chatham, On Saturday the 20th of April, I774." The papers are in the Public Record Office, London. They are declared by an endorsement to be all in the handwriting of William Lee.

2 The boundaries are described in the memorial of the company, dated September, I 763. See documentary appendix to Great Britain and the Illinois Country, 1763-1774 (Washington, I9IO), by C. E. Carter.

3A committee of ten members was to meet twice each year to transact necessary business. See A. B. Hulbert, "Original Articles of Agreement", in Ohio, Archaeological and Historical Publications, XVII.

438. Any member of the company was given the right to vote in committee meetings should he happen to be present. Ibid.

3I 2 Documents A Letter to Mr. Thos. Cumming by order of the Company being prepared and approved is as followeth: VIRGINIA Sept. 26th, I763.

Sir, We are now to inform you that a number of Gentlemen of this Colony and the Province of Maryland, many of them your particular acquaintances, have projected a Scheme for taking up a Considerable Tract of Land on a navigable part of the Mississippi and some of its dependencies. That for this purpose they have formed themselves into a Company by the name of the Mississippi Company and have agreed to such Articles and Rules for the better executing their plan, as the nature of the thing suggested to them. Of which, together with their subsequent proceedings you will herewith receive a Copy where you will perceive that we are directed to propose to you to become one of the Company and to desire that you will be pleased to procure so many subscribers to the Scheme, as will amount to nine, of such influence and fortunes as may be likely to promote its success. The particular spot chosen by the Company you will find by the Memorial lies on the River Mississippi, a considerable way above and below the confluence of Ohio therewith; and extending from the Mississippi into the Country Eastward and Southward so as to comprehend the quantity they want, on the first mentioned River, and its great branches, Wabash, Ohio and Cherokee Rivers. Many reasons have contributed to the choice of this place; such as the goodness of the navigation from thence to the Gulph of Mexico, the fineness of the climate, it being in about 38 Degrees of North Latitude, the country level, and the soil from unquestionable Intelligence, as fertile as any on the Globe. These powerful inducements cannot fail to effect a speedy Settlement of this Country which must render the share of each Adventurer extemely valuable. The benefit then to be derived to the Company, being so probable, it remains only to obtain if possible, from the Crown a Grant to the Company (by the name of the Mississippi Company) for such Lands and on such Terms, as they have proposed in their Memorial.! For their Success in this point they rely on you, and as they are conscious that solicitations of this sort are attended with expense, to defray this they present you with an hundred Guineas. The Company would choose to have their Memorial laid before the King, so soon as you shall find it expedient to do so, from having previously conciliated the favor of the Ministry thereto. And if you find that it is to be attended with success, you are desired to give the Committee the most early intelligence, and at the same time to inform them what expense will arise from the suing out of Letters Patent, that they may immediately call a meeting of the Company to raise the requisite sum. But in the meantime you are to proceed as far as the nature of the thing will admit in suing out such Letters Patent. The Company choose Letters Patent rather than a Mandamus for the Colony, because so many persons of the first influence here, are concerned in Land Schemes; that a thousand nameless, artful obstructions would be thrown into their way to prevent the success of their enterprize. 'For terms see the original articles of agreement printed by A. B. Hulbert, in Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications, XVII. 436, and the memorial of the company, dated September 9, I763, printed in documentary appendix of Great Britain and the Illinois Country, I763-I774.

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Also it is desired that a warrant for survey shall be solicited from the Crown and left blank to be filled up with the name of such Surveyor as the Company can agree with to do their business on the cheapest terms, because the legal fees here are so oppressive, that the expence of surveying the Company's Grant would be insupportably great. But this application need not be made untill the Letters Patent be obtained. It is apprehended that considerable difficulties will attend the attain- ment -of the Grant we request, and for these reasons which have been urged here, as prevailing with you: First that the Grants of large Tracts of Land prevent the poorer sort of people from settling by the previous engrossing of the Soil. However plausible this may appear in theory, the contrary has been found true in practice. It having been discovered from experience, that Land taken up by Companys may be retailed by them to Individuals, in such a m:nner as to profit the taker up, and yet the purchaser from him, obtain his Land cheaper than he could himself possibly have taken it up originally, because where a large quantity of Land is to be surveyed, an artist can be obtained to do the whole business, for a much less Sum, than the survey of the same quantity would cost a number of individuals having distinct property in it, and employing different Surveyors. Add to this the heavy charges that arise from the taking out so many different patents, the expense of traveling and attending offices, and lastly the utter ignorance the poorer sort labor under of the proper methods to be taken in the solicitation of patents, and their inability to advance ready money for such purposes. All which is removed by the method we pro- pose, as we carry people immediately to the spot, invite others to come, and give them deeds to the Lands they want on reasonable terms, and credit given them until they by their industry become enabled to pay for their purchases. But in answer to all this it is urged, that what we propose to do, may be done at the expense and under the immediate protection of the Government. It is very true that if the Country proposed to be settled was not of very large extent, this method would answer, but as it happens otherwise and that the Country comprehends many thousand miles in circuit this method would create a most prodiguous heavy Government Expence. 2'Y, It is said that by the Treaty of Easton,6 made with the Indians during the War, all the Lands West of the Alleghanys are given up to the Indians for hunting grounds, there- fore good faith requires that they shod not be molested in the quiet possession of them. In answer to this objection it may be urged that the Treaty was made with the Northern Indians and therefore could only mean to affect those commonly used by them as hunting grounds. That therefore the Lands solicited by this Company must be out of the question, as it is far South, at least 6oo miles from the Indians who were then treated with and where they never go to hunt. And also that by the common principles of reason and the Law of Nations that Treaty is vacated by the Indians themselves, who for the slightest causes have attacked his Majestie's fortifications and most barbarously 'This treaty was negotiated in 1758 between the colony of Pennsylvania and the Indians; in it the former promised to make no settlements west of the Alleghanies.

See Canadian Archives Report, I889, pp. 72 ff.; Documentary History of New York, II. 775, 783. For the significance of the treaty see Alvord, Genesis of the Proclamation of I763, pp. I3-14. AM. HIST. REV., VOL. XVI.-21.

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murdered in cold blood the King's Officers and Troops, that they have also invaded most of the Colonies East of Alleghany, murdering multitudes of his Majestie's Subjects, and destroying the Country before them with fire and Sword. This Insult on his Majestie's Government and their first violation of the Treaty now puts it in the Power of the Crown consistently with Justice, to pursue the political plan of getting that Country settled as quickly as possible; we call it political, because the fertility of the Soil, the immense quantity of it, the fineness of the Climate and the Situation of Navigation, renders it one of the most proper Countrys in the World for the production of Hemp, of which commodity, so necessary to Britain, any quantity may there be produced. As well as a variety of other crude materials for manufactures, which at present we purchase from foreigners at a very great expence; such as Silk, Iron, Indigo, etc. But above all things, Hemp, it appears peculiarly adapted to, because that plant so greatly and quickly im- poverishes ground, that to make it in many quantities, not only a Soil uncommonly fertile is requisite, but there must be a prodigious quantity, also the good policy of this measure, will further appear from consider- ing how effectually a strong Colony settled at that place proposed by the Company will contribute to prevent any encroachments the French Settlers on the west side of the Mississippi may be disposed to make on the King's Territorys in that part, and how they will be cutt off from all communication with the Indian Nations, and thereby be prevented from instigating them to War, and harassing the frontier Counties as they have constantly done of all the Colonies. It is to be considered likewise that as the French have already a very powerful Settlement upon the River Illinois and many Settlements among the Lakes and as by the Treaty of Peace they are to remain there as British Subjects; whether if our people are not allowed to settle beyond the Alleghanys, will not the above mentioned French be apt (under the security of the vast distance of 8 or 9 hundred miles from our Settlements) to invite over their Neighbors and Countrymen from the west side of the Mississippi, and thereby gradually take hold of that Country as to make another expensive War requisite to remove them. This is no improbable event, when we attend to the enterprizing and encroaching genius of the French, ever fond of invading their neighbor's rights when they can do it with any tolerable security. And that they will be permitted to do this unmolested by the Indians is extremely probable from the powerful influence they appear to have over the minds of these people by their behavior to these Settlers at the time they were besieging his Majesty's Fort at Detroit, the iith of last May when they made use of the French as Mediators between them and the Garrison which French most dishonestly gave up the King's Officers they had engaged to protect, to the cruel fury of the Indians, no doubt the better to conciliate the affections of the Savages, and by the Summons they sent Major Gladwin wherein they call the French their Fathers.

These facts make it certain whatever encroachments the French may be inclined,to make, they will meet with no obstruction from the Indiadis. These are hints, Sir, that we have thought it prudent to mention to you, that if necessary, may be urged to the Ministry, but we doubt not but your reflections will furnish you with reasons of more weight than any we have here suggested.

We are also to observe to you, Sir, that Col. Mercer7 is now in 7 Colonel George Mercer

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London soliciting for the Ohio Company, and perhaps he may have under his protection the Interest of other Companies whose concerns may possibly interfere with ours, or that he may think so; and thereby be induced to oppose our Scheme; we request you not to converse with Col. Mercer on the subject of our solicitation, nor let him know that any such plan is projected.

This letter together with our original Articles, the Memorial, and all our papers will be delivered you by Mr. Chas. Digges, a worthy member of the Company whose opinion in what results to the concerns of the Company we recommend to your attention; and if it should not be agreeable to you to be a member or to solicit our affairs, we advise you, and it is in our Opinion, that in the appointment of another agent, you consult Mr. Digges, and that you take his sentiments in the Choice of those nine members to be procured in Britain and in that event Mr. Digges will receive our papers and put them into the hands of another Solicitor.

But nevertheless we hope your friendship for many members of the Company will induce you to favor their Scheme, and to assist Mr. Digges with your advice. We have nothing more at this time to observe to you, but only that you will be pleased from time to time to give us all necessary information and that you direct your letters for us to Mr. Wm Lee in Westmoreland County, Virginia; We are with great esteem, Sir, your most obedient and very humble Servants.

By order of the Committee, WM LEE, Secretary.

Resolved, that the Treasurer take a fair Copy of the original Agreement, the Memorial, and the Letter together with the Resolves of the said Company made at Belleview8 Sept. 9, I763, and deliver the same to Mr. Chas. Digges to be by him presented to Mr. Cumming.

Resolved that the Treasurer pay into the hands of Mr. Chas. Digges One hundred Guineas to be by him delivered to Mr. Cumming agreeable to the resolves of the Company.

WESTMORELAND COUNTY, VIRGINIA, March Ist, I767 Thos. Cumming, Esq.

Sir, It was with concern we understand from your Letter to Mr. Wm Lee, dated the I6th of January, I765, that little hope was to be entertained of success in a point so much wished by the Mississippi Company. But we should not so long have neglected to answer that very polite and obliging Letter if you had not in some measure rendered an answer unnecessary, by declaring your intention of resuming the Pen when such an alteration in American affairs should take place as might prove favorable to the Claim.

That the present is a proper Crisis to renew our solicitations, we hope as well from the wisdom of the Ministry, as from what you have been pleased lately to write Col. Thornton on this Subject. In conformity, therefore, with the direction of the Company at their last general meeting we are to request, that if in your opinion, a probability of success now opens immediate measures be taken to press for a determination by the Privy Council on the Company's Memorial; and as a previous pru- dent step we recommend the obtaining as quickly as possible, one half the number of British members of the Company, which you were desired 8 the residence of Colonel Thomas Ludwell Lee, in Stafford County, Virginia.

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to procure by our former letter among which number, it will give us much pleasure that you shod. be one; but the other half it is deemed proper shall remain unfilled, till the next general meeting, when you will receive further advice on this head. When the consideration of this affair is recommended we should be willing (as it appears to you proper), to yield that part of the Memorial relative to fortifications at Government expence, but with respect to the Quantity of Land for each Member, if it be rightly understood, an abridgement of that will by no means answer, since it remains a certainty that one third at least of the quantity will be necessarily sacri- ficed to the purpose of gaining a sufficient number of Settlers to secure the rest, which added to the Expence incurred by conveying people there, the greater number probably from the Continent of Europe, the charge of surveying, etc., will leave the remainder not more than a good encouragement to the adventure. With regard to the Crown, it would seem a much more probable method of securing and speedily in- creasing the quit Rent revenue, by placing the Land in the hands of persons of property, than by suffering things to remain as they are now, when people in numbers that have no property and of bad reputation generally are bursting daily thro' the bounds of the settled Colonies, and fixing on the Waters of the Ohio, both lawless and useless to their Country, a consciousness of having violated Government Orders making them choose to have as little communication with the interior parts as possible.

We observe your opinion of the settled Colonies being too thinly inhabited. For some purposes, no doubt it is so; but whilst Great Britain desires our application to Agriculture rather than to Arts her interest in this point will more effectually be obtained, by a dispersion than by a collection of our people; experience evincing, that when good land can be obtained on easy terms, the desire of manufactur ing is almost entirely lost in the eagerness for tillage.

The difficulty of procuring Land, and the complement of great numbers in small Tracts of Territory, call necessarily for the exercise of invention, from whence spring originally improvements in Arts and Manufactures. As the spot chosen by the Company is open to navigation and the Country around extremely fertile, the settlers there will beyond doubt considerably benefit both themselves and the Mother Country from the Products of the Soil; so the means of conveying British fabricks by water must render them greatly cheaper than they can possibly be made there for ages at least.

The Company has been informed by Mr. Digges of your declining to accept the money formely tendered you; they regard this as a very uncommon, and a very noble instance of warm and disinterested friendship, the only return to which thay can at present make, is a real and genuine esteem.

We conclude that the Solicitor lodged the Memorial with the Privy Council and except the Ten Pounds paid him for that purpose, the Balance of the Money rests in the hands of Thos. Philpot, Esq., Merchant in London, who will be directed to pay it out to your Order as you shall find it necessary in the course of the solicitation.

In filling up the number of the British members as above mentioned we recommend your application to Flemming Pinkston, Esq., in St. Albans Street to be one of the Company.

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We think of nothing more at this time necessary to be mentioned to you but our request that you give us (by means of Mr. Wm Lee) the most early notice of what is done in our business; and we beg leave to refer you to a due consideration of the Original Agreement and Memorial, and of our Letter accompanying them dated the 26th of Sept. 1763.

We remain with great regard, Sir, your most obedient and very humble Servants.

Signed after being agreed to by the Committee and by their Order, WILLIAM LEE, Secretary.

At a General Meeting of the Mississippi Company at Stafford Court House in Virginia the 27th day of May 1767. It appearing to the Company that the Committee in compliance with the directions of the said Company given to them at a meeting held the 22d day of Nov., I765, have written to Mr. Cumming and pres'd him to solicit with vigor, the granting the Lands mentioned in the Memorial formely sent to him, and the Letter being read to the Board which amongst other things directs that Mr. Cumming proceed to fill up the Subscriptions with only one half of the British members and the other half to remain 'till the next general meeting, which letter being ap- proved of by the sd: Company they have come to the following resolutions:

That as some Gentlemen of power, fortune and interest wod. willingly become members of our Company but may object to being limited to one Share.

Resolved that the Committee write Mr. Cumming to have regard to Major Thos. Addison's recommendations to him of such persons to whom a tender of two shares shall be made, and that the Treasurer write Major Addison requesting him to inform Mr. Cumming by Letter who the particular persons are to whom he may propose the acceptance of two Sbares.

It appearing from experience, that a meeting of a Majority of the Members residing in Virginia and Maryland cannot be easily obtained according to the original Articles and an obstruction to business happening in consequence thereof, Resolved that for the future every general meeting of the Company shall be advertised in the Virginia and Maryland Gazette, and if at such a meeting a majority of the said members shall be assembled, four of which to be of the Committee, they shall have power to proceed on business and their determinations to be binding on the Company, anything to the contrary or seeming to the contrary thereof in the original articles notwithstanding.

Resolved that the Treasurer transmit a Copy of the last Resolve to every absent member in Virginia and Maryland that they may have notice thereof. Resolved that as Mr. Wm Digges hath refused to pay his proportion of the Money as is directed by the Original Articles it is determined that Mr. Richard Graham on complying with the requisite payment, be admitted a member of the Company in place of the said Digges, and that the Treasurer inform Mr. Cumming of this alteration in the list of subscribers. Ordered that the Treasurer forthwith demand of the Subscribers who have not paid their quotas agreeable to the Original Articles, the Sums of money respectively due from them.

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Ordered that the Treasurer pay the Expences accru'd at this meeting out of the Money in his hands.

Agreed to by Richard Henry Lee, William Brent, Francis Lightfoot Lee, William Fitzhugh, junr., Henry Fitzhugh, Francis Thornton, Thomas Ludwell Lee, Robert Brent, Richard Parker, Thomas Bullet, John Augustine Washington, Wm Beale, Junr., George Washington, Wm Booth, Wm Fitzhugh, John Riddell, Executor of the deceased James Douglas, Presly Thornton, Wm Flood, Wm Brokenbrough, Bened. Calvert, Henry Rozer, Anthony Stewart, the Rev. Henry Addison, Daniel Carroll. Test, WILLIAM LEE, Secretary.

At a General Meeting of the Mississippi Company at Stafford Court House in Virginia, December i6th I767.

Present Richard Parker Francis Thornton Richard Henry Lee William Brent William Fitzhugh John Augustine Washington Francis Lightfoot Lee William Fitzhugh, Junr. Thomas Ludwell Lee William Beale, Junr. George Washington William Lee Richard Parker, Esq., chosen President of this meeting.

It is resolved that Messrs. Robt. Brent, Richard Graham, Philip Thomas Lee, William McGachin, and George Plater be excluded from the Company for not having paid their quota agreeable to the original Articles.

It is resolved that Mr. Edw. Key, dec'd, was not a member of this Company, having never signed the Original Articles.

It is resolved that Major Thomas Addison is not a member of this Company, but that application shall be made to him to become a member.

It is resolved that Mr. John Hite is not a member of this Company, having never signed the Articles or paid any money.

It is resolved that Mr. Samuel Washington be admitted as a member of this Company on complying with the Articles thereof.

It is resolved that Messrs. John Baylor, Bernard Moore and Thos Walker be admitted as members of the Company on their complying with the Articles thereof.

It is resolved that Mr. Chas. Digges have full power and authority to sell or dispose of his share in this Company to Mr. Thos. Montgomery or any other person that the Company shall hereafter approve of.

It is resolved that application shall be made to Mr. Warner Lewis and Doctor Arthur Lee to become members of this Company.

It is the opinion of the Company and it is so ordered, that the Treasurer of the Company call a general meeting of the Company according to the rules of the Company for that purpose, on the 21st day of March next ensuing, and if at that time a number of members sufficient to form a general meeting shall not be assembled, that in that case the Committee already appointed by the Company or the Treasurer of the Company being so directed by the Committee, shall have full power and authority to demand and receive of each member of the Company the Sum of ?I3, ii, o, Sterling, amounting in the whole to the Sum of ?542 Sterling, which Sum the said Committee are empowered to dispose of in

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employing an agent to proceed immediately to Britain, there to solicit the Company's Grant, as fully, speedily, and effectually as the nature of the Business will admit.

It is resolved that Wm Lee, Esq., the Treasurer, has presented his Account to the Company which is admitted.

It is resolved that Wm Lee Esq., be continued Treasurer to this Company.

It is resolved that the Treasurer pay the Expence of this meeting. Test, WILLIAM LEE, Secretary.

LONDON, May 30, 1769

Sir, Above is a Copy of the Articles etc. of the Mississippi Co. which cost ii/ and 4/6 for the postage of your sundrie letters added to ?I3-I, your quota to the Mississippi Co. makes ?I4-6, for which Sum I have this day drawn on you at two days sight payable to Dr. Arthur Lee which I hope will meet with due honor.

The temper of the present Ministry being much against America, it is tho't advisable to let the petition lay undetermined on, before the Board of Trade where it now is, in hopes a change of men (as is commonly the case), will bring also a change of measures.

With regard to your Br. Robert's affairs in Virginia I am too little acquainted therewith to give you any authentic account thereof, but you may be much better informed by writing to Mr. John Ballantine Junr. mercht. on Nomony, Potomac, Virginia, or to Mr. David Boyd, Atty. at Law, Northumberland County, Virginia, either of these Gent. can give you a full acct. of his affairs. Capt. Gordon administered upon his estate and I believe has sold all the moveable estate, the lands were your Property and I don't see what occasion you had to sell them, but I suppose they were sold for your benefit. I wish it was in my power to give you more full information. I am Yr most Hble Servt. WILLIAM LEE.


Now you tell me what he was up to? Wait until we get to Tennessee history and his ole buddy, William Blount.

George Washington to Henry Knox, August 13, 1790 The Honorable Henry Knox Secretary of War


The Session of Congress having closed, and it being my intention to go to Virginia as soon as the public business will permit; and wishing, during my absence from the Seat of Government, to have my mind as free from public cares as circumstances will allow; I am desirous of having such matters as may, by Law or otherwise, require the agency or sanction of the President of the United States, brought to view before my departure. I therefore request that you will cause such business, within your department, as may be necessary to receive the aid or approbation of the President, submitted to me as soon as its nature will permit, -- particularly --

Regulations for trade and intercourse with the Indian Tribes, agreeably to the Act.

And information and opinions on the following points--

Whether any other, and what steps shall be taken with them to restrain their Hositilities--

Whether the orders given, and measures adopted, are adequate to the Peace of the Western Frontiers?-- If not, what further is to be done for this purpose?--

Upon the expediency and policy of a proclamation forbidding encroachments upon the Territory of the Indians or treating with them contrary to the Law lately passed--

Instructions for the Governor of the Ceded Territory So. of the Ohio. Where ought the Governor to reside?--

What notice should be taken of the Insult offered to Major Doughty?--1

What steps should be taken with respect to his recommendation of a Post at the mouth of the Tennessee?--

Other measures than those pursued by the present contractors for suppling the Western Posts ought to be adopted, that the Troops in that Country may be more efficiently employed in sudden emergencies anti the Posts better secured.

Have any orders been given concerning the condemned Soldiers?-- I am &c.

(Signed) G Washington United States August 13--1790

_______ 1. Maj. John Doughty while on a mission to the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations was fired upon by a party of Cherokee, Shawnee, and Creek Indians. Five of his part were killed and six were wounded.

Source : Library of Congress, American Memory, The George Washington Papers.


George Washington to Edmund Randolph, October 10, 1791 Mount Vernon, October 10, 1791.


By the Post of Friday, I received your communications of the 1st. instant; and, from the character of Mr. Campbell I am glad to hear he is disposed to act as attorney for the district of Virginia; and that you had forwarded the commission to him for that purpose. Also, that a pardon had been sent to Samuel Dodge, as it appears that his errors were unintentional.

It is my wish and desire that you would examine the Laws of the General Government which have relation to Indian affairs, that is, for the purpose of securing their lands to them; Restraining States or Individuals from purchasing their lands, and forbidding unauthorized intercourse in their dealing with them. And moreover, that you would suggest such auxiliary Laws as will supply the defects of those which are in being, thereby enabling the Executive to enforce obedience.

If Congress expect to live in peace with the neighbouring Indians and to avoid the expenses and horrors of continual hostilities, such a measure will be found indispensably necessary; for unless adequate penalties are provided, that will check the spirit of speculation in lands and will enable the Executive to carry them into effect, this Country will be constantly embroiled with, and appear faithless in the eyes not only of the Indians but of the neighboring powers also. For, notwithstanding the existing laws, solemn Treaties, and Proclamations which have been issued to enforce a compliance with both, and some attempts of the Government s. west of the Ohio to restrain their proceedings, The agents for the Tennessee Company1 are at this moment by public advertisements under the signature of a Zachariah Cox encouraging by offers of land and other inducements, a settlement at the Mussle-Shoals, and is likely to obtain Emigrants for that purpose altho’ there is good evidence, that the measure is disapproved by the Creeks and Cherokees; and it is presumed is so likewise by the Chicasaws and Choctaws, unless they have been imposed upon by assurances that trade is the only object in view by the Establishment.

I am Sir, Your most obedt hble Servt Go Washington To The Attorney Genl of the U States

Source : Library of Congress, American Memory, The George Washington Papers. 1. The Tennessee Company referred to was one of three land companies in Georgia’s Yazoo land fraud. In 1789, the South Carolina Yazoo Company, the Virginia Yazoo Company, and the Tennessee Company were formed to buy land from the Georgia Assembly. For lack of good money the deal was not completed. In 1794, four new Yazoo companies, the Georgia Company, the Georgia-Mississippi Company, the Upper Mississippi Company, and the Tennessee Company managed to obtain through bribery, a vast amount of acreage, later this deal was voided. These companies were granting land in Indian territory. Therefore, their grantees would be intruders. Most grant records of these companies have been destroyed. (IMAGINE THAT!!!)

The Louisiana Purchase The second Peace of Paris, which had ended the American Revolution in 1783, failed to settle important boundary questions in the lower Mississippi valley and along the Gulf coast. Great Britain returned East and West Florida to the control of Spain and gave the infant United States title to all its lands westward to the Mississippi River. In so doing, however, this Peace failed to note precisely the exact southern boundary between the United States and Spanish territory. The Americans argued that the boundary extended far to the south along the thirty-first parallel. Spain contended that the division line crossed the region at 32 20' latitude and thus lay farther to the north, approximately even with Natchez. Spain pressed its claim by holding Natchez, where an English-speaking officer, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, guarded its interests. In addition, the United States and Spain quarreled over navigation rights on the Mississippi River. The United States claimed that the Peace of Paris (1783) had provided its citizens with full rights to travel the river to its mouth, while Spain held the opposite view. At various times in the 1780s and 1790s, the Spanish government at New Orleans accordingly attempted to close the river to American navigation (Wall, p. 79).

Because of American needs to navigate and trade on the Mississippi River and at New Orleans, President Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to Spain to attempt to put an end to the boundary and riverine disputes. Pinckney and Spanish Minister of State Manuel de Godoy signed a treaty at the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial near Madrid on October 17, 1795. Known as Pinckney's Treaty or the Treaty of San Lorenzo it secured the thirty-first parallel as the southern boundary of the United States (today's northern boundary between Louisiana and Mississippi); the right of U.S. citizens to full navigation of the Mississippi; and a three-year period of tax-free right to deposit American goods at New Orleans 'for transfer from river craft to ocean-going vessels.' This Right of Deposit constituted a major diplomatic victory for Pinckney (Wall, p. 80).


This amazing article showed up in a Dallas Newspaper in 1939 that now links the filibusterer invasion of Texas, Philip Nolan, with our President George Washington in a collection started by a Dr. William Howard, who started his collection of historical documents and were donated by him to the Dallas Museum. An excerpt of the following newspaper shows what he found: Jottings of History Makers over 500 Years Drop into Letter Box of Dallas Museum Date: Sunday, April 16, 1939 Paper: Dallas Morning News (Dallas, TX) Section: IV Page: Sixteen

"I wrote to a collector in the East and asked him to list his material on George Washington. Washington autographs are rare, and I wanted one.

"Among the material I got, I noticed a supply order to the POTOMAC COMPANY SIGNED BY PHILIP NOLAN and APPROVED BY WASHINGTON. Washington autographs are rare, but NOLAN autographs are almost unheard of. I got into the car and went down to Austin and got a photostat from the university archives of a passport once carried by Nolan. I compared the signatures, and they were IDENTICAL. Bankers here told me they would pay a check on the resemblance between them. So I bought the document, and now the university and I have probably the only Nolan autographs in the world."

This document is extremely important in the fact that Nolan was involved with Gen James Wilkinson in the quest to separate not only Kentucky but Louisiana, all of the southern states and the control of the Mississipppi River trade, and points West from the Union.

Created in 1785, the purpose was to make improvements to the Potomac River and improve its navigability for commerce and connect it to the Ohio River in western Pennsylvania and connect with Georgetown, Maryland, a major port at that time. George Washington was its first president, as well as an investor in the company. Tobias Lear, Washington's personal secretary, was its chairman and Thomas Johnson (below) of Maryland was involved. The charter was surrendered to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company in 1828. In 1784, a year after the Treaty of Paris was signed, George Washington and Horatio Gates traveled to Annapolis to seek the state's assent to the project. Washington urged Virginia Governor Benjamin Harrison to bring the matter to the Virginia Assembly, citing the "commercial and political importance" of the project. Washington's formidable reputation in the U.S. during the time after the Revolution persuaded the governor to present a letter to the Virginia Assembly asking for support for the project. The Virginia Assembly appointed Washington, Gates, and Thomas Blackburn to seek Maryland's agreement. Washington's subsequent visit to Annapolis was successful and led to the incorporation of the Potomac Company in 1784 Maryland and in 1785 in Virginia. Founding father, Daniel Carroll, (George Washington's ally and friend) was also a member.

Wikipedia shows another important fact about George Washington's ventures of connecting the western lands besides the Potomac Company. It states "The James River and Kanawha Canal was a project first proposed by George Washington when he was a young man surveying the mountains of western Virginia, which at the time consisted of what is today West Virginia, Kentucky, and to the north bank of the Ohio river. He was searching for a way to open a water route to the West. He believed that was the key to helping Virginia to become an economic powerhouse in what would become the United States quite a few years later.

In those times, waterways were the major highways of commerce. Early developments along the east coast of the colonies tended to end at the fall line (the head of navigation) of the rivers that emptied into the Atlantic directly (e.g., the Hudson River) or into its great Bays (e.g., the Delaware and the Chesapeake). Such early communities in Virginia included what we now know as Alexandria on the Potomac River, Fredericksburg on the Rappahannock River, Richmond and Lynchburg on the James River and Petersburg on the Appomattox River.

It was known by then that the Ohio River flowed into the Mississippi River, which flowed into the Gulf of Mexico. It was also known that the Allegheny Mountains formed the Eastern Continental Divide, and that there was apparently no inland waterway to sail between the two large watersheds.

By 1772, Washington had identified the Potomac and James rivers as the most promising locations for canals to be built to join with the western rivers. His preference was the James, as the Potomac led to rivers in land disputed with Pennsylvania and would be equally helpful to Maryland. The James could be aligned with the Kanawha River (in what is now West Virginia), and would best serve only Virginia, which was his priority. In 1785, the James River Company was formed, with George Washington as honorary president, to build locks around the falls at Richmond. By then, Washington was quite busy with the affairs of the new nation. In 1789 he would be elected its first president. The James River Company, promoted by such men as George Washington, Edmund Randolph, and John Marshall, opened in 1790 the first commercial canal in the United States, stretching from Richmond to Westham and paralleling the James for 7 miles (11 km). The canal supplemented existing bateaux transportation on the James River. Bateaux, flat-bottomed boats laden with tobacco hogsheads, floated down the James to Richmond and returned with French and English imports, furniture, dishes, and clothing." Another player in this venture was Nicolaas van Staphorst, who we will learn about shortly, also a member of the Holland Land Company and financier of the revolution.


Wikipedia states of this company " The Holland Land Company was an unincorporated syndicate of thirteen Dutch investors in Amsterdam, who placed funds in the hands of certain trustees in America for the purpose of investing in land in central and western New York State and western Pennsylvania. Trustees were needed because aliens were not then permitted to own land. The syndicate hoped to sell the land rapidly at a great profit. Instead, for many years they were forced to make further investments in their purchase; surveying it, building roads, digging canals, to make it more attractive to settlers. The first transfer by the trustees was all of the Holland Purchase except 300,000 acres (1,200 km²), which went to Wilhelm Willink, Nicolaas van Staphorst, Pieter van Eeghen, Hendrick Vollenhoven, and Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck. The 300,000 acre (1,200 km²) remainder was conveyed to Wilhelm Willink, Wilhelm Willink, Jr., Jan Willink and Jan Willink, Jr. About two years after the first transfers, the proprietors of the large tract reconveyed title to the original five, plus Wilhelm Willink, Jr., Jan Willink, Jr., Jan Gabriel van Staphorst, Roelof van Staphorst, Jr., Cornelius Vollenhoven, Hendrick Seye and Pieter Stadnitski. The members of the Holland Land Company never travelled to America".

"the Dutch bankers and investors also obtained shares in canal companies in the years 1791–1792, including the Patowmack Canal, James River and Kanawha Canal, Santee Canal, Western Canal and the Connecticut Canal". "The tract purchased in western New York was a 3,250,000 acre". "It was purchased in December 1792 and February and July 1793 from Robert Morris who had purchased it from Massachusetts in May 1791...In 1798, the New York Legislature, with the assistance of Aaron Burr[1] authorized aliens to hold land directly, and the trustees conveyed the Holland Purchase to the real owners. The town of Holland, New York bears its namesake". It just goes on and on about the purchases of millions of acres of land and who was involved in this huge expansion of lands to entice settlers. You must read the entire article to get a birdseye view of those connected in this outlandish venture.

The agent for this was Theophilus Cazenove, who wikipedia states "in November 1789 Cazenove was retained by Pieter Stadnitski to travel to the United States to act as an investment agent for Stadnitski and other Dutch investors (Nicolaas and Jacob Van Staphorst, Pieter & Christiaen Van Eeghen, and Ten Cate & Vollenhoven).[6][7] Casenove settled in at Market Street (Philadelphia), where he delt with Robert Morris (financier); his fellow-traveller Gerrit Boon later went north. Boon believed that harvesting maple syrup could be a year-round activity, so slavery on the sugar plantations could be avoided.

In 1792 Cazenove invested his clients' money at first in development bonds issued by the new states and the federal government after Alexander Hamilton promised to fully pay the debt. Another venture included investing in large tracts of undeveloped land in Genesee County, New York, which included the Holland Purchase.[8] In order to implement these large and difficult purchases (sometimes complicated by the claims of Indians), he employed the advisory services of Hamilton and later Aaron Burr".

You must also read how this land was acquired and known as the Phelps and Gorham Purchase from the Indians.

Surveyor of these lands was none other than, Joseph Ellicott, the brother of Andrew Ellicott, who was hired by George Washington to survey the land for our national capitol in Washington, D.C. and the lands in Mississippi. When the company ceased operations in America in 1859, its records were transferred to the offices of Van Eeghen, one of the original members of the company. In 1964 the records were transferred to the Municipal Archives in Amsterdam. In 1984 they were microfilmed and contain 202 microfilm reels and can be obtained through inter library loan Reed Library at SUNY Fredonia, the New York State Library in Albany, and at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. However, this collection is not indexed. The history of Poland, Chautauqua County, New York gives a history of these lands and how Ellicott's survey the land.

As evidenced above, Matthew Ridley was an agent in Maryland and Virginia for Duncan Campbell supplying convict slave labor to the land proprietors. In March of 1781, Ridley was appointed agent for the state of Maryland, and was sent to Europe to secure a loan for the state. Following a year in Paris, he traveled to Holland in May of 1782, where in July he secured a loan of 300,000 fl. from the firm of Nicolaas and Jacob van Staphorst of Amsterdam. He returned to Paris in August of 1782. During his time in France and Holland, Matthew spent time with Benjamin Franklin and John Adams. Staphorst was a fabulously wealthy Amsterdam merchant. Maintained close relations with the late U.S. President John Adams in the 1780s when the American ambassador to the Republic. Was co-financier of several million loans to the newly independent United States, and the Holland Land Company purchased via thousands of ares of land in upstate New York. In 1782, Staphorst and his brother, Jacob, led discussions with John Adams over a loan to the United States of five million guilder. A syndicate was formed to organize the USA's first foreign loan between the Staphorsten, the Willinks and De la Lande & Fijnje. Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol was marked down for 12.000 guilders. Three others loans followed: in 1784, 1787 and 1788. (In 1786 the merchant Daniel Parker took over the shares of De la Lande & Fijnje). Simon Schama noted: "Part of the attraction of this stock was, doubtless, the possibility of buying cheap and selling at a quick profit to investors less well informed than the brokers as to the state of American credit."

It is later stated that Governor Morris willed to Robert Morris' wife, Mary White, the Holland Land Company of which funds she used to bail him out of debtor's prison.

Thomas Johnson, Nominated George Washington to be commander-in-chief of the army; 1785 - Chosen by the Confederation Congress to be the judge between Massachusetts and New York in a dispute over the territory west of the Genessee River (see Holland Company), appointed by George Washington 1789 to be U.S. District Judge of Maryland and as one of the commissioners to oversee the building of Washington, D. C. in January, 1791, along with Washington's other cronies, Dr. David Stuart and Daniel Carroll of Rock Creek, Maryland. He wrote the Court's first written opinion, Georgia v. Brailsford, in 1792

Served with John Adams in the Continental Congress. One of the first directors of the Potomac Company. In 1801, as President, John Adams offered him the position of Chief Justice of the Circuit Court of the District of Columbia. Archives collection shows a timeline.

Old Kent: The Eastern Shore of Maryland by George Adolphus Hanson, Library of the University of Virginia, Baltimore 30 Dec 1876, Preface by Geo A Hanson pg 53

It is said that when John Adams was asked why so many Southern men occupied leading positions and possessed great influence during the struggle for independence he replied that "if it had not been for such men as RICHARD HENRY LEE, THOMAS JEFFERSON, SAMUEL CHASE, AND THOMAS JOHNSON, there never would have been any revolution."

Johnson was born in Calvert County, Maryland, on November 4, 1732 to Thomas and Dorcas Sedgwick Johnson. His grandfather, also named Thomas, was a lawyer in London who had emigrated to Maryland sometime before 1700. He was the fourth of ten children, some of whom also had large families. His brother Joshua's daughter, Louisa Johnson, married President John Quincy Adams. In 1767 Joshua had already established himself as a merchant in Annapolis,Maryland. In March 1771, Johnson entered into a partnership agreement with Charles Wallace and John Davidson to establish the Annapolis firm of Wallace, Davidson, and Johnson, in London, the first American tobacco firm to operate independently of British middlemen, and then in Wallace, Johnson, and Muir, which played an important role in expanding the tobacco trade with France and in marketing French goods in the United States in the last years of the Revolutionary War. Joshua went to London in 1771 and from 1778 to 1783 the Johnson family lived in Nantes, France. Following the revolution the Johnson family returned to London where Joshua Johnson served as the first U.S. consul (1790–1797). In 1797 he returned to Maryland and President Washington appointed Johnson Superintendent of Stamps after his return to the United States, a position Johnson held until his death in 1802. Louisa and John Quincy Adams became engaged in 1796 when he then U.S. minister to the Netherlands, was in London for the ratification of Jay’s Treaty and were married in that city on 26 July 1797, in the parish church of All Hallows Barking. Louisa Johnson Adams worshipped as a Catholic, attending masses and strictly adhered to what the nuns in the convent of her first school had taught her while in Nantes, France growing up.

Thomas Johnson married Ann Jennings, the daughter of a judge from Annapolis on February 16, 1766 and had eight children: Thomas Jennings, Ann Jennings, Rebecca (who died in infancy), Elizabeth, Rebecca Jennings, James, Joshua, and Dorcas. In November 1775, Congress created a Committee of Secret Correspondence that was to seek foreign support for the war. Thomas Johnson, along with Benjamin Franklin, and Benjamin Harrison V were initially named to the committee. He was a brigadier general in the Maryland militia. With his brother, Roger, supported the revolution by manufacturing ammunition. The remains of their factory, Catoctin Furnace, is located just north of Frederick, Maryland. Following Virginia's lead, he pushed a bill through the Maryland Assembly naming commissioners to meet with commissioners from Virginia and "…frame such liberal and equitable regulations concerning the Potomac river as may be mutually advantageous to the two states and that they make report thereon to the General assembly." His daughter Ann had married John Colin Grahame in 1788, and in his later years he lived with them in a home they had built in Frederick, Maryland. The home, called Rose Hill Manor, is now a county park and open to the public; a high school named for him is on half of the Rose Hill property. He died 25 Oct 1819 and is buried in Mt. Olive Cemetery.

The following deed in 1769 shows the connections with Lord Calvert and Thomas Johnson in Maryland

Provincial Court Land Records, 1765-1770 Volume 725, Page 550

This Indenture made this first Day of May in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Sixty nine between George Frasier Hawkins of Prince Georges County Gentleman of the one part and Benedict Calvert of Prince Georges County Esquire and Thomas Johnson Junior of the City of Annapolis Attorney at Law of the other part Witnesseth that the said George Frasier Hawkins for and in Consideration of the sum of Four hundred pounds Sterling to him in hand paid by the said Benedict Calvert and Thomas Johnson Junior at or before the Sealing and Delivery of these presents the Receipt whereof he doth hereby Acknowledge and thereof and therefrom doth Acquit and Discharge the said Benedict Calvert and Thomas Johnson Junior their and each of their Heirs Executors Administrators and Assigns hath Given

Granted bargained Sold aliened enfeoffed and Confirmed and by these presents Doth give grant bargain sell alien enfeoff and Confirm unto them the said Benedict Calvert and Thomas Johnson Junior all that Tract or Parcel of Land lying and being in Frederick County called The lost tomahock containing within the Outlines thereof two thousand two hundred and ninety Acres more or less except the Tract of Land called Long Acre Containing Seventy Seven Acres more or less which is included in the said outlines and except also one hundred and Fifty Acres of Land adjoining to the said Tract called Long Acre which are already conveyed or Agreed to be Conveyed by the said George Frasier Hawkins to one Henry Cook And also except one hundred and Fifty Acres part of the said Tract called The lost Tomahock already Conveyed or agreed to be Conveyed by him the said George Frasier Hawkins to one Charles Beatty Together with all Houses Buildings Gardens Orchards Ways Waters Water Courses Timber Timber Trees Woods Underwoods Oars Mines Minerals Stones and Fossils (Royal Mines Excepted) Improvements Advantages Priviledges and Appurtinances whatsoever on the same Tract of Land called The Lost Tomahock (except as before Excepted) being to the same belonging or in anywise Appertaining And the Reversion and Reversions Remainder and Remainders Rents Issues and Profits thereof and of every part and parcel thereof (except as before excepted) And all the Estate Right Title Interest Use Trust Property Claim and Demand whatsoever of him the said George Fraiser Hawkins of in and to the said Tract or Parcel of Land called The lost Tomahock and every part and parcel thereof (ecept as before excepted) To Have and To Hold one undivided moiety of the said Tract or Parcel of Land called The lost Tomahock (Except as before excepted) with its Rights Members and Appertinances to him the said Benedict Calvert his Heirs and Assigns to the Only Proper use and behoof of him the said Benedict Calvert his heirs and Assigns forever and to or for no Other Use Intent or Purpose whatsoever And To Have and to Hold the other undivided Moiety of the same Tract or Parcel of Land called the lost Tomahock except as before excepted) To him the said Thomas Johnson junior his Heirs and Assigns tot he only proper Use and Behoof of him the said Thomas Johnson junior his Heirs and Assigns forever and to or for no Other Use Intent or Purpose whatsoever And the said George Frasier Hawkins for himself his heirs Executors and Administrators doth hereby covenant and grant to and with the said Benedict Calvert and Thomas Johnson junior severally and respectively their respective Heirs Executors Administrators and Assigns in Manner and Form following that is to say that he the said George Frasier Hawkins and his Heirs the said Tract or Parcel of Land called The lost Tomahock (except as before excepted) to them the said Benedict Calvert and Thomas Johnson junior their respective Heirs and Assigns in Undivided Moietys as aforesaid shall and will warrant and for ever hereafter defend from and against him the said George Frasier Hawkins his Heirs and Assigns and all person or persons Claiming or to Claim by from or under him them or any of them And further that the said George Frasier Hawkins and his heirs will at any time hereafter upon the reasonable Request and at the Costs and Charges of the said Benedict Calvert and Thomas Johnson junior or either of them their or either of their Heirs or Assigns make do Acknowledge Suffer and execute any other or further Deed or Deeds Assurance or Assurances for the further better and most sure conveying the said Tract or parcel of Land called the lost Tomahock (except as before excepted) to them the said Benedict Calvert and Thomas Johnson junior to these presents have hereunto interchangeably Set their hands and Affixed their seals the Day and year first above written

Signed Sealed and Delivered in the Presents of Geo Fraser Hawkins (seal) Ge.o Hardy Jun.r John Baynes On the back of the aforegoing Deed was thus Endorsed to wit Received on the Day and year first within written of and from the within named Benedict Calvert and Thomas Johnson Junior the within Four hundred pounds sterling being the Consideration Money within Mentioned to be by them paid to me I say received by Witness Ge.o Hardy Jun.r Geo Fraser Hawkins John Baynes Prince Georges County On the First Day of May Seventeen hundred and Sixty Nine Came before Us the Subscribers two of his Lordships Justices the within named George Frasier Hawkins and Acknowledged the within Instrument of writing to be his Act and Deed and the Land and Appertinances therein Mentioned to be conveyed to be the Right and Estate of the within named Benedict Calvert and Thomas Johnson junior their Heirs and Assigns for ever in Undivided Moietys as Tenants in Common according the True Intent and Meaning of the within Deed and the Act of Assembly in such cases made and Provided And on the same Day and Year came Also before us Susanna Trisman Hawkins the wife of the said George Frasier Hawkins who being by us privately examined Apart from and out of the hearing of her said Husband did relinquish and release and did declare that She did by this her Acknowledgement intend to relinquish and release to the said Benedict Calvert and Thomas Johnson Junior their Heirs and Assigns all her Right Title Interest and Claim of or to Dower in the said Land and Appertinances and She further declared that she made such Acknowledgement and Release voluntary and freely without being induced thereto by Fears or Threats of evil usage from her said Husband or though Fear of his Displeasure Acknowledged Before Ge.o Hardey Jun.r John baynes

Author: William Tindall Title: Standard history of the city of Washington from a study of the original sources, 1914, page 48

Thomas Johnson was a resident of Frederick, Maryland, and an OLD FRIEND of President Washington. Prior to the Revolutionary War he had been interested with the latter in the project rendering the upper Potomac and its tributaries navigable by a series of improvements in the channel and the construction of canals around the Great and Little Falls. As one of the REPRESENTATIVES OF THE STATE OF MARYLAND IN THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS HE HAD NOMINATED WASHINGTON TO BE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE CONTINENTAL ARMY AND HE HAD LATER SERVED UNDER GENERAL WASHINGTON IN THE ARMY. After the Revolutionary War he had taken an active part with Washington in reviving the project of improving the navigation of the Potomac, and after the organization of the Potowmack Company for that purpose in 1785, had given special attention to the supervision of the work which the company undertook. He had been the Governor of his State, and at the time of his appointment as Commissioner was its Chief Justice. Shortly after his appointment as Commissioner, President Washington appointed him to the Supreme Court of the United States to take the seat vacated by Mr. Rutledge. He continued to serve

page 49

as commissioner while holding his place on the Supreme Bench. He was a brusque, impetuous temperament, and was strongly addicted to swearing, though he is spoken of as generous and warm hearted.

President Washington probably was moved by a number of considerations to name Mr Johnson as one of the Commissioners. He knew that the latter's residence near the location of the new city and his interest in the Potowmack Company would give him a strong incentive to push the development of the city. He knew from the observation of Mr Johnson's efforts in directing the work of the Powtomack Company that he was a man of great energy and executive capacity. He knew him to be an astute lawyer, throughly grounded in the Maryland laws and he doubtless anticipated that such a man would be invaluable as legal adviser to the Commission and particularly in preparing the conveyances which would be required in carrying out his scheme for acquiring the site for the proposed city and in DRAFTING SUCH LEGISLATION as would be needed to facilitate the work of the commission.

John Marshall, Definer of a Nation by Jean Edward Smith pg 166

this is in regards to the title to the Fairfax lands ....Because of the obvious conflict, Marshall stepped aside as the state's chief legal officer. At that point, the council of state, recognizing the important of the litigation, went to Patrick Henry, who was told that he could set his own fee if he took the case. The great orator, now in the twilight of his career, declined. The state then retained John Wickham and Alexander Campbell, but Campbell committed suicide before the appeal could be argued.

Governor Henry Lee Executive Papers, 1791-1794

Noteworthy correspondence originates from the United States government, Virginia State government, and miscellaneous sources. Prominent correspondents from the United States government include Henry Knox, Secretary of War; Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State; Edmund Randolph, Attorney General; Alexander Campbell, District Attorney General; Thomas Johnson, David Stuart, Daniel Carroll, William Thornton, & Gustavus Scott, Commissioners of the Federal City; John Hopkins, Commissioner of Loans for Virginia; John Jacob Ulrich Rivardi, Engineer in the service of the U.S.; Samuel A. Otis, Secretary of the Senate; and the Virginia Delegates to Congress including James Monroe, Richard Henry Lee, and others.


Governor of Maryland

ceded the District of Columbia to the federal government as the site of the new national capital. Brother of Rebecca Plater, wife of John Tayloe, who was partner with Presley Thornton, who had died 1769, and William Fitzhugh of Marmion (born 13 Apr 1725 died May, 1791, and operated the Occoquan Furnace at Prince William Co. Virginia. John Tayloe is the one who warned Duncan Campbell of about an order of iron of the ship "Scarsdale".

The Virginia Gazette March 26, 1772. Number 1078. Page 3, Column 3

THE Weather setting in very bad on the third Day of the Sale of Mr. Benjamin Grymes's Estate (before advertised by his Trustees) prevented the Whole from being sold, this is to give Notice that on the third Monday in May next, being Fair Day, will be sold, in Fredericksburg, on Credit till the 25th of April 1773, between twenty and thirty SLAVES, a tract of Land, containing two Thousand Acres, near Lewis's Bridge, which will be sold altogether, or in Parcels as can be agreed on at the Sale; also a Tract, containing sixteen Hundred Acres, adjoining Recovery Furnace Tract, a BRIG about one Hundred Tuns Burthen, several WAGGONS, CARTS, and their GEER, sundry BEDS and other HOUSEHOLD and KITCHEN FURNITURE, as well as all the BOOKS, and every Thing else belonging to the Estate of the said Grymes. Five per Cent. Discount will be allowed for ready Money, and all Bonds no discharged at the time they become due to bear Interest from their Dates.


Fitzhugh's will was dated March 13, 1789, and proved in King George June 2, 1791. Legatees: to wife her clothes, all her jewels, her gold watch, such furniture, plate and books as she should choose, the coach and horses, eight slaves, and, during her widowhood, the Marmion plantation mansion, with houses, gardens, orchards, a supply of groceries, &c., and also 60 pounds per annum. He states that he had provided for his sons, Daniel (McCarty) and Theoderick. Gives son John the negroes he had lent him. To son Philip the remainder of the estate not otherwise bequeathed. If son Robert should return to the State he is to have one shilling, "because at the commencement of the late war he quitted the business I had allotted for his living, since which I have heard nothing from him.' Son William Beverley Fitzhugh, two negroes. Daughter Lucy Campbell 600 pounds, Daughter Elizabeth 500 pounds if she marries, if not 25 pounds per year. Same provision for daughter Anna. Bequests to daughters Sally, Molly and Maria, and daughter Finch. William Hooe, of "Pine Hill,' and "my son-in-law" Alexander Campbell, executors. (Virginia Historical Magazine). His son in law, Alexander Campbell had married Lucy Fitzhugh. He was the son of Rev Archibald Campbell and Hannah McKay, who had come to America and had a school where many of the Presidents attended.


Fielding and Betty Washington Lewis

Virginia County Records SPOTSYLVANIA COUNTY 1721-1800 WILLS WILL BOOK E 1772-1798 page 37 LEWIS, FIELDING, St. George's Parish, Spotsylvania Co. d. Oct. 19, 1781, p. Jan. 17, 1782. Wit. George Noble, Benj. Ledwick, John Butler, Gerard Alexander, Will. Booth, William Carpenter. Ex. wife and my sons John, Fielding and George. Leg. wife, Betty Lewis, during life use of all my lands in Spots. Co. except that part rented to my son John; son John, after death of his mother, all my lands in Spots. Co. and in Fredericksburg; son Fielding, 1000 acres of my Frederick Co. lands, on which he lives; son George, remainder of Frederick Co. lands bought of Robert Carter Nicholas, except 1000 acres to my son Lawrence; son-in-law Charles Carter, Esqr; son Lawrence, 1000 acres of land in Frederick Co.; son Robert, one-half of 10,000 acres of land located for me in the Co. of Kentucky by Mr. Hancock Lee, and one-half of 20,000 acres located or to have been located for me by Nathaniel Randolph in the Co. of Kentucky; son Howell, the remaining half of above lands in Kentucky; all my lands purchased at the Land Office except what is already disposed of, to my sons Robert and Howell equally; my share in the Dismal Swamp Co. my lands bought of Marinaduke Naughflett in partnership with Genl. Washington; my lands bought of Dr. Wright and Jones in Nansemond Co., in partnership with Genl. Washington and Dr. Thomas Walker, and the 320 acres of land in Frederick Co. bought of George Mercer's estate, also my share in the Chatham Rope Walk at Richmond to be sold by executors and the money arising to be paid to my six sons before mentioned, in equal portions.

In March of 1750, Fielding filed in the matter of the estate of Mildred Willis. At about the time that he married Elizabeth 'Betty' Washington, Fielding built a manion just northwest of Fredericksburg that he would call 'Kenmore'. It had ornamental ceilings done in stucco. In 1752, Fielding paid Richard Royston of Gloucester County 861 lbs. for 861 acres of land adjoining his fathers tract near Fredericksburg, and built a mill at Hazel Run. In February 1752, George Washington surveyed the remaining half of the Buckner-Royston Patent for his brother-in-law, and Fielding purchased the tract the following month. (Ref: Fielding Lewis and the Washington Family, Paula S. Felder, p. 77, 101). His purchases included at least 3078 acres that were part of the holdings of Robert Carter Nicholas lying in the Valley in then Frederick County (now Clarke Co.), Virginia. In 1752, Fielding Lewis, George (the President) Washington, John Thornton and Charles Dick were early members of the Masonic Lodge of Fredericksburg. Later, Fielding acquired land along the Chriswell Mine Road, and in 1755, the area that he acquired was referenced as 'Mr. Fielding Lewis' Qtr called the Halfway House'. It was located about half way between the mine at the North Anna River and the Hazel Run wharves located in the town of Fredericksburg.

In December of 1757, Fielding was commissioned as head of the Spotsylvania Milita as a result of the actions taken by John Thornton against John Spotswood in regard to the march to Winchester, Frederick, VA. in May of 1756. (Ref: Forgotton Companions, Paula S. Felder, p. 214-215). In the latter half of 1760, Fielding sold 32 of his town lots, grossing more than 1000 lbs. (Ref: Fielding Lewis and the Washington Family, Paula S. Felder, p. 138, and Forgotten Companions, Paula S. Felder, pp. 138-139). He became a commissioned a County Lieutenant in 1758, and Commander-in-chief of the County militia in 1761. In May of 1763, Fielding, along with George Washington, Thomas Walker and Burwell Bassett traveled south to inspect the area known as 'the Dismal Swamp'. This effort to drain of 1000 acres of the available land eventuallyentailed the survey of at least 40,000 acres. (Ref: 'Articles of Agreement of the Dismal Swamp Company, 1763', Virginia Magazine of Historyand Biography, Vol. 37 (1929), pp. 64-65). Unfortunately, the project never came to success and the affluent Anthony Bacon (the London factor) would later hold Fielding responsible for his losses and take legal action against him.

During the Revolution (being unable to enter the army because of bad eyes), he advanced £7,000 for the manufacture of arms at the 'Gunnery', established by the State of Virginia at Fredericksburg. For this outlay, he was repaid in depreciated money which was worth about two Pence on the Pound. Fielding invested his repayment largely in Western lands in the hope of offsetting his losses. During 1776, Fielding attended ot local matters and fulfilled his traditional responsibilites such as attending a vestry meeting in February and presiding at the courts held in March throught June. In March 1777, Fielding purchased half o the brick warehouse on Sophia Street, on lot 11 of Fredericksburg. This purchase is believed to have been in relation to his purchaseof the small sloop, the 'Betsey', which weighted 35 tons. This is reported to have been necessary as a result of the cutoff of goods from England the the ability of the British blockade to effectively stop the trade of larger vessels. Also during March of 1777, Fielding was present for the meetings of the Spring Court. In April of 1778, Fielding advertised cargos from two ships arriving at Fredericksburg, the 'Betsey' and the 'Harleguin'. In November of 1778, Fielding, in the company of Charles Dick and Ebenezer Hazard traveled to Williamsburg. Their trip appears to have been successful as the gun factory in Fredericksburg soon received an infusion of 5000 lbs. by December.

During his life, Fielding had been elected to the House of Burgesses twice and elected senior churchwarden four times by his fellow membersof the vestry. In April of 1781, Fielding (in his last letter to hislifelong friend and brother-in-law) wrote to General Washington in regard to the health of his mother Mary (Ball) Washington and did speak of her continuing recovery. In addition to this, he himseld 'had beenan invalid confined to his onw home since October of 1780'. (Ref: Fielding Lewis and the Washington Family, Paula S. Felder, p. 286). On 17 May 1781, in his last noted action , Fielding was involved in a trip to the courthouse on the Po River to record the sale of his properties (of the former Warner patent, and subsequently known as Vaux Hall)on the Ni River. The will of Fielding was presented in Spotsylvania Co., VA. on 17 Januar 1782. He willed the 'Kenmore' mansion to his wife Betty, for the remainder of her life. One of the legacies that heleft to his son John was the still unpaid debt too Gabriel Jones of 1767, which by then with interest totaled 2191 lbs.. In addition to that John received all of his fathers land between Far Hill Road and the Rappahannock river. The terms of the codicil of 10 December 1781 settle division of the estate not to begin until December 1782.

Lewis married Catharine Washington on October 18, 1746. She was his second cousin, the daughter of John Washington and Catharine Whiting, and a first cousin to George Washington. They had three children before Catharine died on February 19, 1750. A few months later, on May 7, 1750, Lewis married Betty Washington (1733-1797), the sister of George Washington and another second cousin. She was 17 years old. They had 11 children together. Betty outlived Lewis by 16 years, dying in 1797. Their son Lawrence Lewis later married Eleanor Parke Custis, George Washington's adopted daughter and step-granddaughter, tying the families closely together. Spotsvylania Co. Virginia Deed Book H, 1771-1774 (Spotsylvania County Records, Pg 301) Decr 25, 1772

JOHN CAMPBELL, ESQR and Mary, his wife, and ALEXANDER SPOTSWOOD ESQR to FIELDING LEWIS and Joseph Brock, Gentl, CHURCHWARDENS OF ST GEORGE PARISH, LEASE 50 acres in St. Geo Parish, Spots Co 315 lbs tobacco Jno Brock, John Munro, Jona Wilson no date of record

He served on the Committee of Safety of Fredericksburg and in 1775 was appointed, along with Charles Dick and three others, to establish and equip a manufactory of small arms for the newly formed government. Virginia's third revolutionary convention contributed the first 25,000 pounds, but most of the operating funds came from the personal account of Colonel Lewis. It was the first such factory in America. Two historical markers have been placed at the site near Walker-Grant Middle School on Gunnery Road

Another tidbit from Chapter 11 of The Blackheath Connection shows "The correspondence of Samuel Galloway, a merchant in Anne Arundel County, shows that in 1763 he owed L1097 to Silvanus Grove of London for goods." Galloway also in 1764 acquired a debt of L734 with Thomas Philpot of London. ([59]) By December 1762, it was evident a credit crisis might arise. The crisis of 1762-1763 indeed led to merchants writing letters (their context as received in Glasgow) such as: "You cannot imagine the distress people here are in for want of money. Several of our Virginia and West India merchants are lately broke here and several we much suspected which hurts Credit..." William Lux wrote his brother that trade was extremely dull; many bankruptcies were expected in Philadelphia, and several bankruptcies in England had affected Virginia "prodigiously". The low price for tobacco had a very negative effect, and by 23 May, 1764, he'd concluded, the colony was never in such a bad condition. ([68])

"Virginia's measure of 1765 was vetoed after John Stewart protested in the colony and to the Privy Council. "All persons in debt with John Stewart and Company, or John Stewart & Campbell, or Alexr Stewart, Stewart & Lux, or William Lux, for servants are asked to pay up; likewise those who have open accounts with Wm Lux, at John Stewart & Campbell's store, Elk-Ridge Landing. Signed Alexr Stewart. The Maryland Gazette, 26 February, 1767".

According to The Blackheath Connection transportation of convicts and lumber by Duncan Campbell were coming into the port of Philadelphia in 1779, So how is it the enemy ships were still trading with us right in the middle of the revolution??

Dan Byrnes' other Blackheath Connection Chapters are a "must read" as you will gain a wealth of knowledge from the other side of the water. It reveals more about why the colonials here were so upset, they might have to pay a dollar!

"By 6 June, 1771, to Campbell's chagrin, Neil Somerville had lost the Orange Bay in the Thames between Blackwall and Greenwich "by carelessness of a pilot". ([37]) The replacement vessel, given the same name, cost £1,700s. ([38]) Neil Somerville had a long career as her captain and by 6 September, 1779 he was taking Orange Bay (2) to Jamaica by Philadelphia, carrying timber after delivering prisoners".



So what do we really know about this double dealing, high handed financial wizard? He and Carter Braxton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence had business dealings together. As you read Tennessee history below you will see that if what is suspected is true, Carter Braxton and John Carter, who settled in what became Tennessee in the 1760's were 1st cousins. Imagine that and isn't it quite by accident the district was named for George Washington. It's even more interesting that John Carter's great grandson, Samuel Powhatan Carter married the 2nd great granddaughter of Martha Dandridge Custis Washington, wife of Pres GW. Gee the ties that bind.

One of our illustrious signers of the Declaration of Independence. Noted for his role as "financier of the revolution" and credited with the establishment of the first bank of the United States, which today is Wells Fargo Bank. The Blackheath Connection brings another interesting less known bit of information during the revolution regarding Robert Morris' dealings with a member of the British parliament, Sir Robert Herries. Of course another close confidante of George Washington, Morris house was used as headquarters in Philadelphia as the presidential mansion during the early years of our government. Fairly recent excavation of that property lends the story of Washington's slave population he smuggled there during his administration because it was illegal in Pennsylvania by that time. Interesting it is that Morris' daughter, Hester, married James Markham Marshall, brother of Chief Supreme Court Justice, John Marshall. His find a grave memorial brags of his illustrious military service and large land holdings: "was one of the most distinguished Americans of his day, a Revolutionary hero, lawyer, diplomat, land speculator, and aristocrat of the old Southern plantation regime. As a young lieutenant in Alexander Hamilton's regiment of the Continental Army, James Marshall led what was called "the forlorn hope" in an attack upon the fort in the siege of Yorktown. After the war, he spent a few years in Kentucky, highlighted by a duel which he fought with James Brown, later U.S. Minister to France and Senator from Louisiana. In 1795, James Marshall married Hester Morris, daughter of Robert Morris, the "Financier of the Revolution." Soon after his marriage, James Marshall was sent by President Washington to France as Minister Plenipotentiary to negotiate the release of Lafayette from an Austrian prison, and history credits him with a successful mission. Marshall remained abroad for two years as agent of the North American Land Company which was developing extensive properties in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky. While in England, James Marshall bought from the heirs of Lord Fairfax some 180,000 acres of the vast Northern Neck Proprietary of Virginia. This purchase was made in his own name and in those of his brother, Chief Justice John Marshall, Rawleigh Colson, and "Light Horse" Harry Lee. He later bought out Lee, and with a double portion of the lands thus acquired, he became a large proprietor and a wealthy Virginia gentleman....he built his spacious 16 room mansion". Hester's memorial goes on further bragging " Philadelphia was then the capitol of the United States, and Hester Morris was a reigning belle in that exclusive social circle over which President and Mrs. Washington presided with such elegance that their more democratic constituents dubbed it "The Republican Court." Hester was an intimate friend of Martha Washington's granddaughters, Nellie, Eliza, and Martha Parke Custis, who spent much time at the Philadelphia "White House" and attended the wedding of Hester Morris and James Marshall.

Title James Dudley Morgan collection of Digges-L'Enfant-Morgan papers Span Dates 1674-1923 Bulk Dates (bulk 1778-1828) ID No. MSS18481 Creator Morgan, James Dudley, 1862-1919 Extent 400 items ; 2 containers plus 1 oversize ; 0.8 linear feet ; 2 microfilm reels Language Collection material in English Location Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

Summary Chiefly correspondence, accounts, commissions, notes, and other papers (1778-1828) relating to soldier and engineer Pierre C. L'Enfant, including material concerning the Society of the Cincinnati, the design of the city of Washington, D.C., Robert Morris's home in Philadelphia, and Fort Mifflin, Pennsylvania, and Fort Washington, Maryland. Also includes papers relating to the Digges family of Prince Georges County, Maryland, especially Thomas Atwood Digges and William Dudley Digges, and to James Dudley Morgan's research interest in L'Enfant and the Digges family.



Tennessee Records: Bible Records and Marriage Bonds

page 286 Leader in Franklin

Major Cage was one of the delegates from Sullivan Co to the convention of Dec 14, 1784, held at Jonesborough. Although he voted against independence "at this time," he suffered nothing by being in the minority. He was elected Speaker of the House of Commons of the First Assembly, which met in March, 1785. At the same session he was elected State Treasurer.

Williams publishes an answer to a letter received by Governor Sevier from Governor Martin of North Carolina. The letter was "formulated by the Assembly" and is signed by Major Cage and Landon Carter, Speaker of the Senate.

Another address from the Assembly to Congress praying for acceptance of the session act and the admission of Franklin as a page 287 state is likewise signed by Speakers Cage and Carter.


In May, 1787, a convention was held at Greeneville to consider the final adoption of the Constitution promulgated at the place in November, 1785. There is no complete record of the members of the convention of 1785. Possibly Major Cage was a member. He was a member of the convention of 1787, which adopted a Constitution. Before this convention adjourned William Cocke proposed a resolution favoring holding an election for members of the North Carolina Legislature on the same day that North Carolina should hold an election for this purpose in Franklin. The idea was that by this means the "Franks" could elect men favorable to a separation from North Carolina; in which event a sufficient number of members of the North Carolina Assembly would grant the separation.

On this motion, Major Cage was reported at the time to have spoken in substance as follows: "Colonel Cage was of the opinion that if we did not hold the SHAM ELECTION proposed under the authority of North Carolina, thereby to get friends to represent us in that Assembly, we should never bring about a reconciliation; and as a friend to peace as well as a faithful friend to the STATE OF FRANKLIN, he heartily wished that the motion now in question might be carried; thus, with their own weapons, we should prove victorious over our enemy."


Judge Williams prints a sketch of Major Cage, which is here copied, with the author's permission: "William Cage was born in Virginia in 1745. He removed to Chatham County, N. C., and served for a time as Major in the Revolutionary Army. His chief service was against the Tories under the noted Col. David Fanning. He seems to have been a prisoner of the Tories for a short time. He removed after the war to Sullivan County, N C. That county sent him as one of it's delegates to the House of Commons of the North Carolina Legislature of 1783, his associate being Col. Abraham Bledsoe. He was returned the succeeding session, along with David Looney. He voted against the first secession act; but became one of the moving spirits in organizing the new state of Franklin. He was elected Speaker of the Lower House of the first assembly, and was the first Treasurer of the State.

"In 1785 he removed to Sumner County, probably influenced to do so by the Bledsoes. When the territorial government was organized he was appointed by GOVERNOR BLOUNT sheriff of Sumner County, and by sucessive appointments he served until 1796, when he was succeeded by James Cage. Another son, Harry Cage, removed to Mississippi, where he became Supreme Judge and Congressman. "William Cage died at his home in Cage's Bend (of Cumberland River), March, 1811."

Major Cage's tombstone bears this inscription: "William Cage, a Major of the page 288 Revolutionary War, died March 12, 1811."

Inscriptions on the tombs of Col Edward Douglas, his wife, Sarah George Douglas, also their daughter, Elizabeth Douglas Cage, and her husband, Major Wm Cage. These graves are in the old Cage cemetery at the old Cage home which was owned and occupied by Maj Cage from the time that he came to Sumner County (then Davidson County) until his death.

Edward Douglas born 1713 died 1773

Sarah Douglas born 1714 died 1777 wife of E Douglas

Wm Cage died March 12, 1811 age 66 years

John Cage, son of Major Wm and Elizabeth Douglas Cage, married Thankful Morgan, daughter of Capt John Morgan and Mary Hall

Mary Priscilla Cage, daughter of John Cage and Thankful Morgan Cage, married David Barry; their son, David F Barry married Lutie Chenault; their daughter Thankful Barry married George Harsh, attorney of Memphis, Tenn


The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, in which it forbade settlers from settling past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains. The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. The Royal Proclamation continues to be of legal importance to First Nations in Canada and is significant for the variation of indigenous status in the United States. It also ensured that British culture and laws were applied in Quebec, which was done to attract British settlers to Quebec. The influence of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 on the coming of the American Revolution has been variously interpreted. Many historians argue that the proclamation ceased to be a major source of tension after 1768, since the aforementioned treaties opened up extensive lands for settlement. Others have argued that colonial resentment of the proclamation contributed to the growing divide between the colonies and the mother country. Historian Woody Holton, for example, argued that even though the boundary was pushed west in subsequent treaties, the British government refused to permit new colonial settlements for fear of instigating a war with Native Americans, which angered colonial land speculators.

GEORGE WASHINGTON was given 20,000 acres (81 km2) of wild land in the Ohio region for his services in the French and Indian War. In 1770, Washington took the lead in securing the rights of him and his old soldiers in the French War, advancing money to pay expenses in behalf of the common cause and using his influence in the proper quarters. In August 1770, it was decided that Washington should personally make a trip to the western region, where he located tracts for himself and military comrades and eventually was granted letters patent for tracts of land there. The lands involved were open to Virginians under terms of the Treaty of Lochaber of 1770, except for the lands located 2 miles south of Fort Pitt, now known as Pittsburgh.

In the United States, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 ended with the American Revolutionary War because Great Britain ceded the land in question to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1783). Afterward, the U.S. government also faced difficulties in preventing frontier violence and eventually adopted policies similar to those of the Royal Proclamation. The first in a series of Indian Intercourse Acts was passed in 1790, prohibiting unregulated trade and travel in Native American lands. In 1823, the U.S. Supreme Court case Johnson v. M'Intosh[16] established that only the U.S. government, and not private individuals, could purchase land from Native Americans.



JOHN CARTER signer of Watauga Petition

The Washington District Committee of Safety, created in 1775, consisted of John Carter, Zachariah Isbell, Jacob Brown, John Sevier, James Smith, James and Charles Robertson, William Bean, John Jones, George Russell, and Robert Lucas. The Committee acquired arms and oversaw the construction of Fort Watauga (initially named Fort Caswell and located at present day Elizabethton, Tennessee), where they thwarted one wing of the Cherokee invasion of July 1776. Wataugans took part in William Christian's punitive expedition against the Overhill towns in the latter half of 1776.




Reference: "The Encyclopedia Britannica Handy Volume Issue" Eleventh Edition, Published 1910-1911, Vol. 26, Pg 623 & 624

The present site of Memphis may be the point where the Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto, reached the Mississippi river, but this cannot be determined with certainity. Father Marquette in his voyage down the Mississippi camped upon the western border, and La Salle built Fort Prud'homme upon the Chickasaw Bluffs, probably on the site of Memphis, in 1682, but it was abandoned, then rebuilt, and again abandoned.

The territory was included in the English grant to Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584 and in the later Stuart grants, including that of Carolina, in 1663. No permanent settlement, however, was made until 1769, though wandering explorers and fur traders visited the eastern portion much earlier.

A party of Virginians led by Dr. Thomas Walker (1715-1794), in 1750 reached and named the Cumberland river and mountains in honour of the royal duke. In 1756 or 1757, Fort Loudon, named in honour of John Campbell, earl of Loudon, was built on the Little Tennessee river, about 30 m. N. of the present site of Knoxville, as an outpost against the French, who were now active in the whole Mississippi Valley, and was garrisoned by royal troops. The fort was captured, however, by the Cherokee Indians in 1760, and both the garrison and the neighbouring settlers were massacred.

Eastern Tennessee was recognized as a common hunting ground by the Cherokees, Creeks, Miamis and other Indian tribes, and the Iroquois of New York also claimed a considerable portion by right of conquest.

In 1768 the Iroquois ceded whatever claim they had to the English, and in 1769 several cabins were built along the Watauga and Holston rivers upon what was thought to be Virginian soil. A settlement near the present Rogersville was made in 1771 and in the next year another sprang up on the Nollichucky. After the failure of the Regulator insurrection in North Carolina in 1771, hundreds of the Regulators made their way into the wilderness. When the settlements were found to be within the limits of North Carolina, that colony made no effort to assert jurisdiction or to protect the settlers from Indian depredations. Therefore in 1772 the residents of the first two settlements met in general convention to establish a form of government since known as the Watauga Association.

A general committee of thirteen was elected to exercise legislative powers. This committee elected from its members a committee of five in whom executive and judicial powers were lodged. The smaller committee elected a chairman, who was also chairman of the committee of thirteen. A sheriff, an attorney and a clerk was elected, and regulations for recording deeds and wills were made. Courts were held, but any conflict of jurisdiction with Virginia or North Carolina was avoided.

In 1775 the settlement on the Nollichucky was forced to join the association, and in the same year the land was bought from the Indians in the hope of averting war.

With the approach of the War of Independence, THE DREAM OF BEOMING A SEPARATE COLONY WITH A ROYAL GOVERNOR WAS ABANDONED, (OR WAS IT????), and on petition of the inhabitants the territory was annexed to North Carolina in 1776 as the Washington District, which in 1777 became Washington county, with the Mississippi river as the western boundary. The population increased rapidly and soon several new counties were created.

During the War of Independence the hardy mountaineers under John Sevier and Evan Shelby did valiant service against both the royal troops and the Loyalists in South Carolina, chiefly as partisan rangers under Charles McDowell (1763-1815). Major Patrick Ferguson with several hundred Loyalists and a small body of regulars, made a demonstration against the western settlements, but at King's Mountain in South Carolina he was completely defeated by the Americans, among whom Colonel Sevier and the troops led by him were conspicuous.

After the War of Independence the legislature of North Carolina in 1784 offered to cede her western territory to the general government, provided the cession should be accepted within two years. The Watauga settlers, indignant at this transfer without their consent, and fearing to be left without any form of government whatever, called a convention which met at Jonesborough on the 23rd of August 1784, and by which delegates to another convention to form a new state were appointed. Meanwhile North Carolina repealed the act of cession and created the western counties into a new judicial district. A second convention, in November, broke up in confusion without accomplishing anything; but a third adopted a constitutiion, which was submitted to the people, and ordered the election of a legislature.

This body met early in 1785, elected Sevier governor of the new state of Franklin (at first Frankland), filled a number of offices, and passed several other acts looking to separate existence. Four new counties were created, and taxes were levied.

Later in the year another convention, to which the proposed constitution had been referred, adopted instead the constitution of North Carolina with a few trifling changes, and William Cocke was chosen to present to Congress a memorial requesting recognition as a state. Congress, however, ignored the request, and the diplomacy of the North Carolina authorities caused a reaction. For a time two sets of officials claimed recognition, but when the North Carolina legislature a second time passed an act of oblivion and remitted the taxes unpaid since 1784, the tide was turned. No successor to Sevier was elected, and he was arrested on a charge of treason, but was allowed to escape, and soon afterwards was again appointed brigadier-general of militia.

Meanwhile, settlers had pushed on further into the wilderness. On the 17th of March 1775 Colonel Richard Henderson and his associates extinguished the Indian title to an immense tract of land in the valleys of the Cumberland, the Kentucky and the Ohio rivers. In 1778, James Robertson (1742-1814), a native of Virginia, who had bee prominent in the Watauga settlement, set out with a small party to prepare the way for permanent occupation. He arrived at French Lick (so called from a French trading post established there) early in 1779, and in the same year a number of settlers from Virginia and South Carolina arrived. Another party led by John Donelson arrived in 1780, and after the close of the War of Independence, the immigrants came in a steady stream. A form of governement similar to the Watauga Association was devised, and block-houses were built for defence against the Indians.

Robertson was sent as a delegate to the North Carolina legislature in 1783 and through his instrumentality the settlements became Davidson county. Nashville, which had been founded as Nashborough in 1780, became the county seat. Finally, in 1843, it became the state capital. Robertson, the dominant figure in the early years, struggled to counteract the efforts of Spanish intriguers among the Indians, and when diplomacy failed led the settlers against the Indian towns.

On the 25th of February 1790 North Carolina again ceded the territory to the general government, stipulating that all the general provisions of the Ordinance of 1787 should apply except that forbidding slavery. Congress accepted the cession and, on the 26th of May 1790, passed an act for the government of the "Territory south of the River Ohio." William Blount was appointed the first governor, and in 1792 Knoxville became the seat of government. The chief events of Blount's administration were the contests with the Indians, the purchase of their lands, and the struggle against the Spanish influence.

A census ordered by the Territorial legislature in 1795 showed more than 60,000 free inhabitants (the number prescribed before the Territory could become a state), and accordingly a convention to draft a state constitution met in Knoxville on the 11th of January 1796. The instrument, which closely followed the constitution of North Carolina, was proclaimed without submission to popular vote. John Sevier was elected governor, and William Blount and William Cocke United States senators. In spite of the opposition of the Federalist party, whose leaders foresaw that Tennessee would be Republican, it was admitted to the Union as the sixteenth state on the 1st of June 1796.

With the rapid increase of population, the dread of Indian and Spaniard declined. Churches and schools were built, and soon many of the comforts and some of the luxuries of life made their appearance. The public school system was inaugurated in 1830, but not until 1845 was the principle of taxation for support fully recognized.

As in all new states, the question of a circulating medium was acute during the first half of the 19th century, and state banks were organized, which suspended specie payments in times of financial stringency. The Bank of Tennessee, organized in 1838, had behind it the credit of the state, and it was hoped that money for education and for internal improvements might be secured from its profits. The management became a question of party politics, and during the Civil War its funds were used to advance the Confederate cause.

The development of the western section along the Mississippi was rapid after the beginning of the century, Memphis, founded in 1819, was thought as late as 1832 to be in Mississippi, and not until 1837 was the southern boundary, which according to the North Carolina cession was 35 degrees, finally established. In common with other river towns, the disorderly element in Memphis was large, and the gamblers, robbers and horse thieves were only suppressed by local vigilance committees. The peculiar topographical conditions made the three sections of the state almost separate commonwealths, and demand for better means of communication was insistent.

The policy of state aid to internal improvements found advocates very early in spite of the Republican affiliations of the state, but a definite programme was not laid out until 1829, when commissioners for internal improvements were appointed and an expenditure of $150,000 was authorized.

In 1835 the state agreed to subscribe one-third to the capital stock of companies organized to lay out turnpikes, railways, etc, and four years later the proportion became one-half. Though these agreements were soon repealed, the general policy was continued, and in 1861 more than $17,000,000 of the state debt was due to these subscriptions, from which there was little return.

Though President Andrew Jackson was for many years practically a dictator in Tennessee politics, his arbitrary methods and his intolerance of any sort of independence on the part of his followers led to a revolt in 1836, when the electoral vote of the state was given to Hugh Lawson White, then United States senator from Tennessee, who had been one of Jackson's most devoted adherents.

White's followers called themselves Anti-Van Buren Democrats, but the proscription which they suffered drove most of them into the Whig party, which carried the state in presidential elections until 1856, when the vote was cast for James Buchanan, the Democratic candidate.

The Whig party was so strong that James K. Polk (Democrat), a resident of the state, lost its electoral vote in 1844. With the disintegration of the Whig party, the state again became nominally Democratic, though Union sentiment was strong, particularly in East Tennessee.

There were few large plantations and fewer slaves in that mountainous region, while the middle and western sections were more in harmony with the sentiment in Mississippi and Alabama. In 1850 representatives of nine Southern states met in a convention at Nashville to consider the questions at issue between the North and the South. The vote of the state was given for Bell and Everett in 1860, and the people as a whole were opposed to secession.

The proposition to call a convention to vote on the question of secession was voted down on the 9th of February 1861, but after President Lincoln's call for troops the legislature submitted the question of secession directly to the people, and meanwhile, on the 7th of May 1861, entered into a "Military League" with the Confederacy. An overwhelming vote was cast on the 8th of June in favour of secession, and on the 24th Governor I.G. Harris (1818-1897) issued a proclamation declaring Tennessee out of the Union. Andrew Johnson, then a United States senator from Tennessee, refused to resign his seat, and was supported by a large element in East Tennessee. A Union convention, including representatives from all the eastern and a few of the middle counties, met on the 17th of June 1861 and petitioned Congress to be admitted as a separate state. The request was ignored, but the section was strongly Unionist in sentiment during the war, and has since been strongly Republican. (NOTE: Greene county included)

The state was, next to Virginia, the chief battleground during the Civil War, and one historian has counted 454 battles and skirmishes which took place within its borders. In February 1862, General U.S. Grant and Commodore A.H. Foote captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee river, and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. The Confederate line of defence was broken and General D.C. Buell occupied Nashville.

Grant next ascended the Tennessee river to Pittsburg Landing with the intention of capturing the Memphis & Charleston railway, and on the 6th-7th of April defeated the Confederates in the battle of Shiloh. The capture of Island No. 10 in the Mississippi on the 7th of April opened the river as far south as Memphis, which was captured in June.

On the 31st of December and the 2nd of January General William S. Rosecrans (Federal) fought with General Braxton Bragg (Confederate) the bloody but indecisive battle of Stone River (Murfreesboro).

In June 1863 Rosecrans forced Bragg to evacuate Chattanooga. Bragg, however, turned upon his pursuer, and on the 19th and 20th of September one of the bloodiest battles of the war was fought at Chickamauga. General Grant now assumed command, and on the 24th and 25th of November defeated Bragg at Chattanooga, thus opening the way into East Tennessee. There General A.E. Burnside at first met with success, but was shut up in Knoxville by General James Longstreet, who was not able, however, to capture the city, and on the approach of General W.T. Sherman retired into Virginia.

Almost the whole state was now held by Federal troops, and no considerable military movement occurred until after the fall of Atlanta in September 1864. Then General J.B. Hood moved into Tennessee, expecting Sherman to follow him. Sherman, however, sent reinforcements to Thomas and continued his march to the sea. Hood fought with General John M. Schofield at Franklin, and on the 15th - 16th of December was utterly defeated by Thomas at Nashville, the Federals thus securing virtually undisputed control of the state.

After the occupation of the state by the Federal armies in 1862 Andrew Johnson was appointed military governor by the president (confirmed March 3, 1862), and held the office until inaugurated vice president on the 4th of March 1865. Republican electors attempted to cast the vote of the state in 1864, but were not recognized by Congress. Tennessee was the first of the Confederate state to be readmitted to the Union (July 24, 1866), after ratifying the Constitution of the United States with amendments, declaring the ordinance of secession void, voting to abolish slavery, and declaring the war debt void.

The state escaped "carpet bag" government, but the native whites in control under the leadership of William G. Brownlow (1805-1877) confined the franchise to those who had always been uncompromisingly Union in sentiment and conferred suffrage upon the negroes (February 25, 1867). The Ku Klux Klan, originating in 1865 as a youthful prank at Pulaski, Tennessee, spread over the state and the entire South, and in 1869 nine counties in the middle and western sections were placed under martial law.

At the elctions in 1869 the Republican part split into two factions. The conservatitive candidate was elected by the aid of the Democrats, who also secured a majority of the legislature, which has never been lost since that time. The constitution was revised in 1870. For a considerable time after the war the state seemed to make little material progress, but since 1880 it has made rapid strides.

The principal occurrences have been the final compounding of the old state debt at fifty cents on the dollar in 1882, the rapid growth of cities, and the increased importance of mining and manufacturing.

Ref: The Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, Vol 26, Pg 625, Published 1910-1911, Governors of Tennessee

State of Franklin John Sevier 1785-1788

Territory South of the Ohio William Blount 1790-1796

State of Tennessee John Sevier Democratic-Republican 1796-1801; John Sevier Democratic-Republican 1803-1809; Willie Blount Democratic-Republican 1809-1815

John Sevier (1745-1815)

The Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, Vol 24, Pg 727, Published 1910-1911

American frontiersman, first governor of Tennessee, was born in Rockingham county, Virginia, on the 23rd of September 1745, of Huguenot ancestry, the family name being XAVIER.

He settled on the Watauga on the western slope of the Alleghanies in 1772, and served as a captain in Lord Dunmore's War in 1774.

Early in 1776 the Watauga settlements were annexed to North Carolina, and Sevier, who from the beginning had been a member of the Watauga government, now represented the district in the provincial congress, which met at Halifax in November-December 1776 and adopted the first state constitution, and in 1777 he was a member of the state House of Commons.

He took part in the campaign of 1780 against the British, especially distinguishing himself in the battle of King's Mountain, where he led the right wing.

In December 1780 he defeated the Cherokees at Boyd's Creek (in the present Sevier county, Tennessee), laying waste their country during the following spring. Later in the same year (1781), under General Francis Marion, he fought the British in the Carolinas and Georgia.

In 1784, when North Carolina first ceded its western lands to the Federal government, he took part in the revolt of the western settlements; he was president of the first convention which met in Jonesboro on the 23rd of August, and opposed the erection of a new state, but when the state of Frankland (afterwards Franklin, in honour of Benjamin Franklin) was organized in March 1785, he became its first and only governor (1785-1788), and as such led his riflemen against the Indians; in May 1788, after the end of his term, men in his command massacred several Indians from a friendly village, and thus provoked a war in which Sevier again showed his ability as an Indian fighter.

He was arrested by the North Carolina authorities, partly as a leader of the independent government and partly for the Indian massacre, but escaped. About this time he attempted to make an alliance with Spain on behalf of the state of Franklin.

In 1789 he was a member of the North Carolina Senate, and in 1790-1791 of the National House of Representatives. After the final cession of its western territory by North Carolina to the United States in 1790 he was appointed brigadier-general of militia for the eastern district of the "Territory South of the Ohio'; and conducted the Etowah campaign against the Creeks and Cherokees in 1793.

When Tennessee was admitted into the Union as a state, Sevier became its first governor (1796-1801) and was governor again in 1803-1809. He was again a member of the National House of Representatives in 1811-1815, and then was commissioner to determine the boundary of Creek lands in Georgia.

He died near Fort Decatur, Georgia, on the 24th of September 1815.

See: J.R. Gilmore, The Rear-Guard of the Revolution (New York, 1886)

John Sevier as a Commonwealth Builder (New York, 1887)

Errors in Gilmore's books are pointed out in Theodore Roosvelt's The Winning of the West (New York, 1894-1896)

Eastern Tennessee which includes the counties of Washington, Greene, Sullivan, Cocke, and Carter were originally named the district of Washington, North Carolina. This is the first territory named in honor of George Washington. Now I wonder why this particular area was named in his honor so early. This was way before Tennessee ever became a state in 1796 and was full of problems with land titles. It also has been called the "Territory South of the River Ohio" and the State of Franklin. What I find so interesting is that you hear all of these stories written about it and the boundary disputes, but you never get the jist of why there were so many problems. One of my ancestral families, the Click's, came down through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and settled in Washington Co. Tennessee prior to statehood and lived in a settlement just outside of Jonesborough called "Broylesville". These Broyles families were here very early and were originally from the Germanna settlements of Alexander Spotswood. In my Click family was my 2nd great grandfather, William Columbus Click and his wife, Phoebe Gray. Phoebe's parents were James Gray and Nancy Ann Campbell (whose sister Mary Campbell married Bartlett Sisk (mentioned below). They were the daughters of Elias Campbell and his wife, Elizabeth Yowell (the Yowell family also being Germanna settlers). It is my strong belief that my Elias Campbell is the son of the John Campbell above who married the widow, Mary West Dandridge Spotswood, cousin of Martha Dandridge Custis Washington, wife of George Washington. These Broyles, my Gray/Campbell's all came from Culpeper Co. Virginia prior to settlements in Washington, Greene, and Cocke Co. Tennessee. My Click family came right in the middle of the State of Franklin fiasco in 1785, which separated from the colonies as it's own government. There was so much turmoil and fighting among the settlers trying to gain control of the waterways and lands. The mysterious Watauga settlement of which no records survive paints a picture of such events and why they were here. And these people were mostly all from Virginia.

The King's Mountain Heroes of the Revolution, OCTOBER 7, 1780

According to George C. McKenzie in the book, "King's Mountain National Park, South Carolina," published in 1955 by the National Park Service, "Sir Henry Clifton, the British commander in chief in North America, as writing, "it was the first link in a chain of evils that followed...until they at last ended in the total loss of America." The battle ground was along the crest of King's Mountain, actually an 18-mile range extending across the border between North and South Carolina, in what are now Cleveland County, North Carolina, and Cherokee County, South Carolina."

This group of men that came over the mountains on their horses and some walking became known as the "rag tag" soldiers because the men (not their leaders) were dressed in buckskins and were just the "poor settlers". These were the hardy settlers who lived in the wilderness and were very skilled hunters. Every year they do a re-enactment of the crossing at Sycamore Shoals, Elizabethton, Carter Co. Tennessee, and I was witness to it this year at that celebration. Many who participate are descendants of those men.

I find it quite interesting that relatives of George Washington are living at the foot of King's Mountain during the revolution manufacturing gun powder used at that battle. His 1/2 niece, Jane Augusta Washington, and her husband (also a cousin of GW) John Thornton, were residing there. However, they go back to Virginia at some point and die in Culpeper Co. Virginia. Their family gives this scenario:

The Jane Washington Thornton Chapter of the National Society of Daughters of the Ameri­can Colonists, the 10th Chapter of DAC in NC, was organized at Cullowhee Nov. 20, 1975, through efforts of Mrs. W. B. Harrill of Cul­lowhee, a 25-year member of DAC. It was named Jane Washington because she was a grandmother (several times removed) to a majority of the group. She was also daughter of Augustine II to which a majority traced descent. Augustine Washington m. Jane Butler. Their son was Augustine Washington II. Jane died, so Augustine Washington m. Mary Ball and to them was born a son, George Washington, first president. So Augustine Washington II and George Washington were half brothers and Jane Washington a half niece to George Washington. Jane Washington was the wife of Col. John Thornton and mother of Nancy Thornton. They lived at the foot of Kings Mountain and John manufactured powder used in the battle of Kings Mountain. His young daughter, Nancy, served water in a gourd to Col. Sevier and his men as they moved up the mountain to attack the British. It was that day that Nancy Thornton met Hugh Rogers and they were later married. It is said that the fatal bullet of the five that pierced the body of the brave and daring British Colonel Ferguson, leader of the King's troops, was shot by John Thornton. The American troops assembled at Thornton's home, hungry and worn with an all night march. Nancy and Hugh Rogers married in Washington County, NC (which became Washington County, TN after the state of TN was formed). According to their marriage record, Nancy was a resident of Greene County at the time, her parents having moved their after the war, and Hugh's family having moved to Washington County. Some of their children were born there before they returned to North Carolina and settled in the Bent Creek area of Buncombe County.

The Col Sevier was John Sevier, who was involved with the "State of Franklin" (1784-1788) in what is now Washington Co. Tennessee and the Watagua Settlement at Sycamore Shoals in Elizabethton, now Carter Co. Tennessee. At that time it was under North Carolina control, but had also been claimed at one time by Virginia through the aid of George Washington's extension of the map of Peter Jefferson. Along with Sevier and what is called the "Overmountain Men", who fought at the battle of King's Mountain, was Evan Shelby, who was a member of George Washington's Potomac Company and Shelby's son, Isaac Shelby, who then becomes Governor of Kentucky. I am not directly related to this Roger's family. but some of my BOLCH/BOLICK relatives married into the families of the children of Hugh Rogers and Nancy Thornton in Cocke Co. Tennessee. They were living just over the mountain in Haywood Co. North Carolina. Some of my Campbell relatives that moved to Cocke Co Tennessee around 1806 from Culpeper/Madison Co. Virginia I talked about earlier, married into the Sisk family, who also served at King's Mountain. Their pension files confirm their locations.

John Thornton's father, Francis died in 1748 leaving him an orphan. His mother was Frances Gregory, the daughter of Roger Gregory and Mildred Washington. Mildred Washington was a daughter of Lawrence Washington and Mildred Warner. Mildred Washington was the sister of George Washington's father, John. This deed is found: Virginia County Records SPOTSYLVANIA COUNTY 1721-1800 DEED BOOK E 1751-1761 page 198 Feby. 4, 1755. George Washington of Fairfax Co., Esqr., to John Thornton, an infant (son of Fran. Thornton, Late of Spts. Co., Gent., Decd., and Frances Thornton, his widow and relict.) Deed of Gift. "Consideration of the Natural love, good-will and affection which he beareth to the sd. John Thornton, his cousin," etc. Lot 40, in town of Fredksbg. No witnesses. Feby. 4, 1755.


THE GAINES AND PENDLETON FAMILIES A little background on these two families will give you a whole lot of enlightenment.

Let's begin with Henry Pendleton's family who married Mary Bishop Taylor. Two of their children were of particular interest, daughter, Isabella and her husband William Henry Gaines and her brother, Edmund Pendleton.

Edmund Pendleton (Washington's attorney) born 1721, married twice, the first time to Elizabeth Roy, whose father, John, owned the Roy Warehouse in Caroline Co. Virginia. She died within a year after their marriage and he married a 2nd time to Sarah Pollard. But thank goodness he had no children. His biography on his find a grave memorial states " he grew to be the great member of his family and one of the noblest patriots of Virginia. He studied law with his cousin, John Penn (signer of Declaration of Independence)was a member of the House of Burgesses for 25 years; member of the First Continental Congress, where he, Patrick Henry and George Washington rode on horseback from Mt. Vernon; was President of the Virginia convention that drew up the resolutions for the Declaration of Independence and these resolutions were his own.

The Southern Biographies and Genealogies, 1500s-1940s gives this account of Edmund Pendleton.

Was the fifth son of Henry Pendleton and Mary Taylor. His father died before his birth. The following sketch of him is taken from Appleton's Encyclopedia of American Biography: Page 105 "Edmund Pendleton, statesman, was born in Caroline county, Va. 9th Sept., 1721. His grandfather, Philip, descended from Pendleton, of Manchester, Lancaster county, England, came from Norwich, Eng., to this country in 1674. Edmund began his career in the Clerk's office of Caroline county. He was licensed to practice law in 1744; became County Justice in 1751, and the following year was elected to the House of Burgesses. In 1764 was one of the Committee to memorialize the King. During the session of 1766, he gave the opinion `that the stamp act was void, for want of Constitutional authority in Parliament to pass it,'and voted in the affirmative on the resolution that the `act did not bind the inhabitants of Virginia.' He was one of the Committee of correspondence in 1763; County Lieutenant of Caroline in 1774. A member of the colonial convention, of the latter year, that was consequent on the Boston Port Bill, and was chosen by that body to the first Continental Congress. Accordingly, in company with George Washington, Peyton Randolph, Patrick Henry, Benjamin Harrison, and Richard Henry Lee, he attended in Philadelphia in 1774. As President of Virginia Convention, he was at the head of the government of the Colony from 1775 until the creation of the Virginia constitution in 1776, and was appointed President of the Committee of Safety in that year. In May, 1776, he presided again over the convention, and drew up the celebrated resolutions, by which the delegates from Virginia were instructed to propose a declaration of independence in Congress, using the words that were afterwards incorporated almost verbatim with the Declaration. As the leader of the Cavalier or Planter CLASS, he was the opponent of Patrick Henry, and as leader of the Committee of Public Safety, he was active in the control of the military and naval operations, and of the foreign correspondence of Virginia. On the organization of the State Government, he was chosen Speaker of the House, and appointed, with Chancellor George Wythe and Thomas Jefferson, to revise the Colonial laws. In 1777, he was crippled for life by a fall from his horse; but the same year he was re-elected Speaker of the House of Burgesses, and President of the Court of Chancery. In 1779, he became President of the Court of Appeals, holding the office until his death. He presided over the State Convention, which ratified the Constitution of the United States in 1788. His masterly advocacy of the document gained him the encomium from Jefferson that `taken all in all, he was the ablest man in debate that I ever met with.' He received very large grants of land from the State, and having no children, was ever generous to his nieces and nephews, whose descendants still hold his memory in tender veneration. He married twice--1st. Elizabeth Roy, 2nd. Sarah Pollard. He died in 1803."

Now what I find most interesting about Mr. Pendleton is a document of a case involving land in Sullivan County, Tennessee I'm sure nobody knows about because it's in a box of unindexed records of Washington Co. Tennessee. In 1794 Archibald Taylor, plaintiff filed against JAMES GAINES, agent for EDMUND PENDLETON, as defendant. (James Gaines was Pendleton's nephew, see below). It starts out "Territory of the United States of America South of the River Ohio" in Superior Court of the DISTRICT OF WASHINGTON, ..the said James Gaines saith the value of the lands in dispute does exceed the sum of five hundred dollars current money...and saith further he is agent for Edmund Pendleton, he claims possession BY TITLE OF THE LANDS IN QUESTION BY VIRTUE OF A PATENT GRANT FROM GEORGE THE SECOND KING OF GREAT BRITTAIN, SIGNED BY ROBERT DINWIDDIE AND BEARING DATE THE SIXTEENTH DAY OF AUGUST ONE THOUSAND SEVEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY SIX to the said EDMUND PENDLETON in his own name for THREE THOUSAND ACRES and it appears in face of said patent grant that the said Robert Dinwiddie was at the said time of issuance thereof Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief of the Colony & Dominion of VIRGINIA and the said patent grant appears to be for lAND LAYING WITHIN THE SAID COLONY & DOMINION OF VIRGINIA AT TIME OF ISSUANCE. This day to September the twenty seventh in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninty four (1794). James Gaines agent for Edmund Pendleton came before me DAVID CAMPBELL one of the Justices of the TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA SOUTH THE RIVER OHIO and made oath according to law that the matters and things lett forth in the above mentioned premises as far as he knows or believes are true. signed DAVID CAMPBELL. This Campbell group were from Ireland and their connections with others I've mentioned including the Shelby's of Tenn and Kentucky, are shown after they leave Tennessee and go to Kentucky. The David that probably signed this court case was born abt 1750 and died 1812. His biography reads: "David Campbell, fifth son of David, was a lawyer and removed to Tennessee. He was first the Federal Judge in the Territory, and then one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the State. His death occurred in 1812, in the sixty-second year of his age. He had been appointed Federal Judge of the Territory which afterwards formed the State of Alabama, but died before he removed his family to the new country." This David Campbell's brother, Arthur Campbell, fought at King's Mountain and was one of the men who was with Evan and Isaac Shelby. Another brother, John Campbell, the oldest son of David, was born in 1741, and received a good English education. He accompanied Dr. Thomas Walker (NOTE: OF THE WALKER LINE/CUMBERLAND GAP MAPS) in his exploration in 1765, and purchased for his father a tract of land called the “Royal Oak,” near the head waters of the Holston. A year or two afterwards, he and his brother Arthur, and their sister Margaret, moved to that place and made improvements. About 1771, the parents and other children removed to the same place. (THE HOLSTON RIVER IS IN SULLIVAN CO. TENNESSEE AND RUNS THROUGH KINGSPORT. THE WHOLE BASIS OF GAINING THESE LANDS IS BECAUSE FROM THE HOLSTON RIVER THERE WAS A 2,000 MILE STRETCH OF WATERWAYS THAT CONNECTED TO THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER, WHICH WOULD GIVE YET ANOTHER RESOURCE OF RICH LANDS AND WATERWAYS FOR LINING THEIR POCKETS) John Campbell was a Lieutenant in William Campbell’s company, Colonel Christian’s regiment, in 1774, which arrived at Point Pleasant too late for the battle of October 10th. In July, 1776, he was second in command at the battle of the Long Island Flats of Holston, which resulted in a signal victory over the Indians. In October of the same year he commanded a company under Colonel Christian in his expedition against the Cherokee towns, and up to 1781 was almost constantly in military service. He was appointed clerk of Washington County Court in 1778, and held the office till 1824. His death occurred in 1825. He was the father of Governor David Campbell. They are the sons of "White" David Campbell. They called one "white" David and the other "black" David to distinguish the two.

Now what this court case represents is that land that Mr Taylor claimed to own, Pendleton was claiming based on the old patents issued PRIOR to the revolution which shouldn't have been worth anything. Due to the resurveying being done it was determined that these properties in Sullivan Co Tennessee were not in Virginia, but North Carolina and this is the result of Mr. George Washington taking Jefferson's map and just extending it to include these lands in Virginia. Now wasn't that just dandy and after all of this they turned around and used the old grants given by the King as their recourse and had their allies testify for them in their behalf.

The Encyclopedia of Albama shows the "illustrious" service of two of the Gaines brothers, George Strother Gaines and Edmund Pendleton Gaines biography there as well. Edmund, who was the namesake of his uncle, married 3x one of which was the daughter of William Blount, Governor of Tennessee, and the other the famous Myra Davis Clark Whitney Gaines, who's father was Daniel Clark of New Orleans. She fought for over 30 years trying to gain her father's estate after the executors tried to weasle it away from her, which included judges, and politicans by the score. ***************


Early History of Middle Tennessee By Edward Albright, 1909 Chapter 34

One of the most picturesque characters of the Cumberland settlement was Col. Valentine SEVIER. Some years previous to this period he had removed from East Tennessee and established a station at the mouth of Red River, in Montgomery County, on the present site of New Providence. He brought with him his family, consisting of his wife and five sons. There were also in the party his sons-in-law and the families of Messrs. PRICE and SNYDER, two relatives by marriage. All of these took up residence at the New Providence station. Col. Valentine SEVIER was a brother of Gen. John SEVIER. From early youth he had been a hunter and warrior. Despite his now advancing years he was as erect as an Indian, spare of flesh, had a clear skin and a bright eye, which was ever on the alert for danger.

He had served with distinction throughout the war of the Revolution as well as in all the Indian wars of his time, having obtained his rank at the battle of Pleasant Point in 1774. He is reputed to have been remarkably fond of his horse, his wife and children, his gun and hounds, glorying yet in the thrill of the chase.

Hearing of the call for volunteers issued by General ROBERTSON, his friend of former days, Colonel SEVIER gave permission to his sons, Robert, William and Valentine, Jr., to go at once to Nashville and there enlist under the banner of the common wealth.

It was decided that they should make the trip thither by canoes. Accordingly, on January 18, 1792, they began the ascent of the Cumberland in company with John PRICE and two others whose names tradition has not preserved. Reaching a sharp bend in the river they were discovered by a skulking band of Indians, who crept across the narrow strip of land intervening and hid themselves in the bushes at the water's edge on the other side. As the boats drew near the savages fired upon the occupants, killing the three SEVIERS and the two unknown men. While the enemy reloaded their guns PRICE hastily turned his canoe about and started down stream. Seeing, however, that he would be intercepted, he rowed to the opposite shore, and leaving his canoe, made his escape into the woods. After several days of wandering he reached the river bank opposite Clarksville. He was brought over by the settlers and from thence conveyed to Colonel and Mrs. SEVIER news of the terrible disaster which had befallen his companions.

After the escape of PRICE the Indians boarded the canoe, scalped the dead and threw their bodies into the river. They then went their way, carrying with them all the guns, provisions and supplies found in the captured boats.

The smaller forts in the neighborhood of Clarksville were now for a time abandoned, the occupants going for refuge to Sevier's Station.

VALENTINE SEVIER was born in what is now Rockingham County, Virginia, about 1747, and settled at an early period in East Tennessee. He was a Sergeant, and one of the spies, at the battle of Point Pleasant, where, says Isaac SHELBY, "he was distinguished for vigilance, activity, and bravery." He subsequently served in the Indian wars in East Tennessee, and commanded a company at Thicketty Fort, Cedar Springs, Musgrove's Mill, and King's Mountain. He was the first Sheriff of Washington County, a Justice of the court, and rose in the militia to the rank of a Colonel. He removed to the mouth of Red river on Cumberland, now Clarksville, where he was attacked by Indians, November eleventh, 1794, killing and wounding several of his family. After long suffering from chronic rheumatism, he died at Clarksville [Montgomery Co, TN], February twenty-third, 1800, in his fifty-third year; his widow surviving till 1844 in her one hundred and first year, His younger brother, Robert SEVIER, who also commanded a company at King's Mountain, and was mortally wounded in the conflict, was previously much engaged in ridding the Watauga and Nolachucky region of Tories and horse thieves.

(Excerpted from King's Mountain and Its Heroes: History of the Battle of King's Mountain, October 7th, 1780, and the Events Which Led to It by Lyman C. Draper, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1881, pp. 418-424) Clarkesville, Dec. 18, 1794

Dear Brother: - The news from this place is desperate with me. On Tuesday, 11th of November last, about twelve o'clock, my station was attacked by about forty Indians. On so sudden a surprise, they were in almost every house before they were discovered. All the men belonging to the station were out, only Mr. Snider and myself. Mr. Snider, Betsy his wife, his son John and my son Joseph, were killed in Snider's house. I saved Snider, so the Indians did not get his scalp, but shot and tomahawked him in a barbarous manner.

They also killed Ann King and her son James, and scalped my daughter Rebecca. I hope she will still recover. The Indians have killed whole families about here this fall. You may hear cries of some persons for their friends daily.

The engagement, commenced by the Indians at my house, continued about an hour, as the neighbours say. Such a scene no man ever witnessed before.

Nothing but screams and roaring of guns, and no man to assist me for some time. The Indians have robbed all the goods out of every house, and have destroyed all my stock. You will write our ancient father this horrid news; also my son Johnny. My health is much impaired. The remains of my family are in good health. I am so distressed in my mind, that I can scarcely write. Your affectionate brother, till death. Valentine Sevier (Excerpted from The Annals of Tennessee to The End of The Eighteenth Century by J. G. M. Ramsey, Lippincott, Grambo & Co., Philadelphia, 1853, p. 619, letter of Valentine SEVIER to his brother, Col. John SEVIER, prefaced by Ramsey's statement that "Col. Valentine SEVIER had removed west of Cumberland Mountain, and built a station near Clarkesville [Montgomery Co, TN]. This the Indians attacked. An account of the assault is copied from his letter to his brother, General SEVIER)."

On 1 May 1837, Naomi "Amy" DOUGLAS Sevier, widow of Valentine SEVIER, applied for Revolutionary War widow benefits in Greene County, TN, aged 91. She declared that her late husband had first enlisted in Shenandoah Co, VA (4), then removed to Washington County, North Carolina, the part that later became Carter County, Tennessee, that he also enlisted there, serving under Col. John SEVIER on several campaigns (no relationship stated), and that he died on 22 Feb 1800. She further stated that they had married about 1767 in Shenandoah County, Virginia, and had six children, of which two were twins born before the start of the Revolution, and that at the time of his death, three of their children were minors: Abraham, Joseph and Aleander, all of whom were deceased by 1837. Amy died on 17 Jul 1844, leaving children: James SEVIER, Rebecca RECTOR (aged 69 in 1851, a resident of Greene County), Elizabeth, John, Ann and Valentine. In 1837, a Major John SEVIER was aged 70, a resident of Greene, who steaed that he had known Valentine and Amy very well, and in 1837, a James SEVIER, aged 73, referred to Valentine SEVIER as his uncle. In 1843, one A. H. [Ambrose Hundley] SEVIER was a U.S. Senator, but no relationship was stated. On 17 Jul 1851, her daughter, Rebecca, applied for an increase of her mother's pension [sic-Armstrong, and declared that her father had served as a Major in the Revolution, and that at the time of her mother's death on 17 Jul 1845, she had only two living children, James SEVIER and Rebecca SEVIER Rector, and that Valentine SEVIER had died some fifty years ago. (Pension File No. W6012).

Goodspeed's History of Washington Co, TN:

Washington County was laid off by an act of the Legislature of North Carolina, passed in November, 1777, and was made to include the whole of the territory afterward erected into the State of Tennessee. The first magistrates appointed were James Robertson, Valentine Sevier, John Carter, John Sevier, Jacob Womack, Robert Lucas, Andrew Greer, John Shelby, Jr., George Russell, William Bean, Zachariah Isbell, John McNabb, Thomas Houghton, William Clark, John McMahan, Benjamin Gist, J. Chisoim, Joseph Wilson, William Cobb, Thomas Stuart, Michael Woods, Richard White, Benjamin Wilson, Charles Robertson, William McNabb, Thomas Price and Jesse Watson. The first session of the court of pleas and quarter sessions was begun and held on February 23, 1778. John Carter was chosen chairman; John Sevier, clerk; Valentine Sevier, sheriff; James Stuart, surveyor; John MeMahan, register; Jacob Womack, straymaster; John Carter, entry taker, and Samuel Lyle, John Gilliland, Richard Wooldridge, Emanuel Carter, William Ward, V. Dillingbam and Samuel and John Smith, constables.

Letters to Gov. William Carrol: Folder 3: Sevier, Valentine 1822 Greeneville, TN Resignation as State Representative from Greene County

Valentine Sevier was born in what is now Rockingham County, Virginia, about 1747, and settled at an early period in East Tennessee. He was a Sergeant, and one of the spies, at the battle of Point Pleasant, where, says Isaac Shelby, "he was distinguished for vigilance, activity, and bravery." He subsequently served in the Indian wars in East Tennessee, and commanded a company at Thicketty Fort, Cedar Springs, Musgrove's Mill, and King's Mountain. He was the first Sheriff of Washington County, a Justice of the court, and rose in the militia to the rank of a Colonel. He removed to the mouth of Red river on Cumberland, now Clarksville, where he was attacked by Indians, November eleventh, 1794, killing and wounding several of his family. After long suffering from chronic rheumatism, he died at Clarksville, February twenty-third, 1800, in his fifty-third year; his widow surviving till 1844 in her one hundred and first year, His younger brother, Robert Sevier, who also commanded a company at King's Mountain, and was mortally wounded in the conflict, was previously much engaged in ridding the Watauga and Nolachucky region of Tories and horse thieves. Source: Lyman Draper King's Mountain and Its Heroes: History of the Battle of King's Mountain, October 7th, 1780, and the Events Which Led to It;

Valentine served in the American Revolution, as a Major, He lived in Shenandoah Co., Virginia upon enlistment. Valentine later moved to Washington Co., North Carolina (The part that later became Carter Co., Tennessee), where he enlisted again, serving under Colonel John Sevier on several campaigns.

Colonel Valentine Sevier and Naomi "Amy" Douglass were married by the Reverend John Alderson, minister of the Linville Creek Baptist Church, around 1767 in Shenandoah Co., Virginia, and they had 14 children together. When Naomi filed for Valentine's pension, she stated in her application, that her and Valentine had 6 children together, before the start of the Revolutionary War, two of which were twins (Robert and William). It is also stated by her, that by 1837, three of the minor children: Abraham, Joseph, and Alexander ? were deceased, however, I have records that show Alexander grew up and married, but did pass away in 1827. Other Children listed as being to this Union were: James, Rebecca, Elizabeth, John, Ann, and Valentine Jr.

Valentine and Naomi had a rough life together, in those early days, of Tennessee history. In one day, November 11, 1794, they lost two daughters, a son, and at least two grandchildren in an Indian raid on the Carter County settlement, by the Cherokee Indians. They had already lost three other sons in two days, of Indian raids along the Cumberland River, between January 15-16, 1792. So in a space of about two and a half years, Valentine and Naomi, lost six children (Elizabeth Snyder, Ann King, Joseph age six, Valentine III age 19, Robert age 17, and William age 17), two son-in-laws (Charles Snyder, and John King), and two baby grandchildren (one of Elizabeth and Charles, and the other of Ann and John). A third grandchild Susannah Snyder, survived the attack, or was not present during the attack, and she later grew up and married. (Abraham born 1786 and died before 1798, may also have died in the November 1794 indian attack, bringing the loss of children to a total of seven.)

Naomi filed for Valentine's pension (W6012) on 1 May 1837, in Greene Co., Tennessee at the age of 91, which she drew until her death. Naomi died 17 July 1844 or 1845 (depending on which records viewed), and was living in Greene Co., Tennessee at the time. She left James and Rebecca. Rebecca was married to a Rector, and was age 69 in 1851. Rebecca stated at the time of her mother's death, that James and her, were the only two surving children (living in 1845).

This Biographical sketch, done by Raymond C "TGhostBull" Lewallen, on 23 September 1997.

SOURCES: Broderbund Software, Family Tree Archives, World Family Tree Archive CD, Vol. 1, Ed. 1, Tree #'s 0990 and 4865, pre-1600 to present, copywrite 1995 Boderbund Software Inc. "Genealogical Abstracts of Revolutionary War Pension Files Vol. 1-4, Abs by Virgil D. White, National Historical Publishing Co., 209 Green Hollow Rd., P.O. Box 539 Waynesboro, TN "John Sevier as a commonwealth-builder, a sequel to the rear guard of the revolution", James R. Gilmore (Edmund Kirke), NY, D. Appleton & Co., (c) 1887. Sevier Family History, Sevier Family Reunion, Cristoval, Texas, July 6, 1996. "Tennessee the Dangerous Example - Watauga to 1849" Mary French Caldwell, Aurora Publishers, Inc., Nashville/London, TN (c) 1974. "DAR Patriot Index" National Society - Daughters of the American Revolution, 1776 D Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006, 2nd printing May 1968, (c) 1967.


Copyright 23 Nov 2012, 2013 Carolyn Whitaker, All rights reserved