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Anderson Family Site:

Harmon Anderson Diary:

 

Notes placed by Margaret McKinney Brown

Margaret McKinney Brown located men mentioned in the diary and recorded the dates of enlistment, service and exit from the 110th Ohio Volunteers. This is her reference: Notes from www.bright.net/~irm/110thcompanyc.htm. These pages no longer exist on the web so the link is not active. I was able to find similar information at this site:
http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cemeteryproject/110th/CoC.html. These pages cover all of the companies that were a part of the 110th , each company has its own page: .../CoA.html; .../CoB.html, and so forth.

  1. Thomas J. Hicks - Sergeant; Enlisted 8/21/62; Appointed Corporal 2/1/64; Wounded 5/6/64 in battle of the Wilderness, Va; Sergeant 5/2/65; Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  2. James T. McKinnon - Coporal; Enlisted 8/14/62; Discharged 2/25/64 at Columbus, Oh. For wounds received 6/15/63 in battle of Winchester, Va.
  3. Christopher Hope - Private; Enlisted 8/15/62; Captured 5/6/64 in battle of the Wilderness, Va; Paroled 6/6/65; Mustered out 6/23/65 at Camp Chase, Oh. by order of War Department
  4. John Cannon - 1st Lieutenant; Enlisted 8/25/62; Discharged 2/5/64 at Washington, DC on Surgeon's certificate of disability
  5. Henry L. Bennett - Corporal~ Enlisted 8/20/62~ Appointed 1/5/65~ Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  6. William N. Foster - Lt. Colonel; Enlisted 9/13/62; Resigned 12/24/63
  7. Thomas C. Owen - Assistant Surgeon; Enlisted 8/20/62; Captured 6/15/63 at battle of Winchester, Va; Escaped 7/4/63; Resigned 4/20/64
  8. Joseph F. Bennett - Corporal; Enlisted 8/14/62; Died 3/26/65 at South Charleston, Oh.
  9. George w. Akers - Private; Enlisted 8/12/62; Wounded 6/12/64 in action; Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  10. F.B. Nilson not listed on list of company C 100th Ohio Volunteers
  11. Could not find roster of individuals in Co. G 110 Ohio Volunteers

    [D. F. Johnson, Freeman Marchal, Leonard Scott all found on roster for Company C, 110th Ohio Volunteers: David L. Johnson – private; Enlisted 8/20/62; mustered out 2/14/64; Transferred into Co F, 18th Regiment, Veteran Reserve Corps; Discharged for disability on 6 May 1865 at Washington, DC. Freeman Marsha – private; Enlisted 8/18/62; mustered out 4/8/64; Transferred into 110th Co, 2nd Battalion, Veteran Reserve Corps: Leonard Scott – private; Enlisted 9/1/62; mustered out; POW on 6 May 1864 at Wilderness, VA; Died a POW at Florence, SC. ...RHA]

  12. Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion Series I Vo12 Operations of the Cruisers Jan 1, 1863- March 31, 1864, Washington Govt Printing Office 1895 Page 315 Boston, June 26, 1863. "Iron screw steamers Mississippi and Merrimac are in New York unemployed. They are 2000 tons each, fast, wide, and well adapted to carry a heavy battery. Ought not they to be fitted and dispatched immediately to capture Confederate pirates?" In behalf of harbor defense committee of Board of Trade: E S Tobey chr. To the Ron. Gideon Welles, Sec'y Navy
  13. Draft riots had gone on in New York and so the men of the Army of the Potomac were perhaps part of the troops sent to quiet the situation. The Civil War an illustrated history, Geoffrey C. Ward, Ric Burns and Ken Bums, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc, 1990 page 243 "'The prospect of involuntary service,' said the New York Illustrated News, 'develops an amount of latent diseases and physical disabilities that are perfectly surprising' politicians fanned their anger. 'Remember this' said New York Governor Horatio Seymour, 'that the bloody and treasonable and revolutionary doctrine of public necessity can be proclaimed by a mob as well as by a government.' On Saturday, July 11, the names of the first draftees were drawn in New York City on Monday morning a mostly Irish mob attacked the draft office "
  14. Note: See [diary] page 12 for note on ship probably used for transport back to Alexandria. [See note above for official records of the Navy.]
  15. A Brief History of the 8th Regt. OVI by T.M.F. Downes can be found at http://.cwreenactors.com/history.htm. Civil War Reenactors web site. It is 10 pages. 2nd battle of Bull Run was August 29, 1862. page 147 from The Civil War an illustrated history by Geoffrey C. Ward, Ric and Ken Burns Alfred A. Knopf, Inc 1990. "Twenty thousand men were killed, wounded or missing at Second Bull Run, five times the figure that had so horrified the country the first time the North and South fought there."
  16. [A. Huston] Ohio Volunteer Infantry OVI 122 has no roster I can find.

    [Archibald Huston, 38; Private;  enlisted: 8 October 1862; mustered out:  26 June 1865; Promoted to Chaplain and transferred to Field & Staff on 4 May 1864; Mustered Out at Washington, DC; Born in 1825 - Died in 1908; Buried in Englewood Cemty, Clinton Twp, Henry Co., MO (Roster of Company A, 122nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry, http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cemeteryproject/122nd/CoA.html) ...RHA]

  17. Samuel J. Peters – Private: Enlisted 8/21/62; Captured 6/15/63 Battle of Wincester, Va; Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  18. Enoch M. Bennet – Private; Enlisted 8/14/62; captured 7/9/64 in battle of Monocacy Junction, Md; Mustered out with company 6/25/65.
  19. Lewis J. Reeder – Private; Enlisted 8/22/62. Wounded 6/15/63 at battle of Wincester, Va; Also 7/9/64 in battle of Monocacy Junction, Md. Died 8/3/64 in hospital at Fredrick, Md.
  20. Russell B. McCollum - 1st Sergeant; Enlisted 8/15/62; Captured 7/9/64 in batt1e of Monocacy Junction, Md,; Appointed from Sergeant 7/25/65; Mustered out with company 6/25/65.
  21. Gen. Smith is the name of several generals both Union and Confederate! but I think that this Gen. Smith was William Farrar "Baldy" Smith, graduate of West Point 1&45. He was Brig. Gen of Volunteers in 1861 and commanded troops in Virginia. Did not receive Senate approval for promotion to Major Gen. This statement is not well substantiated but in reviewing the Gen. Smith's for the Union he seems to be the best fit.
  22. Sutlers were government approved vendors licensed to a post or regiment. Unscrupulous sutlers were frequent and often a soldier paid about 5 times the value of an item. A newspaper correspondent covering the War wrote that sutlers were "a wretched class of swindlers and well deserved all their troubles."
  23. James A. Fox was promoted from Sergeant Co. F 10/4/62 to Sergeant Major and promoted to 2nd Lieutenant Co. D 11/25/62.

    [James A. Fox: enlisted 8/20/62 ; Promoted to Sergeant Major on 10/4/62 (http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cemeteryproject/110th/CoF.html); Promoted to 2nd Lieutenant on 11/25/62; Promoted to 1st Lieutenant and transferred to Company B on 18 December 1862; Promoted to 1st Lieutenant and transferred to Company B on 18 December 1862; Killed at Mine Run, VA (http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cemeteryproject/110th/CoD.html) ...RHA]

  24. think J. W. was James William Anderson who was a nephew, son of Harmon's older brother Joseph.

    [James W. Anderson age 20, private; enlisted 4 July 1863; mustered out 25 June 1865; Wounded on 23 June 1864 at Petersburg, VA; Mustered Out at Washington, DC; Applied for a Federal Pension on 13 March 1880 - application # 351,100; His Widow (Esther J Anderson) applied for a Federal Pension on 13 November 1917 from the state of OK - application # 1,110,168. (http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cemeteryproject/110th/CoD.html) ...RHA]

  25. M.L (Mel) was Harmon's oldest son, Melvin Leewood Anderson.
  26. Information on Captain Moore not found.

    [William Moore – Captain; Enlisted 8/15/62; left unit (died?) 2/27/64; Detached as Acting Asst Inspector General 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 3rd Army Corps on 5 December 1863; Died at Brandy Station, VA. (http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cemeteryproject/110th/CoE.html) ...RHA]

  27. Colonel J. Warren Kiefer was promoted from Lt. Col 3rd OVI 9/30/62; wounded 6/13/63 & 6/14/63 in battle of Wincester. Va. ; wounded 5/5/64 in battle of Wilderness, Va.; Brevet Brig. General 10/19/64 & Assigned to 2nd Brig., 3rd Div., 6th AC; Brevet Maj. General Volunteers to date 4/9/65; Mustered out 6/27/65 by order of War Department. Appointed Lt. Col. 26th Infantry , USA 10/18/64 Declined.
  28. Did not find Amos Ervin on the roster. [search of all rosters of 110th Ohio Volunteers failed to turn up this name]
  29. General William Henry French commanded the 111 corps (7 July'63-28 Jan. '64) at Manassas Gap, Auburn, Kelly's Ford, Brandy Station and in the Mine Run failure. When the Army of the Potomac was reorganized that winter, he was displaced. Gen. Meade held Gen. French principally responsible for the Mine Run failure. Saw no further field service after commanding the III corps again from 17 Feb.- 24 Mar. '64.
  30. Amos Shaul - 1st Lieut., Enlisted 8/21/62; appointed 1st Sergeant from Sergeant 4/20/64; Promoted to 2nd Lieut. Co K 12/9/64; Mustered out with company 6/25/65.
  31. Russell B McCollum - 1st Sergeant; Enlisted 8/15/62; captured 7/6/64 in battle of Monocacy Junct1on, Md.; Appointed from Sergeant 7/25/65; Mustered out with company 6/25/65.
  32. Darwin Pierce – Corporal; Enlisted 8/15/62; left unit 6/25/65; Promoted to Sergeant on 20 April 1864; Wounded on 3 June 1864 at Cold Harbor, VA; Wounded on 9 July 1864 at Monocacy, MD; Mustered Out at Washington, DC
  33. Lewis J. Reeder- Private; Enlisted 8/14/62; wounded 6/15/63 at battle of Wincester, Va.; also 7/9/64 in battle of Monocacy Junction, Md.; Died in hospital at Fredric, Md.
  34. Frankey was probably Harmon's son, James Francis who was about 4 years old at the time.
  35. J. W. Anderson is James William son of Harmon's older brother Joseph. James was about 22 years old at that time. See note on [diary] page 46.
  36. George O. McMillen - 2nd Lieut.; Enlisted 8/14/63; Promoted from 1st Sergeant 4/12/64; Promoted to 1st Lieut., but not mustered; Died 8/21/64 at Fredrick, Md. of wounds received 7/9/64 in battle of Monocacy Junction, Md.
  37. See [diary] page 63 [preceding note] for information on Lieut. McMillen.
  38. [See diary] page 48 for Col Kiefer. Lieut General Ulysses Simpson Grant was from Ohio. He had been promoted to Lieut. Gen. 3/4/64 and made General in Chief of the Armies of the United States on March 12, 1864. He had taken over the strategic direction of the war.
  39. William S. McElwain, Major 8/12/62; Promoted from Captain Co. D 1/1/64; Killed in battle of the Wilderness, Va.
  40. Thomas J. Hicks -Sergeant; Enlisted 8/21/62; Appointed Corporal 5/1/63; Sergeant 8/1/64; Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  41. John Coss - Private; Enlisted 8/15/62; Wounded 6/3/64 in battle of Cold Harbor, Va. Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  42. Isaac Anderson - Private; Enlisted 8/18/62; Captured 6/15/63 at battle of Wincester, Va. ; Wounded 9/19/64 in battle of Opequon Creek, Va.; Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  43. George B. Hamilton - Corporal; Enlisted 8/18/62; Captured 6/15/63 at Wincester Va.; Wounded 7/9/64 in battle of Monocacy Junction, Md.; Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  44. Joseph Cooper - Private; Enlisted 12/28/63; Mustered out with company.
  45. Darwin Pierce - Sergeant; Enlisted 8/12/62; Appointed from Corporal 4/20/64; Wounded 6/3/64 in battle of Cold Harbor, Va.: also 7/9/64 in battle of Monocacy Junction, Md.; Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  46. John Hendrix -Corporal; Enlisted 8/20/62; Appointed 4/20/64; Wounded in battle of Monocacy Junction, Md.; Died 8/11/64 in hospital in Fredrick, Md.
  47. Joseph F. Bennett -Corporal; Enlisted 8/14/62; Died 3/26/65 at South Charleston, Oh.
  48. George W. Little -Corporal; Enlisted 8/15/62; Wounded 5/5/64 in battle of the Wilderness, Va.; Mustered out with company 6/25/65.
  49. William Powell - Private; Enlisted 8/21/62; Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  50. Michael Dwyer - Private; Enlisted 8/18/62; Wounded 5/5/64 in the battle of the Wilderness, Va. Killed 5/25/65 in action near Petersburg, Va.
  51. John Whiteman - Private; Enlisted 12/31/63; Wounded 5/6/64 in battle of the Wilderness, Va. ; Died 6/15/64 in hospital in Philadelphia, Pa.
  52. Joseph H. Wheatley - Private; Enlisted 2/18/64; Wounded 7/9/64 in battle of Monocacy Junction, Md. ; Died 7/24/64 in hospital in Annapolis, Md.
  53. William Huffman - Private; Enlisted 8/22/62; Wounded 5/6/64 in battle of Wilderness, Va.; Died 7/12/64 in hospital in Washington, D.C.
  54. Thomas Vance - Private; Enlisted 8/14/62; Captured at the battle of Wincester, Va.; Wounded 5/6/64 in the battle of the Wilderness, Va.; Discharged 10/25/64 at Columbus, Oh. on surgeon's certificate of disability
  55. Notes on Andersonville from History of Andersonville Prison by Ovid L. Futch, 1968 U of FL press. [pages 90-98 in Margaret McKinney's original transcription.]

    The site was in Sumter County GA and Andersonville post was officially called Camp Sumter. It was chosen because Gen. Lee was anxious about keeping prisoners near the fighting lines where they might be released and go back to fighting against his men. Anderson, GA was a town of about 20 people and so couldn't protest as loudly as some other places that were considered. The job of setting up Confederate prisons for Union soldiers was assigned to Gen. John Winder who appointed his son Sid to pick the site and his nephew, Richard to get the camp built, and supplied, be the quartermaster.

    It was built to make use of Sweet Water Creek as water source so a rectangle was built 750 ft. in the east/west direction and 1540 ft. in the north/south direction. An 18-ft inside line marked the "deadline". It was designed originally for 6000 prisoners but immediately enlarged for 10,000. The walls of the stockade were 15 ft high with sentry boxes on top with the box floor low enough on the outside so body was shielded up to waist.

    Notes on Andersonville cont'd: Southern lack of resources contributed to the suffering and deaths at Andersonville. Winder could not get tents for prisoners or provisions. Lt. Col. Alexander Persons of the 55th GA was sent to command prison guards and take cl:large of prisoners. He spent from February to June 1864 at the prison and was well liked by the prisoners. He had great difficulty getting lumber. Supplies went to Lee and Johnston including food supplies rather than to Andersonville, Supplies that did come were stolen when Persons was off duty. Persons left to obtain medical supplies and while he was gone, the Confederate Inspector Gen had him replaced.

    Notes on Andersonville cont'd.: The prison was originally built for 10,000 and no supervision of structures the prisoners made caused there to be poor air movement through the camp and difficulty in policing by guards. By May 9th there were 13,218 prisoners already of these 1026 died by report of Capt. Walter Bowie 40th V A. The ground bordering both sides of Stockade Creek, about 1/4th of the total area in the stockade, was "altogether unfit for an encampment". He estimated prisoners had 42 sq. ft/man. Capt. Henry Wirtz was given charge of prisoners on March 27, 1864. Wirtz was Swiss, he had gotten into trouble there was imprisoned, divorced by his wife and banished from Switzerland so came to the States in 1849. Joined the 4th LA infantry in 1861, became a sergeant and was wounded painfully in the wrist. He was made captain in June of 1862, detailed to Gen. Winder and detailed to a military prison at Richmond. He spent a year in Europe and then was sent to Andersonville. The blame for the shameful conditions at Andersonville fell to Wirtz after the war and he was executed for "conspiring to destroy Federal prisoners of war".

    Note: A regiment was usually 1000 men ( see Civil War dictionary included in this book). Cont'd Andersonville: Dick Winder helped to make Stckade Creek unhealthy by locating bakery and cookhouse upstream from stockade. Other causes of deaths were from unhealthy prisoners from other prisons, some from Richmond had small pox. the hospital was located inside the stockade and drainage from prison sinks passed through the hospital grounds. Chief Surgeon Isaiah White urged that the hospital be moved outside the prison and it fmally was relocated.

    Prison fare: The fIrst prisoners got uncooked rations because the bakery and kitchens were not finished until May, 64. Wirtz reported also that bread was inferior "fully of 1/6 husk, that it is almost unfit for use.”

    Note: Food may have been purchased from other prisoners but more likely from sutlers who operated outside the camps and near the armies wherever they were camped. Part of Captain Walter Bowie's report in May '64 stated that the rations were about "the same as those issued to Confederate soldiers in the field, viz., 1 # beef or in lieu of 1/3# bacon and 1/4# meal." Sometimes there was rice, beans, peas, molasses and vinegar.

    To distribute rations, take roll and discipline, prisoners were divided into 270 men detachments which were divided into 3 equal squads. Squads of 90 men were divided into messes of 30. The squads had a sergeant responsible for division of rations and sergeant of mess got double rations for doing this. Sergeants were also charged with getting ranks out for roll call at 7 AM. They were to report missing, failure was severely punished. Sick were to be taken to the hospital after roll call.

    Notes from Andersonville book: Raiders terrorized the camp and were the most dreaded horror of prison life. These generally were big city thugs who had joined for the bounty money offered, sometimes never paid though, and were cutthroats and petty criminals. The numbers of these men grew to 400 - 500 ruffians and robbers. They attacked tents and took possessions. On June 30, Gen. Winder issued General Order No.57 establishing a court by prisoners for trial and punishment. Inmates organized "Regulators". Captain Wirtz assembled all sergeants and picked 24 as jurors, 12 for each trial. On July 10 Sunday, 6 men were hung.

    Note: Suggestions in reports by inspecting Confederate officers of "gross mismanagement and want of system" sited that the hospital location was in the "very worst place possible", Stockade creek was too small and sluggish and recommended wells be dug on higher ground. Needed another stockade built. A site on Sweet Water Creek 1/4 mile south of camp where the stream was ten times the volume was recommended. Wirtz ignored the 2nd stockade suggestion and did the easier thing, extended the stockade and therefore 3 1ines of palisades had to be moved instead of 4. A detail of prisoners made 10 acre addition on the north end of the prison. With the new stockade completed in June the prison held greater than 25,000 prisoners.

    Notes from Andersonville: The sutler at Andersonville was James Selman, Jr. a regularly appointed sutler. He had to pay high prices for goods and he sold at enormous profit. No one could afford to buy much from him.

    The food was described by other prisoners also as "spoilt beef and maggotty mush alive with Worms'". When uncooked rations were issued detail prisoner crews could go out and cut wood near camp. It was mostly pitch pine and the smoke blackened clothes and skins. Soap was inadequate and scarce. There was a real lack of clothing but the Confederacy couldn't clothe their own soldiers so had none for prisoners.

  56. Matthew Brown - Privat; Enlisted 8/20/1862; POW on 17 May 1864 at Spotsylvania Court House, VA; Died a POW at Andersonville, GA; Buried at Andersonville National Cemetery, Andersonville, GA (Grave #7993)
  57. James Vance was not found on the list of Co. C but a Thomas Vance was listed. [Did also find a Harrison Vance, serving in Company B, who was captured 5/5/64 at the Battle of Wilderness: Harrison Vance – Private; Enlisted 8/6/62; left unit 6/25/65; Promoted to Corporal on 15 January 1863; POW on 5 May 1864 at Wilderness, VA]
  58. From Andersonville book: The Deadline was marked by scantlings nailed on top of poles driven into the ground 18 feet inside the stockade wall. This kept prisoners away from the wall and led to less escapes. It also prevented trading between guards and prisoners. Some prisoners in desperation crossed the line hoping to put an end to their suffering.

    From "Tenting Tonight, the Soldier's Life” by James I. Robertson, Jr. published by Time Life Books, Alexandria, VA 1984. The guards were instructed to call out a warning to a prisoner who approached the line; if he stepped over it the guards would open fire. During Andersonville's brief existence, many men would be killed beyond the dead line.

  59. Note: see discussion of raiders on page 96.
  60. Note: from Andersonville book: The new stockade was completed by the end of June and there were then over 25,000 prisoners. Detachments with a number over 49 were ordered into the new addition. Many were reluctant to move.
  61. Red root” looked up web pages – there are several plants called 'red root' that are used for medicinal purposes. These were used as expectorants, to treat dysentery and various pulmonary affections. From a variety of sources on the World Wide Web.
  62. Sherman's Union Army was fighting around Atlanta, Ga. at this time against Johnston's Confederate Anny. and moving westward.
  63. Neither the North nor the South had thought out the idea of captured men who would need to be held of a period of time. No coherent policy was present in 1861 for handling of prisoners and there was no military prison able to hold more a handful of prisoners. Both sides thought the war would be short and men would be sent back to their own lines when captured. There was little action at first and few prisoners taken to the end of 1861. Prisoners from battles such as Bull Run began to accumulate in larger numbers, and in July of 1862 the two governments agreed to set up a cooperative system of prisoner exchanges. Prisoners who could not be exchanged were to be paroled. This only worked well for about a year partly because the mountains of paper work. It rested upon gentlemen's agreements but the South refused to exchange black soldiers. In May 1863 the agreement disintegrated. Of necessity the number of prisons increased dramatically.
  64. It is the reelection of President Lincoln that is mentioned. George Brinton McClellan Union General, ran against Lincoln. McClellan had command of the Army of the Potomac in the early part of the Civil war but after the battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862 when McClellan was reluctant to pursue General Lee, Lincoln lost patience and replaced him. McClellan was thought to be a commander who consistently overestimated the strength of his adversary and who always demanded more men and supplies before taking offensive action.
  65. Dick Winder finally after August 8, 1864 moved the cookhouse and worked on barracks. There was enough room for 270 men. First in were the sick.
  66. [James King – Private; Enlisted 7/28/62; left unit (mustered out) 6/30/65; POW on 6 May 1864 at Wilderness, VA; Paroled on 10 April 1865 (Place Unknown); Mustered Out at Camp Chase, OH ... RHA]
  67. George W. Forbes - Private; Enlisted 8/14/62; Captured 5/6/64 in the battle of the Wilderness, Va. ; Mustered out with company 6/25/65
  68. Note from Andersonville book: General Sherman's Army occupied Atlanta at this time so the Confederate government decided it was not safe to have all those Union prisoners at Andersonville. On September 7th the fIrst 18 detachments left for Charleston and Florence, South Carolina.

 

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