AMB's Ancestor Chart & DNA
with stars are DNA-proven.)
graphic shows AMB's ancestors, beginning with
parents on the far left, and showing AMB's
three-greats grandparents on the far right. (For
more information, see my
database at rootsweb: "Research by
A star in the person's
rectangle indicates that the match has been
proven by DNA (in addition to standard
genealogical documentation). The DNA proofs are
absolute, and they are plentiful.
An X in the
person's rectangle indicates that I could have
inherited DNA from the X chromosome of that
person. Shared DNA on the X chromosome cannot
rule an ancestor "in," but it can rule
an ancestral line "out." For example,
if I share DNA on the X chromosome with someone,
that person and I canNOT share my paternal
grandfather as an ancestor. So, if we share on
the X chromosome, look at the chart to see which
lines we canNOT share, and do not consider them
as you attempt to find the match.
bene #1: On the above
pedigree, you will see my mother's paternal
grandfather listed as "Francis Frank
Reed." Everything above him is unknown,
and he was a major mystery. He was a
Quebec-born French-speaking man believed to
have been of Irish ancestry. His story is HERE and HERE.
The attempt on
this page and at the sites linked is for my
genealogical research and analysis to survive my
death. The attempt is to leave a message that can
be found by a DNA relative even after my death. I
was born in 1950; none of us lives forever, but I
want my genealogical research to live on. My hope
is that my genealogical research will help future
autosomal DNA testing and Y-DNA testing arrived
after over 25 years of standard genealogical
sleuthing: birth, baptismal, marriage, and death
records created by civil authorities and by
church officials; wills, probates, and estate
settlements; land records (transfers and taxes);
military records (service and pension); school
records; local histories; cemetery records;
funeral home records; burial records; grave
stones; old photos; old letters; old Bibles;
voting records; city directories; old newspaper
stories and obituaries; ship passenger lists;
immigration and naturalization records; fallible
census records; any other record I could find,
and listening to stories told by old family
members -- even when those stories were old
family "secrets." Most of my work was
done before the internet and the magic of easily
accessible records found online. Writing to court
houses, traveling a few hundred miles to search
through attic archives, and digging for buried
grave stones were common events.
Then came all
of the easily accessible records at ancestry.com
and other internet sites, ballooning after 2000.
And then, after
2010, came cheap and easily accessible autosomal
DNA tests and Y-DNA tests. For me, the DNA tests
verified the paper documentation. I have tested
with three testing companies (familyTreeDNA.com,
23andMe.com, and ancestry.com), and I have
uploaded my raw data at gedMatch.com: # M591138.
basics to understand regarding DNA testing:
(1st) Y-DNA testing shows
straight-line paternal information: a man's
father's father's father's father, etc. A Y-DNA
test shows two things: a long string of numbers
showing "STR markers," and a short code
for the paternal haplogroup. If two men do not
have the same paternal haplogroup, absolutely
they are NOT father and son. And if they do not
share that long string of numbers showing
"STR markers," absolutely they are NOT
father and son. A Y-DNA test can rule out a
relationship between a presumed father and son.
Alone, it cannot prove a father/son relationship.
(2nd) Autosomal DNA testing
will work, no matter the sex and no matter in
what way the two people are related.
autosomal DNA testing, for two people who are 1st
cousins or closer, the testing companies say that
there is a 100% certainty that testing will show
the relationship. For two people who are 2nd
cousins, there is a greater than 99% chance that
autosomal testing will show the relationship. For
3rd cousins, the relationship will be found in
about 90% of the cases. For 4th cousins, there is
about a 45% chance that the relationship will be
found. At 5th cousins, the chance of there being
any shared DNA found drops to about 15%.
DNA tests determine the percentage of shared DNA.
Here are possible relationships:
50% shared (3,400
centimorgans): parent/child; or
25% shared (1,700
aunt-or-uncle/niece-or-nephew; or half-siblings;
or double first-cousins.
12.5% shared (850
centimorgans): first cousins; or
6.25% shared (425
centimorgans): first cousins
once-removed; or half first-cousins.
3.125% shared (212
centimorgans): second cousins;
or first cousins twice-removed.
1.563% shared (106
centimorgans): second cousins
once-removed; or half second-cousins.
0.781% shared (53
centimorgans): third cousins; or
second cousins twice-removed.
There are variations in relationships, and those
percentages are not exact. The point that you
should understand is that even 2% of shared DNA
would indicate a reasonably close relationship.
Anything about 5% would be family who, normally,
would have known of each other growing up.
If you and I
share DNA at 10% or above but none of the starred
names on my ancestor chart at the top of the page
look familiar, you need to begin wondering if you
have a "non-paternity event" in your
line. In other words, you may believe someone is
a parent, but the person is not really a parent.
There may have been an adoption. There may have
been an intentional deception (a "momma's
baby, daddy's maybe," or a case of
pretending a step-parent was the bio-parent).
There may have been an unknown hospital
baby-switch. Regardless, if all of those starred
names are unfamilar to you after basic
genealogical research and if you and I share 10%
or above, you have a serious, close-in error
regarding your ancestral knowledge. That is for
sure because, for me, the DNA is proven for those
starred ancestors; i.e., you cannot be closely
DNA-related to me and not share at least some of
those ancestors. (If you and I share a goodly
portion of DNA, but you do not know why, please
consider your DNA an introduction and feel free
to contact me with your DNA results.)
you are convinced that my ancestors are your
ancestors, but you and I do not
share DNA (or we share DNA at a much smaller
level than you would have expected), then there
are truths that you do not know.
FATHER'S Y-DNA INFORMATION:
above shows information to 37 markers for my
father's Y-DNA. We have the information to 67
markers. It is found in kit # 345857
at familyTreeDNA's "Baird
FamilyTreeDNA Y Project Website."
father's paternal haplogroup was L-M20.
There is zero
doubt about this Y-DNA information: Autosomal
testing between me and two known 2nd cousins
proved that we are 2nd cousins. Those two 2nd
cousins are grandchildren of my father's father's
brother. In other words, we all three share Jesse
BEARD and Sarah C. HOOKER as great-grandparents.
One of those two 2nd cousins is a male; in
addition to the autosomal DNA test, he did a
Y-DNA test. Thus, my father's Y-DNA is known.
My maternal haplogroup is V.
One's maternal haplogroup comes from one's
mother; it is straight-line maternal information
-- a person's mother's mother's mother's mother,
etc. For genealogists, there is little value in a
mitochondrial DNA test, and I have not had one
done. However, 23andMe provides maternal
haplogroup information with its autosomal test.
Each of the three companies has its own way of
reporting ancestry composition.
Shared DNA proves that two people share
ancestors. The two examples below will show what
proof of shared DNA looks like with autosomal DNA
testing, and it will show how exact the science
is. Both "cousin #1" and "cousin
#2" are my second cousins. The three of us
are great-grandchildren of Jesse
(1867-1939) and Sarah
Catherine Hooker (1871-1952). I descend from that
couple's son George Irvin; my second cousins
descend from that couple's son Marvin. Cousin #1
descends from a son of Marvin; cousin #2, from
with second cousin #1:
Cousin #1 total
shared DNA: 309.44 centimorgans:
chromosome 1 from position 22750400 to 59044077
for a total of 38.88 cM.
chromosome 3 from position 178361699 to 184694720
for a total of 5.57 cM
chromosome 5 from position 60972692 to 124601508
for a total of 56.96 cM
chromosome 5 from position 178172090 to 180625733
for a total of 5.06 cM
chromosome 6 from position 2799366 to 19277327
for a total of 28.56 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 105919333 to 143820647
for a total of 36.26 cM
chromosome 12 from position 61508412 to 79811443
for a total of 18.65 cM.
chromosome 12 from position 108378411 to
130064899 for a total of 43.09 cM
chromosome 14 from position 18325726 to 42798860
for a total of 31.52 cM.
chromosome 15 from position 24541779 to 33803012
for a total of 13.18 cM.
second cousin #2:
Cousin #2 total
shared DNA: 323.57 centimorgans:
chromosome 1 from position 23030709 to
59044077 for a total of 38.46 cM.
chromosome 3 from position 42426416 to 62290352
for a total of 16.74 cM.
chromosome 3 from position 71635056 to 77469545
for a total of 8.73 cM.
chromosome 4 from position 96346892 to 112351238
for a total of 13.18 cM.
chromosome 5 from position 8758837 to 11481508
for a total of 5.97 cM.
chromosome 5 from position 60972692 to 123937399
for a total of 56.31 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 11393983 to 27543003
for a total of 20.77 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 29444126 to 49695186
for a total of 24.18 cM.
chromosome 6 from position 106265726 to 146914378
for a total of 38.74 cM.
chromosome 7 from position 130538121 to 138299077
for a total of 10.22 cM.
chromosome 9 from position 36587 to 3422447 for a
total of 7.28 cM.
chromosome 12 from position 22906265 to 61495890
for a total of 33.76 cM.
chromosome 18 from position 10501383 to 39546701
for a total of 24.62 cM.
chromosome 18 from position 73253766 to 76116152
for a total of 9.4 cM.
In the overlapping graph
below, my matches with cousin #1 are orange; with
cousin #2, blue:
bene #2: In August 2001, when
my mother was 80 years old, she told me a
brother Dale has a son. He was born about
the time the school year ended when Dale
had just turned 16. A girl phoned me
while she was still in the hospital and
said, 'I want you to know that you have a
grandson. Dale is the father, but Dale's
name won't be on the birth certificate,
and the baby won't have the Beard name.'
The girl lived in the neighborhood, close
by. I used to know her name, but I can't
remember it any more. When the baby got a
little older, she and the baby lived on
Main Street, south of McKinley, in an
apartment in an old house. I used to
drive Dale there to see his son. When the
baby was about two-and-a-half years old,
the mother told Dale that she no longer
would let Dale see the boy. She said that
she was afraid that the boy would start
asking who Dale was, and she didn't know
what to tell the boy."
My mother further
said that, when she told Dale about the phone
call, he said, "If she says that I'm the
father, I'm the father." He then walked
to the hospital and saw the baby for the
first time. The fact that he walked to the
hospital says that the baby was born in
Mishawaka or in South Bend. The hospitals
closest to Normain Heights in 1975 were the
old Mishawaka Hospital (on 4th Street) and
the Osteopathic Hospital. They were about
equidistant from Normain Heights.
Dale was born May 3,
1959. He turned 16 in May 1975. In Mishawaka,
the school year typically ended in the month
of June. Dale lived at 230 Palau, in
Mishawaka, Indiana, in a neighborhood known
as "Normain Heights." Normain
Heights was a distinct neighborhood of 315
houses, arranged over an 80-acre rectangle,
with a park at the south end of the
rectangle. The 230 Palau address was home for
my mother from late 1949 (when she and my
father married) until mid-2006 when she moved
to a nursing home. The reasonable conclusion
is that, in 2001 when my mother used the
words "in the neighborhood," she
meant "in Normain Heights." She
further said, "close by." My
mother's home was in the north-east quadrant
of the neighborhood, near the corner of that
quadrant. "Close by" is a further
definition of where the girl lived, but
"close by" would be up for
Assuming that what
my mother said in 2001 was correct, the
following deductions can be made:
male child was born in about May or
June of 1975, in Mishawaka or in
mother of the child lived in Normain
Heights in about May or June of 1975.
- It is
reasonable to deduce that she also
lived in that area nine months
earlier, in about August or September
August/September 1974, Dale was 15
years old. Human nature suggests that
a 15-year-old male's intimate partner
would have been about his age. In
other words, most likely, the female
was born in about 1959.
- It is
reasonable to guess that Dale and she
had some of the same friends in
Normain Heights. These friends would
have been part of the Mishawaka High
School class of 1977 (or just before
or just after).
after 1975 and before December 1977,
the mother lived on Main Street,
south of McKinley, in an apartment
that was part of a house. Likely the
address was north of Jefferson. If
the address had been south of
Jefferson, it is likely that my
mother would have identified the
address as "south of
Jefferson" rather than
"south of McKinley."
son's eye color could be brown or
blue. Both of Dale's grandfathers had
blue eyes, but both of Dale's parents
had brown eyes. In other words, each
of Dale's parents carried a recessive
gene for blue eyes, and Dale could
have carried a hidden recessive gene
for blue eyes.
Rh factor was positve. The phone call
to my mother about two days after the
birth of the child is a puzzle. What
happened then such that the mother
knew that Dale was the father, but
she had not known before? One
possibility is that the baby's Rh
factor was positive, and the hospital
would have had to give the mother a
shot of RhoGAM within 72 hours of
delivery. If a woman is Rh-negative,
by law, no matter WHO she claims is
the father, a hospital must test
blood from the newborn's umbilical
cord. If the baby's Rh factor was
positive, then the mother would have
been given an injection of RhoGAM.
That information might have ruled out
the man she had believed was the
biological father. This is
speculation. However, Dale's Rh
factor was positive, and it appears
that something happened soon after
the birth of the baby that resulted
in the mother deciding to tell Dale
that he was the father.
short version is that the mother .
- was born in about
- lived in Normain
Heights in 1974 and 1975,
- gave birth to a son
in about May or June of 1975,
in Mishawaka or in South
Bend, and kept the child,
- lived in an
apartment on Main Street,
south of McKinley, in 1976 or
- likely knew some
people from the Mishawaka
High Class of 1977.
My attempt is to
preserve the record, and to preserve my
mother's fading memory from 2001. The DNA
evidence that I have assembled would provide
with names in red have been proven by
Griffith BEARD: b 1918 Indianapolis,
IN; d 2006 Mishawaka, St. Joseph Co., IN.
b 1921 Norman Co., MN; d 2007 Mishawaka,
St. Joseph Co., IN.
Nov. 19, 1949. Four children: born 1950,
1954, 1959, 1964.)
Irvin BEARD: b 1897 Owasco, Carroll
Co., IN; d 1965 Ft. Wayne, Allen Co., IN.
b 1891 Locheil, Benton Co., IN; d 1955
South Bend, St. Joseph Co., IN.
Nov. 5, 1916. Three children: born 1918,
Elmer DOYLE: b 1874 Bixby, Vermilion
Co., IL; d 1958 Niles, Berrien Co., MI.
Louise PAYNE: b 1883 Marysville,
Vermilion Co., IL; d 1953 Niles, Berrien
Dec. 19, 1900. Five children: born 1902,
1904, 1908, 1917, 1921.)
1867 Owasco, Carroll Co., IN; d 1939
Carroll Co., IN.
Catherine HOOKER: b 1871 Carroll Co., IN;
d 1952 Ft. Wayne, Allen Co., IN.
Mullan GRIFFITH: b 1848 IN; d 1900
Locheil, Benton Co., IN.
b 1855 IN; d 1894 Benton Co., IN.
Reed DOYLE (aka Francis REED): b
abt 1835 Quebec, Canada; d 1916 Kankakee
. . . NOTE:
The above man lived under a fake name for
the last 50 years of his life.
b 1837 Dayton, Montgomery Co., OH; d 1883
Bixby, Vermilion Co., IL
O'Neal PAYNE: b 1837 Danville,
Vermilion Co., IL; d 1888 Vermilion Co.,
Ann OLIVER: b 1845 Bethlehem,
Albany Co., NY; d 1920 Bismarck,
Vermilion Co., IL
b 1823 Darke Co., OH; d 1904 Owasco,
Carroll Co., IN.
1830 Tippecanoe Co., IN; d 1906 Owasco,
Carroll Co., IN.
b 1844 Ihren, Germany; d 1921 Carroll
b 1851 Carroll Co., IN; d 1929 Carroll
Ancil Clark GRIFFITH: b abt 1820 Washington
Co., PA; d aft 1860, reportedly in
Jane KITTS: b 1819 Campbell Co.,
KY; d 1888 Benton Co., IN.
Harrison HUKILL: b 1823 Ripley Co., IN;
IN; d 1871, Knox Co., IN.
b 1833 IN; d 4 Nov 1890 Ripley Co., IN.
REED: b English Ireland.
25 Agnes _____: b Quebec, Canada.
Andrew PETERSON: b 1806 ME; d 1877
Vermilion Co., IL.
1810 Tioga Co., PA; d 1849 Vermilion Co.,
PAYNE, Jr.: b 1815 Hamilton Co.,
OH; d 1863 Danville, Vermilion Co., IL.
b 1819 IN; d 1847 Vermilion Co., IL.
30 Abram E. OLIVER:
b abt 1827 Albany Co., NY.
31 Margaret E. SHARP: b abt 1828 Albany
1794 PA; d 1854 Carroll Co., IN.
1801 Monongalia Co., VA; d 1877 Sherman,
Grayson Co., TX.
b 1799 NJ; d 1873 Carroll Co., IN.
Smith JACK: b 1807 Warren Co., OH;
d 1870 Carroll Co., IN. .
36 Johann HOCKERTZ:
b 1814 Ihren, Trier, Germany; d aft 1863
Lafayette, Tippecanoe Co. IN.
Margaretha HAMMES: b 1817 Heckhuscheid,
Germany; d bef 1860, probably in
b 1827 Fairfield Co., OH; d 1881 Carroll
Catharine CRIPE: b 1833 Rossville,
Clinton Co., IN; d 1907 Carroll Co., IN.
40 Alexander M. GRIFFITH: b 1789 PA; d 14
Nov 1821 Washington Co., PA.
41 Sarah Sally DAVIS: b 1801 PA; d 1877
New Philadelphia, Washington Co., IN.
1790 PA; d 1865 Johnson Twp., Ripley Co.,
b 1792 PA; d 1872 IN.
Brevard HUKILL: b 1797 Winchester,
Clark Co., KY; d 1864, Cumberland Co.,
b 1805 Franklin Co., KY; d 1876,
Cumberland Co., IL.
46 John Benedict WISE: b 1803 MD; d 1853
Ripley Co., IN.
47 Nancy McLAUGHLIN: b 1805 KY; d aft 16
52 Abraham PETERSON: b 1769 Winthrop,
Kennebec Co., ME; d aft 1810.
LANE II: b 1787 Wells Twp., Rutland Co.,
Vermont; d bef 1838 Athens Co., OH.
COOK: b PA.
PAYNE, Sr.: b 1776 NY; d 1864
Pontiac, Livingston Co., IL.
1775 Orange Co., NY; d 1855 Vermilion
Spencer O'NEAL: b abt 1792 Bardstown,
Nelson Co., KY; d 1869 Catlin, Vermilion
59 Melinda GRIMES: b abt 1798; m 1818
Switzerland Co., IN; d abt 1839 Vermilion
61 (no information known)
62 (no information known)
63 (no information known)