The Regarde Bien
Issue No. 10
The Rise of the Covenanters
In this Issue of the Regarde Bien, I want to spent time looking at a series of documents which are found in the published Registers of the Privy Council of Scotland, that relate to the trials of hundreds of parishioners who were summoned to appear before the Inquisition, if it can be called that, set up to suppress those who opposed to the Espiscopalian form of worship imposed on Presbyterian Scotland. As king of both England and Scotland, Charles I sought to bringing the Church of Scotland into line with that of England by introducing to both countries, a Book of Common Prayer. It’s first reading in Scotland took place on 23rd July 1637 at the High Kirk of Edinburgh, where it provoked an immediate outburst of protest with more than sixty petitions and supplications pouring into the Privy Council from kirk sessions and presbyteries in a broad arc that stretched from Fife to Dumfriesshire.
These petitions and supplications have been printed and are found in the 1637 Register of the Privy Council of Scotland. Many appear unsubscribed, but of those that do, they are a rich source of genealogical information. The petition from the Presbytery of Kirkcudbright is one such document, for it bears the names of nearly 500 nobles, barons, burgesses, ministers and commoners. The names of several "Ms" are listed, Robert Milligane in Bridgemark, Roger Milligane in [Craigengillan!], Robert Milligane in Holm of Dalquhairn, James and Roger Milligane in Arndarroch all from the parish of Dalry; John Milligan in Cairnmonow in the parish of Kells, and Richard and John Milligane in the parish of Crossmichael . Many of those who opposed the introduction of Episcopacy in 1637, later went on to sign what became known as the National Covenant, which had been drafted on 28th February, 1638, by the Rev. Alexander Henderson of Leuchars and Lord Johnstone of Wariston on behalf of the nobility, landowners and Church of Scotland ministers.
The National Covenant was signed by over 60,000 people in Greyfriar’s Church, Edinburgh, between 28th February and 1st March 1638. It was also read in churches in all parts of Scotland for further signatures. Civil war subsequently broke out between those who favoured the introduction of Episcopacy and the Covenanters. The restoration of Charles II in 1660 appeared to signal the end of what had been a bitter feud fought between both parties. This was short lived for like his father, Charles I, by an Act of Parliament he restored Bishops and banned meetings of presbyteries and synods without the consent of Bishops. By the end of 1662, nearly 300 ministers, who favoured a Presbyterian style of church government, had been expelled from their charges, almost a third of the total ministry. The bulk of these came from south of the Clyde/Forth line. In the synod of Galloway, thirty four of the thirty seven parish ministers had been removed and in their place the government appointed curators.
The Pentland Uprising
More importantly, the restoration settlement banned conventicles, services held by the non-conforming ministers. These meetings or conventicles became the focal point for Covenanting Presbyterians, who spurned the Episcopalian style service. Heavy fines were exacted on those who failed to attend to the "official" service, with government soldiers being sent to exact fines on non-attendance. The rebellion that broke out on the 13th November, 1666, in the little town of St. John’s Clauchan of Dalry in Galloway was a direct result of this repressive measure. On this day, a party of Covenanters who had fled into the hills, came out of hiding in order to eat a hearty breakfast at the local inn of St. John’s Clauchan. As they left the inn, they witnessed a party of soldiers who had captured an old man by the surname of Grier, about to strip him of his clothes and lower him onto a red-hot gridrion. The old man had been arrested because he had not been able to pay his fine.
A skirmish quickly followed during which John MacLellan, laird of Barscobe Castle which lies in the adjoining parish of Balmaclellan and leader of the Covenanters, shot one of the soldiers; the remaining soldiers surrendered. From here MacLellan and his men moved to the nearby village of Balmaclellan, where Alexander Robertson was preaching at a conventicle. Here they were joined by others and in another skirmish with 16 soldiers, who were garrisoned in Balmaclellan, one soldier was killed. Next Maclellan lead a volunteer army of about 54 men riding on horseback and 150 on foot, into the town of Dumfries, where they took hostage Sir James Turner, commander of the local militia. What started out as a simple skirmish had very quickly developed into a full scale rebellion. The rebellion itself culminated in what became known as the Pentland Uprising, which has been well documented and can be read more fully in any good book that deals with the history of Scotland.
Tragically, the Covenanters were defeated on the Pentland Hills, which over look the City of Edinburgh, on 28th November, 1666, by Government soldiers. The rout that followed left many died on the field, whilst others were executed in Edinburgh. A general amnesty followed on 9th October 1667, by which the king offered a pardon to any who had taken part in the rebellion providing they took an oath of loyalty. Some took the oath, whilst others, fearing for their lives did not. On 9th May, 1668, the Privy Council published a list of names of all those men who had refused the king’s peace and ordered their arrest where ever they might be found in the kingdom. Two "Ms" appear in the proclamation list, Roger Milliken in Fell, which lies in the parish of Balmaclellan, and John Milligen, servant to John Muirhead in Large, a farmtoun located in the parish of Urr .
Both the parish of Balmaclellan and Urr are located in the Presbytery of Kirkcudbright. We have already observed that it was in the parishes of Dalry and Balmaclellan, that the rebellion originally broke out in 1666. I have often wondered if perhaps Roger Milliken was one of the original band of Covenanters who rode into the Clauchan of St. John of Dalry on that fateful day when their leader John MacClellan, laird of Barscobe, wounded a soldier. History does not record what became of Roger or John Milligen in Large, but if they succeeded in escaping the country, they probably made their way into Ulster.
The Battle of Bothwell Bridge
Following the Pentland Uprising, the Government began to adopt a more conciliatory approach towards the outlawed Covenanting ministers. In 1669, the first Indulgence restored 42 ministers to their parishes, whilst a second in 1672, allowed ninety more to preach outside the Established Church. By 1674, the Government had begun to reverse their policy of conciliation and issued a decree that once again made Conventicles illegal. This was followed by another Act that placed the burden of responsibility on landowners to make sure their tenants and servants adhered to Episcopacy. To enforce these laws, the Government sent the infamous ‘Highland Host’ into the south of Scotland, a measure that resulted in a second uprising. It began this time, not in Galloway, but at a Conventicle near Drumclog in Ayrshire, and ended at Bothwell Bridge, near Hamilton, where the Covenanters were defeated on 22 July, 1679.
The Covenanters suffered huge losses at Bothwell Bridge with about 400 dying on the field and a further 1,200 being forced march to Edinburgh, where they were imprisoned in Greyfriar’s churchyard. Others were killed in the rout that followed the battle or executed at the grassmarket in Edinburgh. On 15th November, 1679, 257 Covenanters were herded out of Greyfriar’s churchyard and marched down the road to Leith, where they were imprisoned aboard the Crown of London, a vessel bound for the Barbados. The vessel sailed via Orkney, where it ran into a ranging storm near the Mull Head of Deerness on 10th December, a calamity that ended with 209 Covenanters being drowned as the vessel sank. Only 49 Covenanters are known to have survived, and their names along with those that drowned have been published, a list of which is contained in the Rev. Robert Wodrow’s book "The History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution" and Dane Love’s recently published book, "Scottish Covenanter Stories". The names of three "Ms" are listed;
1. Robert Milligan from the parish of Glencairn in Nithsdale was drowned.
2. John Milligan also from the parish of Glencairn survived and is believed to have been deported to Barbados.
3. Thomas Milligan from the parish of Closeburn also in Nithsdale was drowned.
Other "Ms" are known to have been at Bothwell and managed to escape, whose names appear in the Proclamation Roll of Fugitives published by the Privy Council on 5th May, 1684 . Their names are listed below.
List of persons in the parish of Balmaclellan in Galloway
1. James Mulliken in Knockman, fugitive for reset and converse.
2. John Mulliken in Barscobe, fugitive for reset and converse.
List persons in the district of Nithsdale in Dumfriesshire
1. Thomas Mulligen at the Mill of Closeburn, parish of Closeburn, rebel in arms.
2. William Mulligen in Floors, parish of Penpont, rebel in arms.
3. John Mulligen in Maloford in the parish of Penpont, rebel in arms.
4. Robert Mulligen son to James Mulligen in Beuchan in the parish of Keir, rebel in arms.
5. James Mulligen in Beuchan in the parish of Keir, fugitive for reset and converse.
6. William Mulligen in Morton Mains, parish of Morton, fugitive for reset and converse.
As Robert Wodrow points out, not all the persons named in the Proclamation Rolls of Fugitives had been at Bothwell Bridge, many had later been charged with 'reset' and 'conversing' with those who had. However, it is evident that good proportion of the "Ms" listed above had been at Bothwell, namely, the two Thomas Milligans from the parish of Closeburn, Robert Milligan from the parish of Keir, William and John Milligan from the parish of Penpont, and Robert and John Milligan from the parish of Glencairn, all of which are located in the district of Nithsdale.
The Enterkin Pass Ambush
In July 1684, a party of nine Covenanters were tried in the justiciary court in Dumfries and sentenced to be transported to the Plantations aboard. From the local goal, on 28th July, the men were placed in the charge of a troop of 28 dragoons and lead out of the town enroute for Thornhill, where the party stayed overnight at the tolbooth. The following morning the dragoons along with the prisoners set out, taking the road that wends its way through Enterkin Pass, an old hill road which today has little more than a footpath through it. Unknown to the dragoons, or so it would appear, a plot had been hatched to rescue the Nine. About 30 local Covenanters under the command of James and Thomas Harkness of Locherban in the parish of Closeburn set an ambush deep in the pass where the party divided themselves into three groups to await the arrival of the dragoons and imprisoned Covenanters. The dragoons rode straight into the ambush and a skirmish followed during which their leader was mortally wound by a single shot. All but one of the Nine escaped, along with their liberators, across the hillside into the mist which is said to have hung low on the hills that day.
Two Milligans played their part in the events of that day, namely, Patrick Milligan, one of the dragoon officers, who had charge of the prisoners, and William Milligan, one of the 30 Covenanters who ambushed the party at Enterkin Pass. It is a strange co-incident, or maybe not, that both men came from the parish of Morton, the former a resident in Thornhill and the latter in Morton Mains. By all accounts, Patrick assumed command of the dragoons after his commanding officer died, and led the sole remaining prisoners back to the tolbooth in Thornhill, where a message was sent to Dumfries and from there to Edinburgh. Word quickly reached the ears of the Privy Council of Scotland, who two days later on 31st July ordered an immediate public inquiry. They instructed the ministers in six of the Nithsdale parishes to read out a warning from the pulpit, declaring that any person over 15 years of age was to answer on oath any questions put to them regarding the incident.
Within days, the soldiers, which no doubt included Patrick Milligan, were ‘interrogating’ the parishioners, not only in Nithsdale, but in Galloway and Wigtonshire. The greater number "deponed negative", that is, no grounds had been found against them in law, whilst those who had been found to have ‘harboured, reset or conversed’ with the rebels involved or more importantly those named in the Proclamation Rolls of Fugitive, deposition were extracted and sent to the Privy Council in Edinburgh. By the beginning of October, William, Duke of Queensberry, John Graham of Claverhouse and James, Lord Drumlanrig were sitting in judgement at the Justiciary Court of Dumfries, where those who had been indicted were summoned to answer the charges laid against them. I have read many of these "depositions" and extracted all those that relate to the Ms, along with the names of those who deponed negative in Nithsdale and have listed them below. I have arranged their names by parish and place of residence.
List of persons in the parish of Caerlaverock
Glenhowan:- Jannet Milligan spouse to John Kid.
Caerlaverock town:- Marion Mulligane.
List of persons in the parish of Holywood
Hulton:- Andrew Mullikin and his spouse Jean Grier.
Killyleoch:- Janet Milligan spouse of Robert Maxwell.
Mills of Clowdon:- James Mulligane and his spouse, Jean Milligane and her two sons.
Over Broomrig: Robert Mullikin and Agnes Selkirk, his spouse.
List of persons in the parish of Glencairn
Robert Milligane in Breconside, aged 40 or there about.
List of persons in the parish of Keir
Cuill:- Bessie Milligan spouse of Robert Neilson.
Capenoch: William Milligane and his son William Milligane.
Burnside: John Milligane.
Keir Mill:- Cuthbert Milligane and his spouse Marie Grier, and John Milligane.
Know:- James Milligane, aged about 40 years and his spouse, Janet Hidlestoun.
List of person in the Parish of Dunscore
Newtounhead:- Robert Milligane, his wife cannot go from her own house have twins upon her breast.
Laggan:- Robert Milligane, his spouse Janet Grier, their son John Milligane and daughter Isobell.
Carsmylne:- Janet Milligane and his son John Hildestoun.
Skeliston:- Robert Milligane.
Bush:- Janet Milligane.
List of persons in the parish of Penpont
Penpont:- Thomas Milligan, Elspeth Milligane, spouse to Walter Smith.
Arkland:- Janet Milligane, servitor to [Laird of] Arkland, aged about 24 years.
Glenstoben:- Thomas Milligane in Glenstoben, aged about 20 and married.
Glengar:- Janet Milligane, spouse Thomas Kilpatrick.
Graigbuie:- Thomas Milligane, servitor of James Hoatsone.
Floors:- John Milligan and William Milligan, rebel.
List of persons in the parish of Closeburn
Laskairn:- John Muligane, weaver, and Margaret Glencross, his spouse.
Whyspot:- David Kilpatrick and Jannet Muligan, his spouse.
Closeburn Town: John Muligan.
Laglanglie:- John Muligan, cottar, and Marion Kilpatrick, his spouse, Jannet Muligan, Jannet Moffat and Rebecca Muligan.
Cunningholme:- James Muligan servitor t Jean Hunter.
Shawes:- Gilbert Muligan.
Cleuchfoot:- William Muligan and Margaret Lorimer, spouses.
Rosehill:- John Muligan.
Longcroft:- John Muligan and Marion Tait, spouses.
Kirkland:- John Muligan.
Blaplane:- Isabel Muligane
Gilchristland:- John Mulligane, servitor to John Kilpatrick.
Auchinleck:- Agnes Milagane, spouse of Thomas Nevisone, miller.
Gatesyde:- Agnes Mulligane, servitrix to John Grier.
Closeburn Mill:- Jannet Muligane spouse to James Rodgerson.
Mid Clauchrie:- Robert Milligan, servant to Andrew Tait.
List of persons of the parish of Morton
New Dalgarnock:- Jean, Milligane, Gilbert Milligane, James Milligane and Janet Milligane.
Thornhill:- Gilbert Milligane, Helen Milligane, Agnes Milligane, Jannet Muligan William Milligane aged 30 and married to Margaret Dalzell, Patrick Milligan, officer.
Morton Mill:- Thomas Milligane and Jean Telford.
Carronhill:- Isabel Milligane, Nicolas Milligane, Janet Milligane of spouse John Kerr, and their children called John and Janet Kerr, and Janet Milligane spouse of James Edgar and their children a son and daughter Janet Kerr.
Langmyre:- Isabel Milligane, spouse James Grier, children Janet and Nicolas Grier.
Morton Mains:- Janet Milligane, spouse Thomas Hastie, son John Hastie.
Morton Castle:- Margaret Milligane, spouse of William Milligan, declared fugitive, and her son John Milligane, and Agnes Milligane.
Bush:- George Milligane and Katherine Angus.
Blairfoot:- Helen Milligane, servant to John Dalzell.
Whyteford:- Agnes Milligane.
Burn:- John Milligane, spouse Janet Kerr, and Alexander and Archibald Milligane.
Kirkland:- Gilbert Milligane and Jonet Johnston.
List of persons in the parish of Durisdeer
Durisdeer:- James Muligan.
Cotterhouse:- James Muligan.
Nether Dalveen:- Marion Miligan, servitrix to John Bradfoot, aged 20 and unmarried.
Hapland:- John McMillan and Jannet Muligan, spouses.
Stanbut:- Jannet Muligan.
List of persons in the parish of Sanquhar
Sanquhar:- Jean Milligin and Sara Milligin.
Over Altone:- John. Muligan.
1. The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland 1633-1637, 2nd Series, Vol. VI, p. 712-15.
2. Ditto 1665-1669, 3rd Series, Vol. II, p. 452.
3. Wodrow, Rev. Robert: History of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to the Revolution, Vol. 4, p. 13-29.
4. The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland 1684, 3nd Series.
The Millikens of Ravara
In page 776 of his book, the Rev. Ridlon recites an old family tradition narrated to him by Matthew H. Milliken, fourth son of James Milliken (1788-1874) of Ravara in the parish of Killinchy, Co. Down. According to this tradition, Matthew’s ancestry is traced back to ‘two of three brothers who went from the Lowlands of Scotland into Ulster, Ireland, during the religious persecution, settled there and raised families’. Matthew goes on to narrate that he ‘believed the two brothers of this family who came from Scotland to Ulster were named Robert and James and that they were refugees’. To this he adds, ‘no recorded trace of them is known to exist’. He then goes on to say how that one ‘James Milliken of Ballyskeagh, once visited James Milliken of Ravara, his father, and by "comparing notes" they decided that they represented, as descendants, the two brothers’. The traditional account of these two brothers is important as it has wider implications, not only for the Millikens of Ravara, but many other branches of ‘Ms’ living in Co. Down.
By 1900, it is evident the traditional account of the two brothers had become all but a distinct recollection distorted by the passage of time. The reference to the religious persecution points back to that turbulent period in Scottish history, when the Presbyterian Church of Scotland for much of the 1600s was divided between those who supported the National Covenant and those who favoured an Episcopalian form of worship. It is not until the 1700s, however, that a descendant of one of these men, James Milliken, made his way to the townland of Ravara and settled there. He is said to have come from the direction of Moria and Banbridge, early in the century. This reference provides an important clue as to the direction he came from as Lisburn, Hillsborough or Dromore also lie in that direction. The question that we need to ask; is it possible James was the son of one of those men whose baptism is recorded in the church registers of Lisburn?
There is almost certainly a generation gap in the account given by Matthew Milliken regarding his grandfather, James Milliken, for he died in or before the year 1814, when his last will and testament was made probate at the Diocese Court of Down. He cannot have been the same James who is said to have settled at Ravara early in the 1700s, unless of course, he reached the ripe old age of 110 which is not beyond the realms of possibility. In 1790, "James Milikin" registered his freehold in Ravara before the deputy clerk at the county court in Downpatrick, in order to secure his eligibility and right to vote in the Parliamentary Elections(2). I am incline to take the view that this James was the son of yet another "James Milikin", who paid an annual sum of rent amounting to £6. 10s. for land in Ballycloughan in 1746. I have listed the names of all the tenants who appear in Hamilton’s rent roll for the townland of Ballycloughan, which lies next to Ravara.
Hamilton Estate Rent Roll
Jas. Lyon for Timothy Smyth - 14.0.0
Robt. Inis for widow Corry - 4.0.0
Geo. Ferguson for Campbell - 16.0.17
Timothy Lyon for Wm. Rogers - 13.0.0
Wid. Anderson & Hans Fairly - 10.0.0
John Corry - 5.0.0
Martin Mawhinney for Armstrong - 16.11.3
James Milikin - 6.10.0
Rainey Maxwell of Carr - 13.19.0
David McNeely - 5.0.0
The Hamilton rent roll provides proof, that the Millikens had at the very least settled in the vicinity of Ravara sometime during the first half of the 1700s. Of the towns mentioned above, Lisburn is located the nearest to the townland of Ravara, which lies a short distance north of the town of Saintfield with Lisburn lying some distance to the west making it the most likely location from which James had made his journey. The fact that several "M" families were still living in and around the town of Lisburn during the first half the 1700s, adds further weight to this argument. I have already produced a list of the "Ms" who appear in the baptismal and marriage registers of the Lisburn Church of Ireland and First Presbyterian Church (see issue 7); it will be observed from this list that there is a striking similarly in the use of Christian names, e.g. Robert, James, John & William, between the Millikens in the Lisburn area and Ravara.
According to the tithe applotment book of 1833, James’s son, also called James, succeeded to a farm in Ravara containing nearly five acres of land with four acres in Ballycloughan, a small farm by modern standards, but a farm holding that indicates the family were probably both farmers and weavers. In Griffith’s valuation of 1863, James’s farm comprised a house, out-buildings and 24 acres of land with a further six acres of land in Ballycloughan. The name of his wife is unknown, at least that is to me, perhaps someone else may have knowledge of her name. James had three son known sons; the eldest William was a medical student and some of his Greek and Latins book were still preserved in the old homestead at the turn of the 20th century. He joined the army and was sent to India, where he was at the taking of Seringaptam under Gen. Goff and died at Port St. George, Madras. Little is know of James’s second son Robert.
1. William James Milliken, eldest son of James Milliken of Ravara. He married Sarah Wright of Saintfield, the daughter of Robert Wright, farmer, at Saintfield Second Presbyterian Church on April 21, 1854 in the presence of Thomas H. Milliken, and Eliza Wright. By this marriage he had six children:
- Anna Amelia Milliken, eldest child baptised April 31, 1857 at the Second Presbyterian Church of Saintfield.
- James Milliken, nothing more known.
- Selina Jane Milliken, born Dec. 24, 1858 in Saintfield and baptised Feb. 27, 1859 at Saintfield Second Presbyterian Church.
- Lucinda Sarah Milliken, born about 1861 in Saintfield; baptised March 4, 1861 at the Second Presbyterian Church of Saintfield.
- Jane Jenny Milliken, born 1864 in Saintfield; baptised on July 31, 1864 at the Second Presbyterian Church of Saintfield.
- David Milliken, born 1865 in Saintfield; baptised on July 15, 1865 at the Second Presbyterian Church of Saintfield.
2. Thomas Shepherd Milliken was employed as manager of the Belfast branch of the "Irish Times" newspaper and lived at Kinnegar, Holywood, where he died July 18, 1903. He married Isabella Wilson of Clones, daughter of James Wilson, at Linen Hall Presbyterian Church, Belfast, on April 28, 1857, and by this marriage had the following children:
- Edmund Milliken, born 1859 in Saintfield and baptised July 3, 1859 at the Second Presbyterian Church of Saintfield. He married a Miss Dill of Bangor and by this marriage had three children.
- Thomas Henry Milliken, born 1861 in Saintfield and baptised April 27, 1861: he married a Dublin lady and moved to London, England, where he became secretary for some company.
- Emily Milliken, married Henry Stewart Woods, secretary and one of the managing directors of the firm of Robertson, Leslie, Ferguson & Co. Ltd, Bank Building, Belfast and lived near Queen’s College in Belfast.
3. David Milliken emigrated to Australia and became a practical and consulting engineer at Ballerat in Victoria.
4. Matthew Henry Milliken, born January 1832; became a farmer and musical teacher, and married Mary Jane Porter Robinson, daughter of James Robinson, farmer of Ballyrussel, Comber, at Gilnahirk Presbyterian Church on August 16, 1865 in the presence of Samuel Milliken and James Robinson. His wife was a cousin of Sir James Porter Corry, M.P. for Belfast and a member of the old Porter family in County Down. The Millikens lived for a time at Newtownards and Ballynahinch and by their marriage, had two daughters born at Newtownards, before emigrating to Philadelphia, USA.
- Margaret Dunlop Porter Milliken, born June 6, 1866 in Newtownards; married Francis Edward Archibald, M.D. of Philadelphia, Penn. June 15, 1896 and resided at 2217 N 16th Street, Philadelphia. She had:
- Isaac Garret Smedley Archibald, b. Nov. 21, 1899; d. Aug. 8, 1900.
- Edith Beaumont Archibald, b. July 7, 1901; d. Mar. 31, 1903.
- Caroline Vera Archibald, b. July 7, 1901; Mar. 3, 1902.
- Elizabeth Archibald, b. July 7, 1901; d. July 14, 1904.
- Francis Edward Archibald, b. July 1, 1904; d. July 14, 1904.
- Anna Shepherd Milliken, born Feb. 24, 1868; died May 28, 1876 in Newtownards.
5. Mary Ann Milliken, born 1833 in Ravara and baptised September 7, 1833 at the Second Presbyterian Church of Saintfield. Became Mrs Brown of Belfast in Ridlon’s notes.
6. Samuel Milliken born 1840 in Ravara, and baptised August 2, 1840 at the Second Presbyterian Church of Saintfield. He died a bachelor at Ravara February 2, 1876.
7. John Milliken, the youngest child of James Milliken of Ravara. He remained on his father’s farm and married Agnes Stewart and had:
- Jeanie Milliken, born August 7, 1883 at Ravara.
- Susan Milliken born at Ravara.
- Anna Shepherd Milliken born December 20, 1888 at Ravara.
1. Ridlon, G. T.: History of the Families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy, comprising Genealogies and Biographies of the posterity surnamed Milliken, Millikin, Millikan, Millican, Milligan, Mulliken and Mullikin AD. 800-1907, p. 776-777.
2. Public Records Office of Northern Ireland, C & P. Dow. 5/3/2.
3. Ditto, D. 5.
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