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Dal Raita, Scots and Gael Gaedhil



REFERENCES

AI = Annals of Inisfallen 438-1450
AT = Annals of Tigernach 488-1178
AU = Annals of Ulster 431-1541
CS = Chronicon Scotorum 353-1150
FM = Annals of the Four Masters 123-1616
CKA = Chronicle of the Kings of Alba


Date: 1000 to 1170


AU 1005

Ragnall m. Gothraidh rí na n-Innsi, in Christo.

Ragnall son of Gofraid, king of the Isles, rested in Christ.

CS1005

Ragnall son of Gotfrith son of Aralt, king of Inse Gall, dies.

AU 1005

Mael Brigte H. Rimeda abbas Ia, in Christo.

Mael Brigte ua Rímeda, abbot of Í, rested in Christ.

AU 1005

A battle between the men of Albu themselves, in which fell the king of Albu, i.e. Cinaed son of Dub.

AU 1005

Cinaed son of Dub son of Mael Coluim, king of Alba, was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed.

CS 1005

Cinaed son of Dub son of Mael Coluim, king of Alba, was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed.

AU 1006

A battle between the men of Albu and the Saxons, and the Scots were defeated and a great number of their nobles left dead.

CS 1007

The great gospel of Colum Cille was stolen by night from the annex to the great stone church of Cenannas. The great gospel of Colum Cille was found three months later with its gold and silver taken from it, and covered with sods.

CS 1008

Ferdomnach, successor of Colum Cille, rested.

AU 1014

Siucraid son of Lodur, jarl of Innsi Orc, and Domnall son of Eimen son of Cainnech, earl of Marr in Scotland, killed at the battle of Clontarf.

LC 1014

Thither came Siograd Finn, and Siograd Donn, two sons of Lothar, Jarl of Innsi-hOrc, accompanied by the armies of Innsi-hOrc. Thither came, moreover, great hosts from Innsi-Gall, and from Manainn, and from the Renna, and from the Britons, and from the Flemings.

Sighrud, son of Lothar, Jarl of Insi-hOrc, and Domhnall, son of Eimhin, son of Cainnech Mór, great steward of Marr in Alba; et alii multi nobiles.

AT 1020

Finnlaech son of Ruaidhrí, grand steward of Moray, was killed by the sons of his brother Maelbrighde.

LC 1020

Finnlaech, son of Ruaidhri, king of Alba, a suis occisus est.

AU 1027

Dún Caillen in Scotland was totally burned.

LC 1027

Dún-Cuillind, in Alba, was altogether burned in hoc anno.

AT 1029

Mael Colaim mac Mael-Brighdi mac Ruaidrí, rí Alban mortuus est.

Mael Colaim son of Mael Brighde son of Ruaidhrí, king of Scotland, died.

LC 1029

Maelcoluim, son of Maelbrighde, son of Ruaidhri, mortui sunt.

ASC 1031

Here Cnut (king of England) went to Rome; and in the same year he went to Scotland, and Malcolm, the king of Scots, submitted to him and two other kings, Maelbeth and Iehmarc.

[Source: Swanton, Michale (ed & trans): The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (London, 1997), p. 157-8]

AU 1032

Gilla Comgán son of Mael Brigte, earl of Moray, was burned together with fifty people.

LC 1032

Gillacomghain, son of Maelbrighde, great steward of Murebhe, was burned; together with fifty persons.

AU 1033

The grandson of Baete son of Cinaed was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed.

CS 1033

Mael Ísa, bishop of Alba, rested.

AU 1034

Suibne m. Cinaedha, ri Gall-Gaidhel, mortuus est.

Suibne son of Cinaed, king of the Gallgaedil, died.

AT 1034

Suibne m. Cinaedha, ri Gall-Gaidhel, mortuus est.

Suibne mac Cinaetha, king of Galloway was killed.

AU 1034

Maicnia ua hUchtáin, lector of Cenannas, was drowned coming from Scotland, and Colum Cille's fan and three relics of Patrick and thirty men were lost as well.

AU 1034

Amlaíb son of Sitriuc was killed by the Saxons on his way to Rome.

AU 1034

Amhlaoimh son of Sitric was killed by Englishmen as he was going to Rome.

CS 1034

Amlaíb son of Sitric was killed by the Saxons on his way to Rome.

AI 1034

Mael Coluim son of Cinaed, king of Alba, dies.

AT 1034

Maolcoluim son of Cinaedh, king of Scotland, glory of the whole west of Europe, died.

AU 1034

Mael Coluim son of Cinaed, king of Scotland, died.

CS1034

Mael Coluim son of Cinaed, king of Alba, the honour of western Europe, died.

AU 1035

Cathal son of Amalgaid, king of Western Laigin, and his wife, i.e. the daughter of the son of Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed, and his hound were killed at the same time by the son of Cellach son of Dúnchad.

AU 1040

Mael Muire H. Uchtan comarba Coluim Cille, in Christo dormierunt.

Mael Muire ua hUchtáin, successor of Colum Cille, fell asleep in Christ.

CS 1040

Maolmuire h. Uctan comarba Coluim Cille quieuit.

Mael Muire ua Uchtán, successor of Colum Cille, rested.

AU 1040

Donnchad m. Crinan, rí Alban, a suis occisus est.

Donnchad son of Crínán, king of Scotland, was killed by his own people.

AT 1040

Donncadh mac Crínan, aird-rí Alban immatura etate a suis occissus est.

Donnchadh son of Crínan, overking of Scotland, was killed by his own immatura aetate.

CS 1040

Donnchadh mac Critain airdri Alban inmatura aetate a suis occisus est.

Donnchad son of Critan, overking of Alba, was killed at an unripe age by his own people.

AU 1045

Cath eter Albanchu fein i torchair Cronan, ab Duine Caillenn.

A battle between the Scots themselves in which Crónán, abbot of Dún Caillen, fell.

AT 1045

Cath etir Albancho ar aen-rían cur' marbad and Crínan ab Duín Calland & sochaidhe maille fris .i. nae .xx. laech.

A battle between the men of Scotland on one road, wherein Crínan, abbot of Dunkeld was killed and a multitude along with him, to wit, nine score laymen.

AT 1052

A raid by the son of Maol na mBó into Fingal and he burned the country from Dublin to the Delvin river, but he overtook no cows, so that he and the Foreigners fought great skirmishes round the fortress of Dublin, wherein fell many on both sides, and Echmarcach son of Raghnall, the king of the Foreigners, went overseas, and the son of Maol na mBó assumed the kingship after him.

AU 1052

Echmarcach son of Ragnall, king of the foreigners, was banished by the king of Laigin, i.e. Diarmait son of Mael na mBó, and the latter himself took the kingship as a result.

AU 1054

A battle between the men of Scotland and the English in which fell 3000 of the Scots and 1500 of the English, including Doilfinn son of Finntor.

AT 1054

A battle between the Scots and the English, wherein fell a great many soldiers.

AT 1055

Mael Duín mac Gilla Odran, espoc Alban & ordan Gaedel o cleircib, in Christo quieuit.

CS 1055

Mael Dúin son of Gille Aindrias, bishop of Alba and the honour of the Gaedel, rested.

AU 1057

Robartach son of Ferdomnach, successor of Colum Cille, fell asleep in the Lord.

AU 1058

M. Beathadh m. Finnlaich airdrigh Alban do marbadh la Mael Sechlainn m. Donnchadha i cath.

Mac Bethad son of Finnlaech, over-king of Scotland, was killed by Mael Sechlainn son of Donnchad in battle.

Note: AU mistaking gives Malcolm son of Duncan as Mael Sechlainn.

AT 1058

Mac Beathadh son of Findlaech, overking of Scotland, was killed by Malcolm son of Donnchadh.

CS 1058

Mac Bethad son of Finnlaech, king of Alba, was killed by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad.

AU 1058

Lulach m. Gilla Comgain airdrigh Alban do marbadh la Mael Coluim m. Donnchadha i cath.

Lulach son of Gilla Comgain, over-king of Scotland, was killed in battle by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad.

AT 1058

Lulach, king of Scotland, was treacherously killed by Maol Coluim, son of Donnchadh.

CS 1058

Lulach king of Alba was killed treacherously by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad.

AU 1062

Gilla Críst ua Maíl Doraid, successor of Colum Cille both in Ireland and Scotland, fell asleep in Christ.

AT 1062

Ó Maoldoraidh, successor of Columcill, rested.

AU 1064

Echmarcach, king of the Foreigners, died.

Note: Marianus Scottus (d.c.1082) the chronicler described him as rex inna renn, king of the Rhinns, when he died on pilgrimage to Rome in 1065.

AU 1065

Dubthach Albanach, chief confessor of Ireland and Scotland, rested in Ard Macha.

Dubthach, a law-abiding stern man,
Shall have the spacious noble dwelling of Heaven;
The confessor that you see obtained Heaven
In exchange for his pleasant land of scattered plains.

AU 1070

The abbot of Ia, i.e. the grandson of Baethén, was killed by the son of the abbot ua Maeldoraid.

AU 1072

French went into Scotland and brought away the son of the king of Scotland as hostage.

CS1093

Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, king of Alba, was killed by the French, and his son Edward and Margarita, wife of MaelColuim, died of grief for him.

CS1094

Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim, king of Alba, was killed by his own people.

SAEC 1079

When Malcolm, king of Scots, ravaged Northumbria and the people of Hexham, Ailred of Rievaulx records the king “summoned his Galwegian vassals, more cruel than the rest”, and ordered them to attack Hexham Church, where the people of the district sought refuge. According to Ailred, a dense and thick mist had descended on the river Tyne making it difficult to cross the river for his army to attack Hexham. “The Galwegians therefore entered the mist, and passing through some wastes crossed the stream on the on the west, on the way which leads to Cumbria, and towards evening found themselves on the border of their own district. But the king waited both for the Galwegians whom he had sent, and for the departure of the mist, which he abhorred; and was in doubt what he should do. But when the mist rose and disclosed the light which it had hidden he river had swollen with tha sudden flood, and for three days hindered the king’s attempt” to cross the river.

AU 1085

Mael Snechta son of Lulach, king of Moray, ended their life happily.

AU 1085

Domnall son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, ended his life unhappily.

AT 1093

Maol Coluim son of Donnchadh, king of Scotland, was killed by Frenchmen, and Edward his son, and Margaret, the wife of Maol Coluim, died of grief for him.

AU 1093

Fothud, chief bishop of Scotland, rested in Christ.

AU 1093

Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French i.e. in Inber Alda in England. His queen, Margaret, moreover, died of sorrow for him within nine days.

AI 1093

Mael Coluini son of Donnchadh, king of Alba, was slain with his son in an unguarded moment in battle by the French, and Margaréta his wife, died of grief for him.

CS 1093

Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, king of Alba, was killed by the French, and his son Edward and Margarita, wife of MaelColuim, died of grief for him.

AU 1094

Donnchad son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, was treacherously killed by his own brothers, i.e. by Domnall and Edmond.

AI 1094

Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim, king of Alba, was slain by Domnall, son of Donnchadh. That same Domnall, moreover, afterwards took the kingship of Alba.

CS 1094

Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim, king of Alba, was killed by his own people.

AI 1094

Macc Congail, rí na Rend, do marbad.

Congal's son, king of Na Renna, was slain.

AU 1095

Gofraidh Meranach, king of the foreigners, died.

AI 1095

A great mortality of the men of Ireland, so that it is impossible to enumerate all the people that died from pestilence [there follows a long list of names], including, Gofraid, king of Áth Cliath and Insi Gall.

AU 1098

Three of the ships of the foreigners of the Isles were plundered by the Maid and their crews were killed, i.e. a hundred and twenty or a little more.

CMI 1098

Magnus rex Norwegiae filius Olavi filii Haraldi Harfagre, Galwedienses ita con striuxit, nt cogeret cos materias lignorum caedere et ad litus portare ad munitiones construendas.

Magnus, King of Norway, son of Olave, the son of Harald Harfager, compelled the men of Galloway to cut timber and bring it to the shore for the construction of the forts.

[CMI Munch, P.A. (ed.) and Rev. Goss (tr.). Chronica regnum Manniae et insularum. The Chronicle of Man and the Sudreys (Douglas, 1874), 2 Vols]

AU 1099

Donnchad grandson of Maenach, abbot of Ia, rested in peace.

AT 1099

Domhnall son of Donnchadh, king of Scotland, was blinded by his brother.

CMI 1102

Olave, son of Godred Crouan, began to reign over all the Isles, and he reigned forty years. He was a man of peace, and was in such close alliance with all the kings of Ireland and Scotland, that no one ventured to disturb the kingdom of the Isles during his time. He took a wife named Affrica, daughter of Fergus of Galloway, by whom he had issue Godred. He had also many concubines, by whom he had issue three sons; Reginald, Lagman, and Harold, and many daughters, one of whom was married to Sumerled, Lord of Argyll; and this was the cause of the ruin of the whole kingdom of the Isles; for he had issue by her four sons, Dugald, Reginald, Angus, and Olave, of whom we shall speak more fully hereafter.

CS 1103

Magnus king of Lochlann and the Innse, a man who attempted to conquer Ireland, was killed on a raid in Ulaid.

AI 1105

In the above year a camel, an animal of remarkable size, was brought from the king of Alba to Muirchertach Ua Briain.

AU 1106

Etgar, king of Scotland, died.

AI 1111

Domnall, son of Tadc, went in indignant mood (?) into the north of Ireland, and forcibly took the kingship of Insi Gall.

AU 1116

Ladhmann son of Domnall, grandson of the king of Scotland, was killed by the men of Moray.

AU 1118

Maria, daughter of Mael Coluim, daughter of the king of Scotland and wife to the king of England, died.

AU 1124

Alexander son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, died in sound penitence.

AI 1130

A slaughter of the men of Moray in Alba.

AU 1130

A battle between the men of Scotland and the men of Moray in which four thousand of the men of Moray fell with their king .i. Aengus son of the daughter of Lulach; a thousand, or a hundred, which is more accurate, of the men of Scotland fell in a counter-attack.

CMI 1142

Godred, son of Olave, crossed over the sea to the King of Norway, whose name was Hinge, and did homage to him. He was well received, and remained some time. In the same year three sons of Harold, the brother of Olave, who had been brought up in Dublin, assembling a large body of men, and among them all the refugees from the dominions of Godred, came to Man, and demanded from the king one half of the whole kingdom of the Isles for themselves. The king having heard their application, and being desirous to pacify them, answered that he would take advice on the subject. When the day and place for holding a meeting had been agreed upon, these most wicked men spent the interval in planning the death of the king. On the appointed day both parties met at the port called Ramsey, and sat down in order, the king and his followers on one side, and they with theirs on the other. Reginald, the second brother, who was to give the fatal blow, stood apart, speaking to one of the chiefs of the country. On being summoned to approach the king, turning to him as if in the act of saluting, he raised his gleaming battleaxe on high, and at a blow cut off the king's head. As soon as this atrocious act was perpetrated they divided the country between them. After the lapse of a few days they collected their fleet, and sailed to Galloway with the purpose of conquering it. But the men of Galloway, forming a compact body, rushed upon them with great impetuosity; whereupon the invaders turned and fled in great confusion to Man, and massacring some, expelled the rest of the Galloway residents in the island.

AT 1153

David son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland and England, left life happily.

FM 1154

Coblach lá Toirrdhealbhach Ua c-Concobhair for muir timchell Ereann fo thuaith .i. loinges Duin Gaillmhe, Chonmaicne Mara, Fhear n-Umhaill, Ua n-Amhalgadha, & Ua Fiachrach, & An Cosnamhaigh Uí Dubhda h-i c-cennas forra, & ro airccset Tír Chonaill, & Inis Eóghain. Do-chuas ó Chenel Eoghain, & o Mhuircertach, mac Néill dar muir co ruaiclidis .i. go cendcadís longas Gall-Ghaoidhel Arann, Cinn Tíre, Manann & centair Alban archena,& mac Scelling í c-cennas forra, & iarna t-torracht h-i c-comhfhogus Innsi h-Eoghain ima c-comhráinicc dóibh& don loinges oile feachair cath longda co h-amnus aighthighe eatorra, & bháttar occan iomtuarccain ó prim co nóin, & marbhthar sochaidhe mhor do Chonnachtaibh imon c-Cosnamhaigh Ua n-Dubhda lásna h-allmhurachaibh. Ro mheabhaidh, foran sluagh n-allmhurach,& ro ládh a n-ár, & fhagbhait a longa, & ro benadh a fhiacla a mac Scelling.

A fleet was brought by Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair on the sea, round Ireland northwards, i.e. the fleets of Dun-Gaillmhe, of Conmhaicne-mara, of the men of Umhall, of Ui-Amhalghadha, and Ui-Fiachrach, and the Cosnamhaigh Ua Dubhda in command over them; and they plundered Tir-Conaill and Inis-Eoghain. The Cinel-Eoghain and Muircheartach, son of Niall, sent persons over sea to hire (and who did hire) the fleets of the Gall-Gaeidhil, of Ara, of Ceann-tire, of Manainn, and the borders of Alba in general, over which Mac Scelling was in command; and when they arrived near Inis-Eoghain, they fell in with the other fleet, and a naval battle was fiercely and spiritedly fought between them; and they continued the conflict from the beginning of the day till evening, and a great number of the Connaughtmen, together with Cosnamhaigh Ua Dubhda, were slain by the foreigners. The foreign host was however defeated and slaughtered; they left their ships behind, and the teeth of Mac Scelling were knocked out.

AU 1164

Select members of the Community of Ia, namely, the arch-priest, Augustin and the lector (that is, Dubsidhe) and the Eremite, Mac Gilla-duib and the Head of the Celi-De, namely, Mac Forcellaigh and select members of the Community of Ia besides came on behalf of the successor of Colum-cille, namely, Flaithbertach Ua Brolchain's acceptance of the abbacy of Ia, by advice of Somharlidh and of the Men of Airthir-Gaedhel and of Insi-Gall; but the successor of Patrick and the king of Ireland, that is, Ua Lochlainn and the nobles of Cenel-Eogain prevented him.

AU 1164

Somharlidh Mac Gilla-Adhamhnain and his son were killed and slaughter of the Men of Airthir-Gaedhel and of Cenn-tire and of the men of Insi-Gall and of the Foreigners of Ath-cliath around him.

AT 1164

Somhairle son of Giolla Bríde, king of the Hebrides and Cantyre, and his son Giolla Bríde, were killed by the men of Scotland, with slaughter of Foreigners of Dublin with them.

CMI 1164

Somerled assembled a fleet of 160 ships and put in at Renfrew, with the intention of subduing the whole of Scotland. But through divine punishment he was overcome by a small number of foes, and there slain with his son and a vast number of his people.





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