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Dal Raita, Scots and Gael Gaedhil



REFERENCES

AI = Annals of Inisfallen 438-1450
AT = Annals of Tigernach 488-1178
AU = Annals of Ulster 431-1541
CS = Chronicon Scotorum 353-1150
FM = Annals of the Four Masters 123-1616
CKA = Chronicle of the Kings of Alba


Date: 800 to 999


AU 807

The killing of Conall son of Tadc, by Conall son of Aedacán in Cenn Tíre.

AI 807

The slaying of Congal, son of Tadc, in Alba.

AU 814

Cellach, abbot of Í, when the building of the church of Cenannas was finished, resigned the office of superior, and Diarmait, fosterling of Daigre, was appointed in his place.

AU 817

Mael Dúin son of Cenn Faelad, superior of Ráith Both, a member of Colum Cille's community, was slain.

AU 817

Colum Cille's community went to Temair to excommunicate Aed.

CS 818

Diarmait, abbot of Ia, went to Scotland with the shrine of Colum Cille.

AU 819

Death of Aed son of Niall—Aed the eminent son of Niall of the showers—near Áth dá Ferta in the plain of Conaille.

AI 819

Death of Aed son of Niall, king of Temuir, on a hosting in Alba.

Note: Alba here appears to be an error.

AU 820

Constantine son of Fergus, king of Fortriu, dies.

Fordun’s Pictish List:

Constantine, son of Fergusa, reigned forty years. He built Dunkelden (Dunkeld).

AI 820

Death of Causantin son of Fergus, king of Alba.

AU 829: CS 829

Diarmait, abbot of Í, went to Scotland with the halidoms of Colum Cille.

AU 831

Diarmait came back to Ireland with the halidoms of Colum Cille.

AU 832

Cinaed son of Echaid, king of Dál Araidi of the North, was deceitfully killed by his own associates.

AU 834

Aengus son of Fergus, king of Foirtriu, dies.

FM 835

Gofraidh, son of Fearghus, chief of Oirghialla*, went to Alba, to strengthen the Dal Riada, at the request of Cinaeth, son of Ailpin.

AU 839

Bellum re genntib for firu Fortrenn in quo ceciderunt Euganan m. Oengusa & Bran m. Oengussa & Ed m. Boanta & alii pene innumerabiles ceciderunt.

The heathens won a battle against the men of Foirtriu, and Eóganán son of Aengus, Bran son of Óengus, Aed son of Boanta, and others almost innumerable fell there.

CKA 843-858

So Kenneth, Alpin's son, first of the Scots ruled this Pictland prosperously for sixteen years. Pictland was named after the Picts, whom, as we have said Kenneth destroyed. For God deigned to make them alien from, and void of, their heritage, by reason of their wickedness; because they not only spurned the Lord's mass and precept, but also refused to be held equal to others in the law of justice. Two years before he came to Pictland, he had received the kingdom of Dalriata. In the seventh year of his reign, he transported the relics of St Columba to a church that he had built. And he invaded England six times; and he seized and burned Dunbar and Melrose. But the Britons burned Dunblane, and the Danes wasted Pictland to Clunie and Dunkeld. He died of a tumour ultimately, on the Ides of February, the third day of the week, in the palace of Forteviot.

AU 848

Ólchobor, king of Mumu, and Lorcán son of Cellach, with the Laigin, won a battle against the heathens at Sciath Nechtain, in which fell the jarl Tomrair, tanist of the ‘king of Lochlann’ (tanise righ Laithlinne), and two hundred about him.

FM 851

Gofraidh, son of Fearghus, chief of the Innsi Gall, died.

AU 853: FM 851

Amhlaim m. righ Laithlinde do tuidhecht a n-Erinn coro giallsat Gaill Erenn dó, & cis o Goidhelaib.

Amlaíb, son of the king of Lochlann, came to Ireland, and the foreigners of Ireland submitted to him, and he took tribute from the Irish.

AU 856

Cocadh mor eter gennti & Mael Sechlainn co n-Gall-Ghoidhelaib leis.

Great warfare between the heathens and Mael Sechnaill, supported by Norse-Irish.

AU 856

Roiniudh mor re n-Aedh m. Neill for Gall-Gaeidhelu i n-Glinn Foichle co ralad leis ar dimhor diib.

Aed son of Niall inflicted a great rout on the Norse-Irish in Glenn Foichle and a vast number of them were slaughtered by him.

AU 857

Roiniudh re n-Imar & re n-Amlaiph for Caittil Find cona Gall-Gaedelaibh h-i tiribh Muman.

Ímar and Amlaíb inflicted a rout on Caitil the Fair and his Norse-Irish in the lands of Munster.

AU 858

Cinaedh m. Ailpin rex Pictorum, Adulf rex Saxan, mortui sunt.

Cinaed son of Ailpín, king of the Picts, and Ethelwulf, king of the Saxons, died.

AI 858

Cinaed son of Alpín, king of Alba, died.

AI 861

Death of Domnall son of Alpín, king of Alba.

AU 865

The Britons were driven from their land by the Saxons and were placed in bondage in Móin Chonáin.

AU 865

Tuathal son of Artgus, chief bishop of Foirtriu and abbot of Dún Caillen, fell asleep.

AU 866

Amlaiph & Auisle do dul i Fortrenn co n-Gallaib Erenn & Alban cor innriset Cruithentuaith n-uile & co tucsat a n-giallo.

Amlaíb and Auisle went with the foreigners of Ireland and Scotland to Fortriu, plundered the entire Pictish country and took away hostages from them.

AU 867

Bellum for Saxanu Tuaisceirt i Cair Ebhroc re n-Dubghallaib, in quo cecidit Alli, rex Saxan Aquilonalium.

[T] The dark foreigners won a battle over the northern Saxons at York, in which fell Aelle, king of the northern Saxons.

AU 870

The siege of Ail Cluaithe by the Norsemen: Amlaíb and Ímar, two kings of the Norsemen, laid siege to the fortress and at the end of four months they destroyed and plundered it.

AU 871

Amhlaiph & Ímar do thuidecht afrithisi du Ath Cliath a Albain dibh cetaibh long, & praeda maxima hominum Anglorum & Britonum & Pictorum deducta est secum ad Hiberniam in captiuitate.

Amlaíb and Ímar returned to Áth Cliath from Alba with two hundred ships, bringing away with them in captivity to Ireland a great prey of Angles and Britons and Picts.

CS 871

Amlaíb and Ímar returned to Áth Cliath from Alba with two hundred ships, bringing away with them in captivity to Ireland a great prey of Saxons and Britons.

AU 872

Artgal, king of the Britons of Strathclyde, was killed at the instigation of Constantine son of Cinaed.

CS 872

Artgal, king of the Britons of Srathclyde, was killed at the instigation of Constantine son of Cinaed.

AU 873

Flaithbertach son of Muirchertach, superior of Dún Caillen, died.

AU 875

The Picts encountered the dark foreigners in battle, and a great slaughter of the Picts resulted.

Note: the Poppleton MSS mentions the battle of Dollar between the Danish Vikings and the Scots, in which the Scots were driven in defeat to Atholl ... spelt Achcochan.

AU 875

Oistín son of Amlaíb, king of the Norsemen, was deceitfully killed by Albann.

AU 876

Constantine son of Cinaed, king of the Picts, died.

AU 877

A skirmish at Loch Cuan (Strangford Lough) between the fair heathens and the dark heathens, in which Albann, king of the dark heathens, fell.

AU 878

Rhodri son of Merfyn, king of the Britons, was killed by the Saxons.

AU 878

Aed son of Cinaed, king of the Picts, was killed by his own associates.

AU 878

The shrine of Colum Cille and his other halidoms arrived in Ireland, having been taken in flight to escape the foreigners.

CS 878

The shrine of Colum Cille and his other halidoms arrived in Ireland, having been taken in flight to escape the foreigners.

AU 878

Gairbíth son of Mael Brigte, king of Conaille, was beheaded by the Uí Echach.

(Rhodri of Manu, splendid here,
Aed from the lands of Cenn Tíre,
Donnchad, lustrous stuff of sovereignty,
Gairíth, diadem of smooth Macha—

Whenever I bring it to mind
It inflames the limits of my heart,
Cold flags over temples of the buried,
Barrfhinn of Bile is distraught.)


AU 880

Feradach son of Cormac, abbot of Í, rested.

AU 891

Flann son of Mael Dúin, abbot of Í, rested in peace.

CS 891

Flann son of Mael Dúin, abbot of la, rested.

AU 893

Cath for Dubghallu re Saxanaibh du i torcradur sluaigh diairmidhe.

The Saxons won a battle against the dark foreigners in which countless multitudes fell.

AU 900

Domnall son of Constantine, king of Scotland, dies.

CS 900

Repose of Domnall son of Constantine, king of Scotland.

AI 900

Death of Domnall, king of Alba.

AU 904

Imhar ua h-Imhair do marbad la firu Fortrenn, & ár már n-imbi.

Ímar grandson of Ímar, was killed by the men of Foirtriu, and there was a great slaughter around him.

CS 904

Ead, king of the Picts, fell by the two grandsons of Ímar and by Cathal with two hundred.

AU 913

Mael Muire ingen Cinaedha m. Ailpin, Etulbb ri Saxan Tuaiscirt, moriuntur.

Mael Muire, daughter of Cinaed, son of Ailpín, & Ethelwald, king of the Saxons of the North, die.

AU 913

Cathroined re n-gentibh for fairinn nochoblaigh de Ultaibh i n-airiur Saxan dú i torchradur ili, .i. Cumuscach m. Mael Mochorghi m. righ Leithi Cathail.

The heathens inflicted a battle-rout on the crew of a new fleet of the Ulaid, on the coast of Saxon, and many fell, including Cumuscach son of Mael Mocheirgi, son of the king of Leth Cathail.

Note: n-airiur is translated ‘coast of’ Saxon.

AU 914

A great new fleet of the heathens on Loch dá Caech.

AU 915

A great and frequent increase in the number of heathens arriving at Loch dá Chaech, and the laity and clergy of Mumu were plundered by them.

AU 917

Sitriuc h. Imair cona chobluch do ghabail oc Cinn Fhuait i n-airiur Laigen. Ragnall h. h-Imair cona chobluch ailiu co Gallu Locha Da Chaech. Ár n-Gall oc Neimlid la Mumain. Ár n-aile la Eoganacht & Ciaraidhe.

Sitriuc, grandson of Ímar, landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin. Ragnall, grandson of Ímar, with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech. A slaughter of the foreigners at Neimlid in Muma. The Eóganacht and the Ciarraige made another slaughter.

Note: n-airiur is translated coast of in the above text.

AU 918

Gaill Locha Da Caech do dergiu Erenn, .i. Ragnall rí Dubgall, & na da iarla, .i. Ottir & Graggabai & sagaith dóoib iar sin co firu Alban. Fir Alban dono ara cenn-somh co comairnechtar for bru Tine la Saxanu Tuaiscirt. Do-gensat in genti cethrai catha dibh, .i. cath la Gothbrith ua n-Imair; cath lasna da iarla; cath lasna h-óc-tigerna. Cath dano la Raghnall i n-eroloch nad-acadur fir Alban. Roinis re feraibh Alban forsna tri catha ad-conncadur co rolsat ár n-dimar dina genntibh im Ottir & im Graggabai. Raghnall dono do-fuabairt iar suidhiu i l-lorg fer n-Alban coro la ar dibh acht nad-farcbath ri na mor-móer di suidibh. Nox prelium dirimit.

The foreigners of Loch dá Chaech, i.e. Ragnall, king of the dark foreigners, and the two jarls, Oitir and Gragabai, forsook Ireland and proceeded afterwards against the men of Scotland. The men of Scotland, moreover, moved against them and they met on the bank of the Tyne in northern Saxonland. The heathens formed themselves into four battalions: a battalion with Gothfrith grandson of Ímar, a battalion with the two jarls, and a battalion with the young lords. There was also a battalion in ambush with Ragnall, which the men of Scotland did not see. The Scotsmen routed the three battalions which they saw, and made a very great slaughter of the heathens, including Oitir and Gragabai. Ragnall, however, then attacked in the rear of the Scotsmen, and made a slaughter of them, although none of their kings or earls was cut off. Nightfall caused the battle to be broken off.

AU 919

The heathens won a battle against the Irish at Duiblinn in which fell Niall Glúndub son of Aed, king of Ireland, in the third year of his reign, on the fourth feria, the eighteenth of the Kalends of October 14 Sept., and here fell also Aed son of Eochucán, king of Conchobor's Province, and Mael Mithig son of Flannacán, king of Brega, and Conchobor grandson of Mael Sechnaill, heir designate or king of Temair, and Flaithbertach son of Domnall, heir designate of the North, and the son of Dub Sínaig, i.e. Mael Craibe, king of Airgialla, and many other nobles.—The battle of Áth Cliath won by the foreigners.

AU 921

Mael Sechnaill grandson of Flann, heir designate of Temair, Fiachra son of Cathalán, king of Caille Fallamhain, and Ragnall grandson of Ímar, king of the fair foreigners and the dark foreigners—all died.

AU 924

Foreigners went on Loch Cuan (Strangford Lough) and Mael Dúin son of Aed, heir designate of the Province, fell by them. A great new fleet of the foreigners foundered at Fertas Rudraige, and nine hundred or more were drowned.

AU 926

The fleet of Loch Cuan, i.e. under Alpthann son of Gothfrith, landed at Linn Duachaill on the day before the Nones 4th of September.

Note: Lin Duachaill is the name of the Viking longport near the village of Annagassan, County Louth, which was built in 841. It was built at the same time as the settlement of Dubh Linn or Dublin.

AU 926

Muirchertach son of Niall inflicted a rout at the bridge of Cluain na Cruimther on the fifth feria, the fifth of the Kalends of January 28 Dec., in which fell Alpthann son of Gothfrith, with a great destruction of his army. Half of them were besieged for a week at Áth Cruithne, until Gothfrith, king of the foreigners, came from Áth Cliath to relieve them.

AU 927

The fleet of Linn Duachaill departed and Gothfrith abandoned Áth Cliath; and Gothfrith returned again within six months.

CS 928

Donnchadh, son of Domnall, heir designate of the North, was killed by the Northmen.

FM 938

A victory was gained by the King of the Saxons over Constantine, son of Aedh; Anlaf, or Amhlaeibh, son of Sitric; and the Britons.

AU 938

Dubthach, successor of Column Cille and Adamnán, rested in peace.

FM 939

A fleet was conducted by Muircheartach son of Niall, and he carried off much plunder and booty from the Insi-Gall, after gaining victory and triumph.

AU 940

Flann daughter of Donnchad, queen of Ailech, dies.

CS 940

Lann daughter of Donnchad, queen of the king of Ailech, died.

CS 941

A fleet was brought by Muirchertach son of Niall, and he brought back plunder from Inse Alban.

CS 944

Guaire son of Maelecán, priest of Cluain, rested.

FM 950

A battle was gained by the foreigners over the men of Alba, the Britons and the Saxons, in which many were slain.

AU 952

Constantine son of Aed, king of Scotland, died.

CS 953

Mael Coluim son of Domnall, king of Alba, was killed by his own people.

AU 954

Mael Coluim son of Domnall, king of Scotland, was killed.

AU 954

Robartach, successor of Colum Cille and Adamnán, rested in Christ.

CS 954

Robartach, successor of Colum Cille, rested.

AU 959

Dub Dúin, successor of Colum Cille, died.

CS 959

Dub Dúin successor of Colum Cille rested.

FM 961

Fothadh, son of Bran, scribe and Bishop of Insi-Alban.

CS 962

Illulbh, king of Alba, dies.

AU 964

Dub Scúile son of Cinaed, successor of Colum Cille, rested.

CS 964

Dub Scuile son of Cinaed, successor of Colum Cille, rested.

AU 965

A battle between the men of Scotland themselves in which many were killed, including Donnchad, i.e. the abbot of Dún Caillen.

Note: in the Poppleton MSS, a battle is recorded between Niger (Dub) son of Malcolm and Caniculum (Cuilen) on Dorsum Crup in which Niger had the victory and where Dunchad, abbot of Dunkeld, and Dubdon, satrapas of Athochlach (Athol) were slain ...

AU 966

Mael Muire, daughter of Niall son of Aed, died.

Note: Niall son of Aed, king of Ailech, who became king of Tara in 916.

CS 966

Fingin, bishop of the community of Ia, rested.

AU 967

Dub son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, was killed by the Scots themselves.

AU 971

Cuilén son of Illulb, king of Scotland, was killed by the Welsh in a battle-rout.

CS 971

Cuilén son of Illulb, king of Alba, was killed by the Welsh in a burning house.

The Annals of Tignerach recommence again in 974.

AT 975

Edgar king of England a religious king died.

AT 975

Domhnall son of Eoan, king of Wales (Strathclyde), rested in pilgrimage.

AU 975

Domnall son of Eógan, king of the Britons, died.

CS 975

Domnall son of Eogan, king of Britain, rested in clerical life.

AT 976

Cellach mac Fíndgaine, Cellach mac Bairedha, Donnchadh mac Morgaínd, tri mormair Alban, and sin.

Ceallach son of Fionnguine, Ceallach son of Bairid, and Donnchadh son of Morgand, three high stewards of Scotland, were therein.

AU 977

Amhlaim m. Ailuilbh, .i. ri Alban, do marbad la Cinaedh m. n-Domnaill.

Amlaíb son of Ollulb, i.e. King of Scotland, was killed by Cinaed son of Domnall.

AT 977

Amlaim mac Illuilb, rí Alban, do marbadh la Cinaeth mac Mail Cholaim.

Amhlaoibh son of Indulf, king of Scotland, was killed by Cinaeth son of Maelcoluim.

CS 977

Amlaoibh mac Illuilbh ri Alban do marbadh la Cinaodh mac Maoilcoluim r.alban.

Amlaíb son of Illulbh, king of Alba, was killed by Cinaedh son of Mael Coluim.

CS 980

Mugrón, abbot of Ia, a scribe and bishop, rested.

AT 980

Amhlaoimh son of Sitric, high-king over the Foreigners of Dublin, went to Iona in repentance and in pilgrimage after the battle and there died.

CS 980

Amlaíb son of Sitric, over-king of the foreigners of Áth Cliath, went in exile to Ia, and died after communion and repentance.

AU 986

The Danes arrived on the coast of Dál Riata, that is, with three ships, and seven score of them were executed and others sold.

AU 987

Beidgdibudh mor coro la ár doeine & indeli i Saxanaibh & Bretnaibh & Goidhelaibh.

A great outbreak of St Vitus' Dance, and it caused death to a large number of people and cattle among the Saxons and Welsh and Irish.

AU 989

Gofraidh m. Arailt, ri Innsi Gall, do marbad i n-Dal Riatai.

Gothfrith son of Aralt, king of Inse Gall, was killed in Dál Riata.

AT 989

Godfrey son of Harald, king of the Hebrides, fell by the Dál Riada.

CS 989

Gothfrith son of Aralt, king of Inse Gall, fell by the Dál Riata.

AU 995

Cinaed son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, was deceitfully killed.

AT 995

Cinaeth son of Mael Colaim, king of Scotland, was killed by his own people.

CS 995

Cinaedh son of Mael Coluim was killed by his own people.

AI 995

Death of Cinaed son of Mael Coluim, high-king of Alba.

AT 997

A battle between the Scots, in which fell Constantine son of Culannan, king of Scotland, and many others.

CS 997

A battle among the Scots and Constantin, king of Alba, was killed i.e. the son of Cuilennán, and others.

Note: This battle is not mentioned in the Annals of Ireland.

AU 997

Mael Coluim son of Domnall, king of the northern Britons, dies.

CS 997

Mael Coluim son of Domnall, king of north Britain, dies.





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