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Gall Gaedhil and Scots in Ireland

1154-1300


1154.11
A fleet was brought by Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair on the sea, round Ireland northwards, i.e. the fleets of Dun-Gaillmhe, of Conmhaicne-mara, of the men of Umhall, of Ui-Amhalghadha, and Ui-Fiachrach, and the Cosnamhaigh Ua Dubhda in command over them; and they plundered Tir-Conaill and Inis-Eoghain. The Cinel-Eoghain and Muircheartach, son of Niall, sent persons over sea to hire (and who did hire) the fleets of the Gall-Gaeidhil, of Ara, of Ceann-tire, of Manainn, and the borders of Alba in general, over which Mac Scelling was in command; and when they arrived near Inis-Eoghain, they fell in with the other fleet, and a naval battle was fiercely and spiritedly fought between them; and they continued the conflict from the beginning of the day till evening, and a great number of the Connaughtmen, together with Cosnamhaigh Ua Dubhda, were slain by the foreigners. The foreign host was however defeated and slaughtered; they left their ships behind, and the teeth of Mac Scelling were knocked out.
[Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters translated by John O’Donovan]

1164.2
Select members of the Community of Ia, namely, the arch-priest, Augustin and the lector (that is, Dubsidhe) and the Eremite, Mac Gilla-duib and the Head of the Celi-De, namely, Mac Forcellaigh and select members of the Community of Ia besides came on behalf of the successor of Colum-cille, namely, Flaithbertach Ua Brolchain's acceptance of the abbacy of Ia, by advice of Somharlidh and of the Men of Airthir-Gaedhel and of Insi-Gall; but the successor of Patrick and the king of Ireland, that is, Ua Lochlainn and the nobles of Cenel-Eogain prevented him.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

1164.4
Somharlidh Mac Gilla-Adhamhnain and his son were killed and slaughter of the Men of Airthir-Gaedhel and of Cenn-tire and of the men of Insi-Gall and of the Foreigners of Ath-cliath [took place] around him.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

1165.8
Mael-Coluim Great-head, son of Henry, arch-king of Scotland, the best Christian that was of the Gaidhil [who dwell] by the sea on the east for almsdeeds, hospitality and piety, died.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

1169.3
This was the year in which Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair, King of Ireland, granted ten cows every year from himself, and from every king that should succeed him, forever, to the lector of Ard-Macha, in honour of Patrick, to instruct the youths of Ireland and Alba (Scotland) in literature.
[Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters translated by John O’Donovan]

1200.6
Rollant, mac Uchtraigh, rí Gall Gaidhel, in pace quieuit.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

Note: Roland, son of Uchtrach, king of the Foreign-Gael, rested in peace.

1203.3
A monastery was erected by Kellagh without any legal right, and in despite of the family of Iona, in the middle of Iona, and did considerable damage to the town. The clergy of the north of Ireland assembled together to pass over into Iona, namely, Florence O'Carolan, Bishop of Tyrone i.e. of Derry; Maelisa O'Deery, Bishop of Tirconnell Raphoe, and Abbot of the church of SS. Peter end Paul at Armagh; Awley O'Fergahail, Abbot of the regles of Derry Ainmire O'Coffey; with many of the family clergy of Derry, besides numbers of the clergy of the north of Ireland. They passed over into Iona; and, in accordance with the law of the Church, they pulled down the aforesaid monastery; and the aforesaid Awley was elected Abbot of Iona by the suffrages of the Galls and Gaels.
[Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters translated by John O’Donovan]

1204.4
A monastery was built by Cellach, abbot of Iona in the centre of the encolsure of Iona, without any right, in dishonour of the Community of Iona, so that he wrecked the place greatly. A hosting, however, was made by the clergy of Ireland, namely, by Florence Ua Cerballain, bishop of Tir-Eogain and by Mael-Isu Ua Dorig, that is, bishop of Tir-Conaill and by the Abbot of the Monastery of Paul and Peter in Ard-Macha and by Amalgaidh Ua Fergail, abbot of the Monastery of Doire and by Ainmire Ua Cobhthaigh and a large number of the Community of Doire and a large number of the clergy of the North, so that they razed the monastery, according to the law of the Church. That Amalgaidh aforesaid took the abbacy of Iona by selection of Foreigners and Gaidhil.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

1205.5
A fleet was brought by John de Curci from Innsi-Gall, to contest Uladh with the sons of Hugo de Laci and the Foreigners of Midhe. No good resulted from this expedition, however; but the country was destroyed and plundered; and they afterwards departed without obtaining power.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1205.6
John made his covenant and amity with O'Neill and the Cenel-Eoghain.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1209.2
A battle was fought by the sons of Raghnall, mac Somurlech, against the men of Sciadh (Skye), wherein slaughter was inflicted upon them.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

1208.6
A battle was gained by the son of Raghnall, son of Somhairle, over the men of Sciadh, in which a countless multitude were slain.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1210.11
When O'Conchobhair arrived at his own place, the counsel which he, and his wife, and his people adopted was, not to take the son to the king, although this was the worst counsel. However, when O'Conchobhair went to the king of the Saxons, and did not take his son with him, Diarmaid, son of Conchobhar Mac Diarmada, king of Magh-Luirg, and Conchobhar O'hEghra, king of Luighne of Connacht, and Find O'Carmacan, a man of trust to O'Conchobhair, and Toirberd, son of a Gall-Gaeidhel, one of O’Conchobhair’s stewards, were apprehended by the king of the Saxons.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1211.5
The hostages of Connacht arrived in Erinn, viz.:—Diarmaid, son of Conchobhar Mac Diarmada, king of Magh-Luirg, and Conchobhar O'hEghra, king of Luighne, and Find O'Carmacan, and Toirbherd son of a Gall-Gaeidhel.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1211.3
The hostages of Connacht came back to Ireland: namely, Diarmaid, son of Conchubhar Mac Diarmata, Conchubhar Ua Eaghra and Finn Ua Carmacan and Toibeard, son of a Foreign-Gaidhel (mac Gall Gaoidhil).
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

Note: Toibeard is probably Roibeard, Gaelic for Robert, and is Hrodebert in Norse.

-------------------------------------------------

June-May, 1212
Letter by John Bishop of Norwich to the King. Alan de Galweia (Galloway) had sent to the Bishop in Ireland, Alan's uncle, another knight and a clerk to receive the lands which the King had there granted to Alan. The Bishop having called before him at Carrickfergus the knights and the better and more prudent men of the province, delivered to Alan on the King's behalf 140 fees, that is to say, all Dalreth', the Isle of Rathlin, the cantred of Kymlalmerath, the lands of Gweskard' and of Lathern', the cantreds of Kunnoch and Tirkehik' beyond the Ban, excepting 20 fees nearest to the castle of Kilsantan', 10 on this side of, and 10 beyond the Ban, which the Bishop retains for the custody of that castle; excepting also ecclesiastical rights and all things belonging to ecclesiastics, lands given by the King to Duncan de Karrach, and all fees whereof others had previously been enfeoffed. The lands had been so assigned to Alan on condition that if they contain more fees than had been given to him, the surplusage shall revert to the King, or Alan shall seek the King's pleasure thereon; and if he shall not have had his full complement, the Bishop is to supply the deficiency in the nearest locality beyond the Ban.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 70, No. 427]

1212.4
Thomas, mac Uchtrach* with the sons of Raghnall, mac Somarle, came to Daire of St. Colum-cille with six and seventy ships and the town was greatly destroyed by them and Inis-Eogain was completely destroyed by them and by the Cenel-Conaill.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

* Gaelic = “Tomas mac Uchtraigh”. Thomas was the son of Roland son of Uchtred.

June 27, 1213
Mandate to the justiciary of Ireland to cause Robert Fitz Serlon to have an exchange for his land which the K. has given to the nephew of Duncan de Karrek. Beer Regis.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 75, No. 461]

July 15, 1213
Grant to Alan Fitz Roland de Galwea (Galloway) of the forest within the land which the King gave to him in Ireland, and of the fairs and markets belonging to that land. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, P. Bishop of Winchester, J. Bishop of Norwich, and others. Corfe.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 75, No. 463]

July 24, 1213
Grant to Thomas de Galweia (Galloway), Earl de Athull, of that part of the vill of Derekoneull which belonged to O'Neal [que fuit O'Nelis] in Kenlion, besides the cantred of Talachot retained in the K.'s hand, and the land which the K. gave to Alan of Galloway, brother of Thomas; to hold of the K. in fee, by the service of 3 knights. Witnesses, Henry Archbishop of Dublin, J. Bishop of Norwich, and others. Corfe.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 76, No. 468]

July 28, 1213
Grant in fee to Thomas Fitz Roilland, of Galloway, of 3 knights fees on this side of the Ban, and of 3 knights fees beyond that river, retained in the King's hand when the King gave his land to Alan of Galloway, brother of Thomas; to hold of the King in fee. Witnessed by Henry Archbishop of Dublin, P. Bishop of Winchester, William Earl de Ferrers, and others.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 76, No. 474]

1214.2
Thomas mac Uchtrach and Ruaidhri mac Raghnall, plundered Daire completely and took the treasures of the Community of Daire and of the North of Ireland besides from out the midst of the church of the Monastery.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

1214.5
The castle of Cuil-rathain was built by Thomas mac Uchtrach and by the Foreigners of Ulidia. And all the cemeteries and fences and buildings of the town, save the church alone, were pulled down for that.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

1214.6
The King of Scotland died, namely, William Garm.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

April 2, 1215
The King commands Henry Archbishop of Dublin, justiciary of Ireland, to allow the men of Alan de Galloway to go into Ireland and return with the ship which Alan took at Kirkudbright; and to permit Alan to have his merchandise on board the ship until its owner shall have come to the K. and communicated with the justiciary. Lichfield.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 85, No. 545]

June 27, 1215
Grant to Thomas de Galweya (Galloway), Earl of Athole [Atholmensis], of the following lands, namely:—Killesantan, with the castle of Culrath; 10 knights fees in Twescart, near that castle, on the Ban; on the other side of the Ban 10 knights fees in Kenact, near the castle; Duncathel; with all Twerth' and Clinkinmolan; to hold of the King in fee by the service of 2 knights. Witnessed by Henry Archbishop of Dublin, William Earl of Salisbury, Earl William Marshall, Geoffrey Luterel, Geoffrey cle Marisco, Roger Pipard, Richard de Burgh, Ralph Petit. Winchester.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 88, No. 565]

June 30, 1215
The King commands his justiciary of Ireland to deliver to Thomas de Galloway the King's castle of Antrum, to be held in his custody during pleasure. Winchester.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 88, No. 567]

1215.8
Trad O'Maelfhabhuill, chieftain of Cenel-Ferghusa, with a great slaughter of his brethren along with him, was killed by Muiredhach, son of the Great Steward of Lemhain.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1215.4
Trad O'Mulfavill, Chief of Kinel-Fergusa, with his brothers, and a great number of people who were with them, were slain by Murray, the son of the Great Steward of Lennox.
[Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters translated by John O’Donovan]

1216.4
Trad Ua Mailfhabhaill, chief of Cenel-Ferghusa, along with his kinsmen and with great havoc, was killed by Muiredach, son of the Great Steward of Lemhain.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

October 19, 1219
The King to Geoffrey de Marisco, justiciary of Ireland. Has inspected the charters by which King John gave to Duncan Fitz Gilbert 50 carucates of land in Wulvricheford, Inverth, and Glinarn; and to John Fitz Alexander, 5 carucates of land in Maghalin, whereof the justiciary disseised them, believing that they went against King John and the K. in the war, whereas they have faithfully served both. Mandate that seisin be given to them of those lands. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 135, no. 907]

June 19, 1219
Mandate to the justiciary of Ireland to permit Thomas de Galweia (Galloway), who has done homage, to hold in peace, according to his charters, all the lands in Ireland given to him by King John. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 131, No. 879]

April 18, 1220
The King to Alan de Galweia (Galloway). Hamo de Galloway, clerk, has come to the King and Council on behalf of Alan, praying the restoration of his lands, and asserting that he was ready to do homage and give a charter of faithful service. The King complies with the petition, orders the lands in Ireland given to Alan by King John to be restored, and commands the justiciary of Ireland to give seisin thereof to Alan or his emissary. Alexander King of Scotland, and part of his Council, will meet the King and part of his Council at York, to make a treaty on matters touching the kingdoms of England and Scotland. The King commands Alan to come thither to render homage and a charter as above. The King will do what of right he ought to do regarding Alan's lands in England. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 142, No. 936]

April 18, 1220
The King to Geoffrey de Marisco, justiciary of Ireland. Alan de Galloway will come to the King to render homage, and a charter of faithful service, provided the land which he ought to hold off the King in Ireland be restored to him. Mandate to the justiciary to give him or his emissary seisin of all the lands in Ireland granted and confirmed to him by King John. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 142, No. 937]

June 16, 1220
The King to Geoffrey de Marisco, justiciary of Ireland. Alan de Galloway has come to the King and rendered fealty. Mandate to the justiciary to cause Alan to have seisin of the following lands given and confirmed to him by the charter of King John, which the King has inspected. All the land between Inverarma and the boundaries of Dalrede, saving to Duncan Fitz Gilbert 2 carucates and 8 acres of land given to by him King John; all Crihenelanmerach by its right boundaries; all Dalrede by its right boundaries with the Island of Rachrun; all Thoskart; saving to the King the castle of Kirkesantan, with 10 knights fees near the castle; all the land of Kennacht, and all the land of Tirkethin by its right boundaries; saving to the King and his heirs 10 knights fees on the Ban, within the said land of Kennacht. York.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 142, No. 942]

1220
Dermot, the son of Roderic (who was son of Turlough More O'Conor), was slain by Thomas Mac Uchtry, as he was coming from the Insi Gall (Hebrides), after having there collected a fleet, for the purpose of acquiring the kingdom of Connaught. Mulrony O'Dowda was drowned on the same expedition.
[Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters translated by John O’Donovan]

February 15, 1221
Mandate to the justiciary of Ireland to permit the monks of the order of Vaudey [de Valle Dei], dwelling at Kyr [? Kircudbright] in Galloway to purchase in Ireland for 5 years, corn, flour, and other provisions for themselves and their house. Bytham.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875),p. 150, No. 982]

1221.7
Diarmaid, son of Ruaidhri, son of Toirdhelbhach Mór O'Conchobhair, was slain by Thomas Mac Uchtraigh as he was coming from Insi-Gall, whilst collecting a fleet for the purpose of acquiring the sovereignty of Connacht; and this was a great pity, viz.:—the materies of a king of Erinn to fall so before his time.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

July 18, 1222
Mandate to Thomas of Galweia [Galloway] to deliver the castle of Antrum [Antrim] to Henry Archbishop of Dublin, justiciary. Tower of London.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 160, No. 1044]

July 18, 1223
Mandate to Thomas de Galweia [Galloway], Earl de Athel, that if in Ireland he carefully guard the castle of Antrum [Antrim] against the raids of Hugh de Lascy; mandate if he is not in Ireland that he repair thither to guard the castle; and if he does not do so, the King commands the Archbishop of Dublin to take it into the King's hand and deliver it to William de Serland, seneschal of Ulster, to be safely kept during pleasure to the King's use. Gloucester.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 171, No. 1126]

July 18, 1223
Mandate to Thomas de Galweia [Galloway], Earl of Athol, to deliver the castle of Antrum [Antrim] to the Archbishop of Dublin, justiciary, to whom the King has committed the custody of it during pleasure. Gloucester.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 171, No. 1127]

March 2, 1224
The K. commands the justiciary of Ireland to deliver to Duncan de Kerric the portion which remains to be delivered of the land given to him by King John in Ireland, unless this portion shall have been conferred on another person by order of King John or of the K. Marlborough.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 177, No. 1161]

August 4, 1224
The K. to William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, justiciary of Ireland. King John, by his charter, conferred on Duncan de Carric, land in Ulster called Balgeithelauh; Hugh de Lascy disseised him of that land, and conferred it on another. Mandate that the justiciary inquire who holds the land, and by what services; if the holder has no sufficient warrant, the justiciary shall take the land into the K.'s hand and commit it to Duncan to hold during pleasure. The justiciary shall also certify to the K. the inquisition held thereupon. Bedford.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 182, No. 1200]

August 4, 1224
Duncan de Carric to King Henry III. Thanks the King for the mandate directed to the justiciary of Ireland restoring Duncan's land. The mandate not having been executed, prays that the justiciary may be commanded in stronger terms to restore that land.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 182, No. 1201]

Oct and Nov, 1224
[Alan, son of] Roland [de Galloway], constable of Scotland, to the King, relative to his expedition into Ireland, and the conclusion of peace between Lord William Marshall and Hugh de Lacy. Begs that the King will grant confirmation of the lands given to himself and his brother, the Earl of Athol, by King John.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 185, no. 1218]

Oct or Nov, 1224
Thomas de Galweia [Galloway], Earl of Athol, to R. [blank] Bishop of Chichester. Peace had been concluded between William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, and Hugh de Lacy, and the latter had been brought under safe conduct to the King. His and his brother's lands and a castle in Ulster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 186, No. 1219]

April 14, 1225
Mandate to Earl Marshall, justiciary of Ireland, to permit Alan de Galweya [Galloway] to fortify and fence the land which he has of the gift of King John in Ireland Protection for him. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 189, No. 1247]

April 15, 1225
Mandate to the justiciary of Ireland in favour of Alan de Galloway, similar to that of April 14 in this year.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 189, no. 1248]

December 11, 1225
Grant to Thomas de Galweye [Galloway], Earl of Atlon', of 100 marks, receivable at the Exchequer, Dublin, until an escheat of the value of 100 marks shall be provided for him. Mandate to William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, to cause him to have the 100 marks. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 201, No. 1334]

May 10, 1226
Licence for the Abbot of Glenluce to buy wheat in Ireland and convey it to Galloway for the maintenance of his house; letters to the justiciary of Ireland and other bailiffs not to impede the Abbot. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 207, No. 1370]

May 10, 1226
Licence for the Abbot of Glenluce to buy wheat in Ireland and convey it to Galloway for the maintenance of his house; letters to the justiciary of Ireland and other bailiffs not to impede the Abbot. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 207, No. 1370]

May 12, 1226
The King notifies to William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, justiciary of Ireland, that he commits to Walter de Lascy the custody of the castles of Carrickfergus, Antrum [Antrim], and Rath', and all the land which Hugh de Lascy held in Ulster; the custody to be maintained for 3 years out of the issues of the land. The King further commits to Walter all the lands which Hugh held of Walter's fee, with the castles of Rathour' and Le Nober, which he had in marriage with Leceline his wife, of the fee of Nicholas de Verdun, and the castle of Carlingeford committed during pleasure for 3 years to Hugh aforesaid. Walter, or Gilbert his son and heir, shall restore those lands and castles to the K. at the end of the 3 years, unless meanwhile Hugh shall obtain of the King's grace their restoration to himself. Mandate for seisin of the lands and castles, saving the seisins of Alan and Thomas de Galweya [Galloway], William and Geoffrey de Serland, Francis de Bresne, and the seisins of others to whom King John granted the lands. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 207, No. 1371]

January 5, 1227
The King to Geoffrey de Mariscis, justiciary of Ireland. Thomas de Galweia [Galloway], having lately come to the King in England, stating that he had spent much money in maintaining the King's war in Ireland, and that he was greatly impoverished thereby, the King granted him 100 marks a year, whereof no payment has been made for Easter and Michaelmas last past. The King being in great want of money to carry on his affairs both in England and in Ireland, commands the justiciary to make what arrangement he can with Thomas. Woodstock.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 223, No. 1473]

Note: Thomas de Galloway, Earl of Athol, was killed in 1231 apparently by Patrick son of Constantine of Goswick, knight of the earl of Dunbar, in a tournament accident. He was buried at Coupar Abbey. Patrick was eventually pardoned by Henry III for Thomas’s death.

July 23, 1227
Licence till Easter, a. r. 13 Henry III., for 'the Abbot of Glenluce to purchase wheat in Ireland and convey it to Galloway for the maintenance of his house. Mandate thereupon to the justiciary and the K.'s bailiffs in Ireland. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 231, no. 1532]

February 11, 1232
Licence for Alan de Galweye [Galloway] to send his ship to Ireland to purchase provisions. Safe conduct for the ship till Michaelmas ensuing. Lambeth.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 287, 1937]

1234
Aillin, Mac Uchtrach, king of the Foreign Gaidhil, died.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

Note: Alan was the son of Roland son of Uchtred.

1234
Alan, the son of Roland, lord of Galloway, and constable of Scotland, died, and was buried at Dundraynan, leaving behind him three daughters, his heirs, and one base-born son (Thomas), who during the life time of his father, had married the daughter of the King of Man. His (Alan) daughters were thus married: the eldest married Roger de Quincy, earl of Winchester; the second, John de Baylol; the husband of the third was the son of this earl of Albermarle. Amongst them was divided the land of this earl Alan. But the inhabitants of that land, preferring one master rather than several, went to our lord the king, with the request that he himself would accept the lordship of that inheritance; but the king was too just to do this. Hereupon the Galwegians were angry above measure, and prepared for war; moreover, they devastated with fire and sword some of the royal lands contiguous to themselves; an action which afterwards redounded to their own loss, as well presently appear.
[Stevenson, Joseph (ed & trans): The Chronicle of Melrose (Lampeter, 1991), p.60]

1235
In this year, on the Sunday next before the feast of the blessed Mary Magdalene (15th July), our lord the king collected an army, and entered into Galloway. Having reached a spot which appeared at first sight to be convenient for the purpose, he determined that he would there pitch his tents, for the day was now drawing towards the evening. The Galwegians, however, (who had all day long been lurking among the mountains), knew the place better; and trusting to their local acquaintance with its difficulties, they offered the king battle. In truth, the spot was filled with bogs, which were covered all over with grass and flowers, amongst which the larger portion of the royal army had involved itself. At the beginning of the battle, the earl of Ross, named Makinsagat (Farquhar), came up, and attacked the enemies in the rear; and soon as they perceived this, they were followed up by the earl and several others, who put many of them to the sword, and harassed them as long as the daylight lasted.

On the next day the king, acting upon his accustomed humanity, extended his peace to as many as came to him; and so the surviving Galwegians, with ropes round their necks, accepted his offer. The bastard T[homas], (whom we have already mentioned), and Gilrodh, who incited him to his rebellion, went over to Ireland.

When the Scots heard that this G[ilrodh] had returned from Ireland, bringing with him a fleet and a body of the Irish, together with the son of one of their chieftains, they, in the midst of their hasty flight, arrived at a place of water, in which many of them perished by means of that accursed army. But when this G[ilrodh] returned from Ireland, no sooner did he reach the land, than he directed that every ship should be broken up; using this device, to prevent any one of those whom he had brought with him from returning home again.

As soon as these tidings reached G[ilbert], bishop of Galloway, A[dam], abbot of Melrose, and P[atrick], earl of Dunbar, they did not fail to extend to the son (Thomas), though degenerating, the friendship in which they had held the father while living. The bishop and abbot proceeded to the district of Galloway unattended, but the earl was accompanied with his troops; and they informed this G[ilrodh] that he must either make his submission to the king, or engage the earl’s army in battle. Perceiving his inferiority in numbers, G[ilrodh] followed their advise, and the king placed him for some time in the custody of the earl already mentioned. Being thus deprived of all counsel and assistance, the bastard was enforced to sue for the king’s peace. He was imprisoned for a short time in Edinburgh Castle, and then the king gave him his freedom. After this the Irish secretly departed from the country; and as they were passing by the town of Glasgow, they were discovered by the citizens, who unanimously sallied forth, and cut off the heads of as many as they could lay hands upon. They saved two of the oldest of the party, who they afterwards caused to be drawn by horses to Edinburgh.
[Stevenson, Joseph (ed & trans): The Chronicle of Melrose (Lampeter, 1991), p.61-62]

Note: Gilbert, bishop of Galloway, was previously abbot of Glenluce.

1242
Patrick, earl of Athol, the son of Thomas of Galloway, who was also the earl of Athol, a most excellent youth, and (as far as man can judge) adorned with all the courtly widom and politeness, was wickedly murdered. Alas! That we should have to tell it, along with two of his companions, in his own residence, at Haddington, after he had gone to rest for the night; and this was done by some wicked wretches. To conceal the extent of the crime, the house in which they were lying was burnt down, that it might appear that they had perished accidentally in the conflagration, and not by murder. But He who bringeth to light the hidden things of darkness, revealed publicly what these evil person had done private, as will appear in the following narrative. After his death, David Hasting took his earldom, which devolved to him in right of his wife, who was the aunt by the mother’s side of the murdered youth.
[Stevenson, Joseph (ed & trans): The Chronicle of Melrose (Lampeter, 1991), p.68]

1243
John Biseth, and his uncle Walter, and others their accomplices were outlawed, because (as fame reported) this John had murdered Patrick de Athol at the instigation of the William already mentioned above.
[Stevenson, Joseph (ed & trans): The Chronicle of Melrose (Lampeter, 1991), p.68]

May 1, 1246
Mandate to John Fitz Geoffrey, justiciary of Ireland, to permit the men of the Bishop of Galloway [Galawathensis], suffragan of the Archbishop of York, to purchase in Ireland wines and other necessaries, and to convey 2 ship-loads of them to Galloway for the Bishop's maintenance and that of his retinue. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1171-1251 (London, 1875), p. 423, No. 2830]

January 30, 1252
The King at the instance of Margaret Queen of Scots, the King's daughter, pardons to Alan Fitz Thomas, Earl of Athell [Athol], in Scotland, his transgression in killing some men of John Biset in Ireland in a conflict between them, and in taking at the siege of the castle of Dunaverdum from merchants of Ireland 6 hogsheads of wine and some wheat, whereof he was indicted. Woodstock.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1252-1284 (London, 1877), p. 1, no. 2]

October 11, 1252
Licence to the Abbot and monks of Glenluce, in Galloway, to purchase in Ireland every year for 7 years a ship-load of wheat and to convey it to their house. Westminster.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1252-1284 (London, 1877), p. 15, no. 100]

October 20, 1252
King Henry III, at the instance of Alexander king of Scotland, has pardoned to Patrick son of Constantine of Goswick, the outlawry proclaimed against him for the death of Thomas de Galeweya (Galloway), whereof he is accused, and granted him his peace. Westminster. [Bain, Joseph: Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland 1108-1272 (Edinburgh, 1881), Vol. I, p. 354, no. 1894]

September 12, 1260
[The Lord] Edward commands his justiciary of Ireland, or his lieutenant, and the treasurer and chamberlain of his Exchequer, Dublin, to pay out of his treasure to Richard, the mayor, and to Thomas de Galweya (Galloway), 117s. 6d.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1252-1284 (London, 1877), p. 110, no. 682]


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Murchadh Mac Suibne (Murchadh son of Maelmuire son of Suibhne)

1265.2
Murchadh Mac Suibhne was taken prisoner by Domnall Mac Maghnusa and he was handed into the custody of the Earl de Burgh and he died in the prison.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

1265.15
Murchadh Mac Suibhne was apprehended by Domhnall, son of Maghnus, and surrendered into the hands of the Earl; and he died in the prison.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1267.2
Murchadh Mac Suibhne was apprehended by Domhnall, son of Maghnus O'Conchobhair, in Umhall, and was surrendered to Walter Burk, i.e. Earl of Ulster; and he died in the Earl's prison afterwards.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

Note: The first reference to the McSweeneys in Ireland.

1269.5
Benmhidhe, daughter of Toirdhelbhach, son of Ruaidhri, i.e. the wife of Maelmuire Mac Suibhne, quievit.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]


Donnell Oge, the son of Donnell Mor O'Donnell, king of Tir-conaill

The two wives of Donnell oge were both daughters of Scottish families. His first wife was daughter of the Mac Suibhne (Sweeney) and mother of his eldest son, Aedh. A sixteenth century history of the Clann Suibne identifies her as Catriona and her father Eoin as the nephew of the Murchadh Mac Suibhne. His second wife identified as the daughter of ‘MacDonald of the Isle’, presumably Angus Mor, the son of the Somerled’s grandson from whom the Clan Donald is named. By his second wife, Donnell had a son called Turlough, who expelled his elder brother in 1286.

1258.1
Geoffrey Ua Domnaill, king of Tir-Conaill, rested in Christ.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

1258.10
When O'Neill heard of the death of (Godfrey) O'Donnell, he again sent messengers to the Kinel-Connell, to demand hostages and submission from them. Hereupon the Kinel-Connell held a council, to deliberate on what they should do, and as to which of their own (petty) chiefs they would yield submission and obedience, as they had no certain lord since Godfrey died. Whilst they were engaged in such speeches, they saw approaching Donnell Oge, the son of Donnell More O'Donnell, a valiant youth, then eighteen years of age, who had arrived from Scotland, and the Kinel-Conell immediately conferred the chieftainship upon him. This they lawfully did, as he was their own legitimate and worthy lord. When the Kinel-Connell told him of the message which the emissaries of O'Neill had brought them, he deemed it extravagant and exorbitant. It was on this occasion he repeated the celebrated proverb, in the Albanian Gaelic, in which he conferred with the emissaries, namely, ‘That every man should have his own world.’ Similar to the coming of Tuathal Teachtmhar over the sea from Scotland, after the extirpation of the royal race of Ireland by the Attacots, was this coming of Donnell Oge, to consolidate the monarchy, to cement territories, and to defend his own country against foreigners, from the day on which he was installed in the lordship until the day of his death.
[Annals of the kingdom of Ireland by the Four Masters translated by John O’Donovan]

1278.2
The battle of Disert-da-crich was fought between Cenel-Conaill and Cenel-Eogain, where fell Domnall Ua Domnaill (by Aedh Ua Neill the Tawny and by Mac Martain); namely, the man to whom were subject Fir-Manach and Oirghialla and very great part of the Gaidhil of Connacht and Ulidia, save a little and all Fir-Breifne. The one Gaidhel that was best of hospitality and principality; the general guarantor of the West of Europe. And he was buried in the Monastery of the Friars in Doire of St. Colum-cille after gaining victory of every goodness. And these were the best that were killed there: namely, Maelruanaigh O'Baighill, chief of 'the Three Territories' and Eogan, son of Mail-Sechlainn Ua Domnaill and Cellach Ua Baighill, the one chief of his own time that was best of hospitality and bestowal and Gilla Mac Flannchadha, chief of Dartraighi and Domnall Mac Gille-Fhinnen, chief of Muinnter-Peodachain and Aindiles O'Baighill and Dubhghall, his son and Enna Ua Gairmleaghaidh, royal chief of the Cenel-Moein and Cormac, son of the Lector Ua Domnaill, chief of Fanat and Gilla-in-Choimdegh O'Maeladuin, king of Lurg and Carmac, son of Carmac Ua Domnaill and Gilla-na-noc Mac Calredocair and Mael-Sechlainn, son of Niall Ua Baighill and. Aindiles, son of Muircertach Ua Domnaill and Maghnus Mac Cuinn and Gilla-na-naem O'Eochagain and Muircertach Ua Flaithbertaich and Muircertach Mac-in-Ulltaigh and Flaithbertach Mag Buidhechain and many other persons of the sons of kings and chiefs and of men-at-arms that are not reckoned here.
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]


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1247.6
O'Domhnaill assembled the Cenel-Conaill and Cenel-Eoghain to meet him at Bel-atha-Senaigh, so that they allowed neither Foreigners nor Gaeidhel to cross the ford during the space of a whole week; when they determined that Cormac O'Conchobhair should go, with a large force of cavalry, eastwards along the plain, and then turn upwards through the plain by the margin of the bog; and he then proceeded eastwards along the river until he reached Ath-Chuil-uaine on the Erne. And the Cenel-Conaill observed nothing until they saw them approaching on their own side of the river. And when the Foreigners perceived the Cenel-Conaill watching the cavalry in their rear, they themselves rushed across the ford, so that the Cenel-Conaill were placed between both divisions. O'Domhnall was defeated, with his army; and Maelsechlainn O'Domhnaill, king of Cenel-Conaill, was slain there; and the Gilla-muinélach O'Baoidhill, and Mac Somhairle, king of Airer-Gaeidhel, and the nobles of the Cenel-Conaill besides, were slain. And many of Fitz-Gerald's army were drowned going northwards across the Finn; and many of the same army were slain at Termann-Dabheog, in pursuit of the preys, including William Brit, i.e. the sheriff of Connacht, and a young armed knight who was his brother. However, the entire country was afterwards devastated and plundered by them; and they left the sovereignty of Cenel-Conaill with Ruaidhri O'Canannain on this occasion.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1258.5
A great fleet came from Innsi-Gall with Mac Somhairle; and they passed round Erinn westwards to Conmaicne-Mara, where they robbed a merchant-vessel of all its goods, both wine and clothing, and copper and iron. The sheriff of Connacht, i.e. Jordan de Exeter, went on the sea, with a large fleet of Foreigners, after Mac Somhairle and the fleet that had robbed the merchant-vessel. Mac Somhairle was at this time on an island of the sea, having his vessels ashore; and when they saw the sheriff's fleet approaching them, Mac Somhairle put on his armour, and his dress of battle and combat; and his people then put on their armour along with him. As regards the sheriff, moreover, when he reached the island, he landed promptly, accompanied by all the Foreigners who were ready. However, the sheriff was attended and served by Mac Somhairle and his people; and the sheriff was immediately killed there, together with Piers Agabard, who was a brave knight of his people, and other good men along with them.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1258.6
The fleet of the Foreigners subsequently turned back, after their best men had been slain; and Mac Somhairle went afterwards exultingly, enriched with spoils, with the triumph of victory, to his own country.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1259.3
Aedh O'Conchobhair went to Doire-Choluim-Chille to espouse the daughter of Dubhgall Mac Somhairle; and he brought home eight score young men (óglaoch) with her, together with Ailin Mac Somhairle.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1268.12
Dubhgall Mac Ruaidhri, king of Innsi-Gall and Airer-Gaeidhel, quievit.
[Hennessy, W. M.: Annals of Loch Cé (London, 1871, reprinted Dublin, 1939)]

1286.5
Aedh Ua Domnaill was deposed by his own brother, namely, by Toirdhelbach Ua Domnaill, through the power of the tribe of his mother, namely, the Clann Domnaill (Mac Donnells of Scotland) and many other Gallowglasses (and he took the kingship to himself by force).
[Hennessy & Mac Carthy: Annal Ulada: Annals of Ulster A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540]

Note: This is the first reference to the term ‘Gallowglasses’.

August 13, 1291
Protection for the men of Robert de Brus, Earl of Carrick, in purchasing corn, wine, victuals, and other necessaries in Ireland, and in returning with them to Carrick. Mandate to the King's bailiffs of Ireland and Scotland to allow those articles to be purchased and conveyed to Scotland. Chatton.
[Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland 1285-1292 (London, 1879), p. 420, no. 945]




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