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 NOTTOWAY COUNTY, VIRGINIA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, July 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with the largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Nottoway County, Virginia (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 1393) reportedly includes a total of 6,468 slaves. This transcription includes 95 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Nottoway County, accounting for 4,311 slaves, or about 67% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 280 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Nottoway County, the number of slaves they held in the County, the Magisterial District where enumerated and the first page number on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the numbers rubber stamped in the upper right corner of every other page of the census, with the intervening pages being reported here with a B added to the number of the preceding page. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Virginia in 1860 there were 641 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 2,882 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber, though not specifically looking for such named slaves, did not notice any such information while doing this transcription, except for 100 year old female black “Silva Plaintain, Negro” held by James A. Scott on page 379B. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Nottoway County population included 2,270 whites, 98 “free colored” and 6,468 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had stayed about the same at 2,241, while the “colored” population had increased about 7 % to 7,050. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 8,664 whites, almost a four fold increase, while the 1960 total of 6,467 “Negroes”was about the same as what the colored population had been 100 years before.) In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber was not aware of any relevant changes to County boundaries.

 

Where did the freed slaves go if they did not stay in the same County? Between 1860 and 1870, the Virginia colored population declined by about 36,000, to approximately 513,000, a 6.5% decrease. Two Virginia Counties that showed a significant increase in colored population between 1860 and 1870 were Henrico, with an increase of over 7,000, and Norfolk, with an increase of over 10,000. States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore possible places of relocation for colored persons from Nottoway County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); Florida, up 29,000 (46%); North Carolina, up 38,000 (8%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

ATKINS, Wm., 43 slaves, District 4, page 380B

BASS, J. A., 28 slaves, District 4, page 382

BEVERLY, Robt. H., 45 slaves, District 2, page 356B

BLAND, G. C., 27 slaves, District 4, page 380B

BLAND, T. P., 46 slaves, District 4, page 374B

BLAND, Wm. R., 51 slaves, District 4, page 381

BOIVEAU?, Wm. P., 32 slaves, District 4, page 381B

BOOTH, E. G., 79 slaves, District 3, page 363

BORUM, Wm. A., 21 slaves, District 2, page 357B

BOULDIN?, Louis, 49 slaves, District 2, page 358B

BRIGGS, W. A., 51 slaves, District 2, page 354B

CAMPBELL, Dr. A. A., 36 slaves, District 1, page 342

CAMPBELL, Dr. A. C., 26 slaves, District 1, page 342B

CAMPBELL, M. E., 40 slaves, District 1, page 342

CAMPBELL, T. H., 28 slaves, District 1, page 346

CARTER, C. H., 53 slaves, District 1, page 346B

CLAY, Wm., 23 slaves, District 4, page 373B

COX, John L., 26 slaves, District 1, page 344B

CRALLE, G. T., 48 slaves, District 1, page 344

CRALLE?, Geo. A., 77 slaves, District 4, page 377B

DICKERSON, W. P, 36 slaves, District 1, page 344

DICKINSON, Thos., 139 slaves, District 4, page 376B

DYSON, Francis, 60 slaves, District 4, page 376

EPES, Col. T. H., 63 slaves, District 4, page 375

EPES, E. G., F. C. Williams for, 26 slaves, District 3, page 369B

EPES, F. W., 60 slaves, District 1, page 340

EPES, Francis, 27 slaves, District 4, page 380

EPES, R. S., 87 slaves, District 1, page 351

EPES, Samuel F., 78 slaves, District 1, page 344B

EPES, T. F., 79 slaves, District 4, page 374

FITZGERALD, B. W., 75 slaves, District 3, page 370

FITZGERALD, Francis, 53 slaves, District 4, page 375B

FITZGERALD, Geo., 35 slaves, District 1, page 352

FITZGERALD, John, 55 slaves, District 4, page 378

FITZGERALD, John in trust for 9 minors, 23 slaves, District 4, page 378

FITZGERALD, John in trust for 4 minors, 148 slaves, District 4, page 378B

FITZGERALD, M. & F., 82 slaves, District 1, page 341B

FOWLKES, L. B., 23 slaves, District 1, page 343B

FOWLKES, Parchal, 47 slaves, District 1, page 348

FOWLKES, T. A., 43 slaves, District 2, page 360B

GUY, Wm. W., 71 slaves, District 1, page 340B

HAMLIN, Thos., 29 slaves, District 1, page 349B

HARDAWAY, D. S. Est., J. S. Hardaway Executor for 6 minors, 38 slaves, District 1, page 351B

HARDAWAY, H. T., J. S. Hardaway Executor for 5 minors, 32 slaves, District 3, page 364

HARPER, Capt. W. J., 41 slaves, District 3, page 363B

HARPER, John, 20 slaves, District 2, page 358

HARPER, N. M., 21 slaves, District 4, page 374

HARRIS, Dr. Wm. J., 31 slaves, District 4, page 381B

HAWKES, A. H., 27 slaves, District 4, page 371

INGRAM?, Stith A., 28 slaves, District 1, page 343B

IRBY, R., 60 slaves, District 3, page 368B

IRBY, Wm. B., 45 slaves, District 1, page 341

JEFFRESS?, Col. Wm. C., 44 slaves, District 1, page 343

JEFFRESS?, Col. E. T., 94 slaves, District 1, page 346

JENNINGS, M. C., 47 slaves, District 1, page 349

JENNINGS, Martha, 25 slaves, District 1, page 348B

JENNINGS, R. P., 27 slaves, District 1, page 348B

JETER, Mary p., 42 slaves, District 1, page 350

JONES, Archer, 87 slaves, District 4, page 371B

JONES, B. D. M., 20 slaves, District 4, page 373

JONES, Ben C., 31 slaves, District 2, page 356

JONES, Cath___?, 43 slaves, District 2, page 361B

JONES, G. W., 37 slaves, District 2, page 354B

JUSTICE, D. M., 21 slaves, District 4, page 377

MARSHALL, R. O., 25 slaves, District 2, page 358

MILLER, A. P., 31 slaves, District 2, page 359B

NIBLETT?, R. N., 55 slaves, District 3, page 365B

NIGHT, S. E., 48 slaves, District 1, page 347

OLIVER, C. H., 50 slaves, District 1, page 343

OLIVER, Geo W., 36 slaves, District 1, page 340B

OLIVER, John B., 38 slaves, District 1, page 348

OVERTON, John, 20 slaves, District 2, page 359B

PONTON, Archiball, 21 slaves, District 1, page 349B

POWELL, John G., 31 slaves, District 3, page 366B

REAMS?, A. H., 22 slaves, District 3, page 363B

ROBERTSON, M. W., 38 slaves, District 2, page 361

SCOTT, James AS., 50 slaves, District 4, page 379B

SCOTT, P. S.?, 31 slaves, District 3, page 364B

SHORE, Dr. H. E., 126 slaves, District 4, page 372

SHORE, R. E., 21 slaves, District 4, page 382

SYDNOR, T. W., 21 slaves, District 3, page 366B

TAYLOR, James M., 42 slaves, District 1, page 347B

TODD, Judict?, 47 slaves, District 3, page 370B

TUGGLE, Dr. R. B., 50 slaves, District 1, page 342B

VAUGHAN, J. N., 32 slaves, District 2, page 361B

VAUGHAN, Jepy?, 40 slaves, District 1, page 352B

WARD, Robt. F., 28 slaves, District 2, page 357

WARD, Sallie F., 66 slaves, District 2, page 357

WARD, W. F., 96 slaves, District 2, page 355

WATSON, R. A> A., 22 slaves, District 2, page 359

WILLIAMS, Catherine C., 53 slaves, District 3, page 369B

WILLIAMS, F. C., 32 slaves, District 3, page 369

WILLIAMS, F. C. Guardian for 2 minors, 35 slaves, District 3, page 369

WILLIAMS, Martha B., 47 slaves, District 1, page 353

WINGO, Henry, 25 slaves, District 2, page 355B

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

ATKINS, 406, 49, 0, 90, 49, 0

BASS, 764, 44, 0, 76, 41, 0

BEVERLY, 225, 84, 3, 135, 83, 3

BLAND, 594, 221, 27, 296, 221, 27

BOIVEAU?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BOOTH, 361, 72, 5, 110, 72, 5

BORUM, 32, 14, 1, 113, 13, 1

BOULDIN?, 102, 61, 1, 73, 61, 1

BRIGGS, 600, 176, 1, 244, 172, 1

CAMPBELL, 2897, 314, 17, 542, 308, 17

CARTER, 7164, 1833, 27, 2810, 1810, 27

CLAY, 1465, 106, 4, 240, 104, 4

COX, 2288, 370, 5, 559, 355, 5

CRALLE, 46, 45, 25, 45, 45, 25

DICKERSON, 890, 217, 8, 284, 211, 8

DICKINSON, 425, 109, 0, 147, 105, 0

DYSON, 256, 31, 16, 53, 27, 16

EPES, 85, 73, 70, 78, 73, 70

FITZGERALD, 341, 131, 65, 157, 131, 65

FOWLKES, 132, 118, 58, 124, 118, 58

GUY, 334, 43, 1, 66, 41, 1

HAMLIN, 204, 66, 9, 98, 66, 9

HARDAWAY, 124, 19, 9, 40, 19, 9

HARPER, 1363, 113, 7, 207, 112, 7

HARRIS, 11315, 1877, 26, 2995, 1847, 26

HAWKES, 26, 26, 25, 26, 26, 25

INGRAM?, 653, 37, 8, 77, 37, 8

IRBY, 251, 45, 10, 73, 44, 9

JEFFRESS?, 98, 94, 19, 96, 94, 19

JENNINGS, 848, 177, 36, 242, 176, 36

JETER, 313, 96, 13, 104, 96, 13

JONES, 27193, 3894, 77, 6648, 3807, 77

JUSTICE, 108, 24, 0, 30, 23, 0

MARSHALL, 1756, 237, 3, 386, 231, 3

MILLER, 6577, 592, 19, 1082, 576, 19

NIBLETT?, 16, 3, 0, 6, 3, 0

NIGHT, 126, 9, 0, 15, 8, 0

OLIVER, 1482, 200, 83, 314, 194, 33

OVERTON, 383, 53, 0, 90, 49, 0

PONTON, 33, 8, 2, 8, 8, 2

POWELL, 2420, 278, 4, 481, 272, 4

REAMS?, 38, 1, 0, 3, 1, 0

ROBERTSON, 2878, 543, 19, 832, 535, 19

SCOTT, 8407, 1609, 39, 2560, 1588, 39

SHORE, 44, 8, 0, 13, 7, 0

SYDNOR, 109, 84, 0, 94, 84, 0

TAYLOR, 11696, 1887, 11, 3129, 1849, 11

TODD, 703, 56, 5, 120, 55, 5

TUGGLE, 93, 12, 4, 17, 12, 4

VAUGHAN, 480, 174, 20, 207, 174, 20

WARD, 2525, 248, 13, 457, 236, 13

WATSON, 3567, 415, 14, 759, 405, 14

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2184, 35, 4695, 2087, 35

WINGO, 38, 7, 3, 13, 7, 3

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