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 MECKLENBURG COUNTY, VIRGINIA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, August 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with the largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Mecklenburg County, Virginia (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 1394) reportedly includes a total of 12,420 slaves. This transcription includes 184 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Mecklenburg County, accounting for 7,853 slaves, or about 63% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 576 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Mecklenburg County, the number of slaves they held in the County and the first page number on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the numbers rubber stamped in the upper right corner of every other page of the census, with the intervening pages being reported here with a B added to the number of the preceding page. Holders shown here on page24 and earlier were listed as in the 22nd Regiment, holders here reported on pages 25B through 40B had the local district left blank, and holders reported here on pages 41 and above were listed as in the 98th Regiment. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Virginia in 1860 there were 641 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 2,882 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber, though not specifically looking for such named slaves, did not notice any such information while doing this transcription. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Mecklenburg County population included 6,778 whites, 898 “free colored” and 12,420 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased just under 6% to 7,162, while the “colored” population had increased just over 6 % to 14,156. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 16,717 whites, about a two and a half times increase, while the 1960 total of 14,703 “Negroes”was only about 10% more than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber was not aware of any relevant changes to County boundaries.

 

Where did the freed slaves go if they did not stay in the same County? Between 1860 and 1870, the Virginia colored population declined by about 36,000, to approximately 513,000, a 6.5% decrease. Two Virginia Counties that showed a significant increase in colored population between 1860 and 1870 were Henrico, with an increase of over 7,000, and Norfolk, with an increase of over 10,000. States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore possible places of relocation for colored persons from Mecklenburg County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); Florida, up 29,000 (46%); North Carolina, up 38,000 (8%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

ALEXANDER, James T., 37 slaves, page 67

ALEXANDER, Mark Sr., 163 slaves, page 66

ALEXANDER, Mark Jr., 60 slaves, page 51

ALEXANDER, Nathaniel, 54 slaves, page 75B

AVERETT, , G. P.?, 24 slaves, page 9

BACON, Col. Wm., 78 slaves, page 16

BASKERVILLE, Lucy, 53 slaves, page 52B

BASKERVILLE, Robert D., 57 slaves, page 53

BASKERVILLE, Wm. Jr., 119 slaves, page 53

BASKERVILLE, Wm. R., 136 slaves, page 50B

BENNETT, Joseph, 26 slaves, page 49B

BOBBITT?, R. B., 27 slaves, page 1

BOOKER, S. D., 44 slaves, page 23B

BOSWELL, Jos. Sr., 27 slaves, page 27B

BOSWELL, T. T., 32 slaves, page 2

BOWERS, James, 36 slaves, page 13B

BOYD, A. G., 62 slaves, page 46B

BOYD, Alfred, 28 slaves, page 60B

BOYD, Richard, 70 slaves, page 1B

BRUCE, Paschal, 48 slaves, page 48

BUGG, Richard D., 22 slaves, page 68B

BURTON (see also Finch & Burton)

BURTON, John, 23 slaves, page 31

BURWELL, George W., 20 slaves, page 62

BURWELL, John J. S. R., 51 slaves, page 16B

BURWELL, P. R., 41 slaves, page 26

BURWELL, T. G., Exr., 34 slaves, page 23

CANNON, Willis, 22 slaves, page 47

CARRINGTON, Ann E., 60 slaves, page 47B

CARRINGTON, T., 58 slaves, page 8B

CHAPPEL, Robert B., 42 slaves, page 64B

CLANTON, Frances, 22 slaves, page 48B

COCKREN?, O. H. P., 33 slaves, page 29B

COLEMAN, Henry E., 33 slaves, page 76B

COLEMAN, Wm. G> 20 slaves, page 57

COUCH, John S., 21 slaves, page 15

CRENSHAW, Elizabeth, 30 slaves, page 57

CRUTE?, Venable, 20 slaves, page 70

CUNNINGHAM, Mrs. Jane, 38 slaves, page 26

DALEY, James J., 40 slaves, page 60

DANIEL, J. J., 26 slaves, page 4

DAVIS, Martha E., 35 slaves, page 59

DAVIS, Mary A., 44 slaves, page 75

DAVIS?, J. J., 22 slaves, page 30

DEDMAN, Saml., 21 slaves, page 18

DUGGER?, James B., 22 slaves, page 60

EPPS, Victor M., 77 slaves, page 78

EZELL, Elizabeth, 20 slaves, page 52

FARMER, Pettus, 45 slaves, page 70B

FIELD, Dr. Tho., 35 slaves, page 18B

FIELD, John S. Sr., 112 slaves, page 19

FIELDS, J. S. Jr., 34 slaves, page 23B

FINCH & BURTON, tobacconists, these hands are all employed, 29 slaves, page 40

FINCH, Adam, 29 slaves, page 15 [probably held more slaves, as next page was missing]

FINLEY, A. E. Admx., 21 slaves, page 40

FITTS, James H., 21 slaves, page 72

FITTS, James M. Est., 22 slaves, page 71B

GALE, Chs., 31 slaves, page 65

GALE, John T., 41 slaves, page 69

GAYLE, Mrs. Ezt., 23 slaves, page 26B

GREGORY, James C., 24 slaves, page 28B

GREGORY, Richard C., 26 slaves, page 43

GREGORY, Silas M., 21 slaves, page 15B

HAMMATT, Geo. B., employer [for various], 25 slaves, page 37B

HARDY, Cephar, 26 slaves, page 10B

HARDY, James W., 39 slaves, page 27B

HARRIS, Giles, 43 slaves, page 68B

HATCHER, Boyd D., 32 slaves, page 64

HAWTHORN, John, 20 slaves, page 42B

HAYES, James, 33 slaves, page 30B

HAYSE, James Jr., 25 slaves, page 63

HAYSE?, George L., 45 slaves, page 64

HENDRICK, Mary A., 115 slaves, page 73

HENDRICK, Thos. R., 67 slaves, page 47B

HINTON, Presley G.?, 24 slaves, page 71B

HITE, Edmund M., 34 slaves, page 41B

HUISERD?, Archer W., 42 slaves, page 51B

HUNT, Wm. NC, 35 slaves, page 72

HUTCHERSON, Charles S., 36 slaves, page 62

HUTCHERSON, Jos. C., 29 slaves, page 70B

ISBELL, R. H., employer [for various], 23 slaves, page 29B

JACKSON, Archer, 22 slaves, page 49B

JACKSON, Martha G., 30 slaves, page 71B

JEFFERSON, George, 51 slaves, page 74B

JEFFRESS, James H., 43 slaves, page 20B

JEFFRIES, Dr. H. L., 53 slaves, page 39B

JIGGETS, David E., 121 slaves, page 72

JOHNSON, J. W., 21 slaves, page 30B

JONES, Dr. W. H., [individually and as Gdn. For Morton’s children, Boydton,VA], 70 slaves, page 21B

JONES, Helen, 93 slaves, page 76

JONES, Isaac H., 22 slaves, page 65B

JONES, Joseph H., 47 slaves, page 54

JONES, Mary W., 24 slaves, page 63

KEEN, Edwd., 34 slaves, page 25B

KING, Wright, 27 slaves, page 46

LAMBERT, John E., 41 slaves, page 54B

LEIGH, B. W., 34 slaves, page 2B

LEWELLIN, Chas. K., 22 slaves, page 9B

LEWIS, Col. John, 71 slaves, page 12B

LOCKETT, R., 23 slaves, page 7

LOVE, James W., 50 slaves, page 20

MASON, Jas. Owner Richmond VA, R. Brock manager for, 85 slaves, page 23C

MASON, Jordan H., 22 slaves, page 21

MCADEN?, James, 21 slaves, page 43

MCADEN?, Wm. B., 22 slaves, page 55

MOORE, Samuel T., 25 slaves, page 49B

MORTON, B. D., 37 slaves, page 4B

MORTON, W. H. Sr., 20 slaves, page 40

MOSS, James S., 66 slaves, page 65B

MOSS, R. H. & Bros., [hirelings, tobacco factory hands], 165 slaves, page 7B

NEWTON, James H., 50 slaves, page 40B

OGBORN?, Charles H., 72 slaves, page 63B

OLIVER, Dr. W. W., 71 slaves, page 31

OLIVER, James, 58 slaves, page 35

OLIVER, John G., 50 slaves, page 35

OVERBEY, Andrew, 22 slaves, page 9B

OVERBEY, Harry, 23 slaves, page 10B

OVERBEY, R. M., 116 slaves, page 24

PETTUS, C. H., 34 slaves, page 36B

PETTUS, Mary F., 22 slaves, page 28

PETTUS, Thomas Taylor, 23 slaves, page 28

PHILLIPS, John C., 32 slaves, page 58

PHILLIPS, Thos. D., 22 slaves, page 66

POOL, Wm. P., 21 slaves, page 33

PULLIAM, B. R., 96 slaves, page 33

PURYEAR, R. C., 66 slaves, page 36

PURYEAR, R. A., 42 slaves, page 3

RAINEY, Mrs. Ann L., 30 slaves, page 22B

RAPELL, Richd., 38 slaves, page 6B

RAPELL, Wm., 28 slaves, page 6B

RAWLINS, Edward A., 68 slaves, page 78B

REEKES?, Tho. C., 24 slaves, page 14B

RICHARDS, C. M., 60 slaves, page 17

ROBERTS, Benj. A., 29 slaves, page 35B

ROFFE?, Jessee, 25 slaves, page 61

SCOTT, R. M., 34 slaves, page 4B

SHANKS, Wm., 21 slaves, page 23

SHAW, A. W., 26 slaves, page 46

SHELTON, D., 21 slaves, page 7

SIMMONS, John W., 32 slaves, page 64B

SIMMONS, Wm. H., 23 slaves, page 52

SIMMONS?, Wiltsher, 29 slaves, page 62

SKIPWITH, H., 247 slaves, page 5

SKIPWORTH, Teuloe?, 63 slaves, page 68

SMITH, Sterling, 21 slaves, page 41

SMITH, W. N., 27 slaves, page 17

SMITH, Wm., 24 slaves, page 25B

SNEED, J. G., 38 slaves, page 37

SONT, Jas. W. M. Co., tobacconists, these hands are all employed, 78 slaves, page 39

SPENCER, J. J. R., 30 slaves, page 1B

TALLEY, Levy, 20 slaves, page 75B

TANNER, Robert, 23 slaves, page 48

TARRY, Edwd., 113 slaves, page 22

TAYLOR, J. H., 30 slaves, page 23

TAYLOR, Wm. H., 20 slaves, page 48B

TERRY, George Jr., 24 slaves, page 79

TERRY?, George, 114 slaves, page 77

THROWER, Sterling P., 24 slaves, page 60

TISDALE, W. R., 25 slaves, page 32

TOWNES, Wm., 187 slaves, page 37B

TOWNES?, Wm. Jr., 40 slaves, page 68B

TUCKER, Henry, 32 slaves, page 27

TUCKER, Wm., 30 slaves, page 27

TURPIN, E. H., 23 slaves, page 69B

VENABLE, Dr. G. C., 30 slaves, page 2B

VENABLE, Dr. P. C., 68 slaves, page 3B

WALKER, James T., 34 slaves, page 58B

WALKER, John H., 27 slaves, page 52B

WALKER, R. E., 24 slaves, page 40

WALL, Thos. B., 30 slaves, page 13B

WARREN, Saml. H., 26 slaves, page 55B

WASHINGTON, J. B., 36 slaves, page 41

WATKINS, Mrs. Nancy, 28 slaves, page 11B

WATSON, Littleby, 24 slaves, page 67B

WHITTLE, Conway D., 24 slaves, page 55B

WILLIAMS, E. A. Sr., 40 slaves, page 4

WILLIAMS, Jon B., 24 slaves, page 18

WILLIAMS, Leroy M., 27 slaves, page 21

WILLIAMS, Mary, 28 slaves, page 61B

WILLIAMSON, James A., 44 slaves, page 10B

WINCKLER, John H., 25 slaves, page 59B

WOOD, C., 24 slaves, page 34

WRIGHT, A. P. Est., 28 slaves, page 74

WRIGHT, John M., 32 slaves, page 74

YOUNG, Deauetice? M., 43 slaves, page 67B

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

ALEXANDER, 3460, 309, 73, 606, 302, 72

AVERETT, 88, 17, 5, 25, 17, 5

BACON, 518, 57, 19, 79, 57, 19

BASKERVILLE, 47, 14, 13, 24, 14, 13

BENNETT, 1319, 50 3, 137, 45, 3

BOBBITT?, 37, 2, 0, 4, 2, 0

BOOKER, 1338, 545, 2, 698, 541, 2

BOSWELL, 273, 48, 13, 64, 47, 13

BOWERS, 406, 36, 19, 62, 35, 19

BOYD, 1905, 213, 59, 387, 203, 56

BRUCE, 514, 89, 3, 160, 88, 3

BUGG, 202, 30, 11, 39, 30, 11

BURTON, 1530, 196, 12, 323, 189, 12

BURWELL, 238, 135, 40, 147, 129, 35

CANNON, 784, 15, 6, 53, 14, 5

CARRINGTON, 289, 182, 30, 216, 181, 29

CHAPPEL, 95, 14, 2, 23, 14, 2

CLANTON, 152, 13, 0, 19, 13, 0

COCKREN?, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

COLEMAN, 4329, 932, 33, 1515, 922, 32

COUCH, 142, 31, 21, 43, 31, 21

CRENSHAW, 366, 42, 8, 69, 41, 8

CRUTE?, 12, 7, 5, 9, 7, 5

CUNNINGHAM, 1016, 92, 3, 171, 89, 3

DALEY, 57, 2, 1, 9, 2, 1

DANIEL, 1765, 153, 11, 258, 149, 11

DAVIS, 13725, 1281, 48, 2438, 1242, 42

DEDMAN, 23, 7, 3, 9, 7, 3

DUGGER?, 60, 23, 9, 34, 23, 9

EPPS, 568, 226, 3, 324, 219, 3

EZELL, 126, 0, 0, 13, 0, 0

FARMER, 569, 85, 1, 138, 83, 1

FIELD, 471, 133, 24, 194, 130, 24

FIELDS, 1794, 322, 21, 513, 313, 20

FINCH, 231, 19, 14, 30, 19, 14

FINLEY, 325, 18, 1, 50, 18, 1

FITTS, 64, 20, 1, 23, 20, 1

GALE, 268, 34, 15, 50, 33, 14

GAYLE, 75, 16, 7, 18, 16, 7

GREGORY, 726, 178, 46, 226, 163, 46

HAMMATT, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HARDY, 1078, 132, 22, 208, 130, 22

HARRIS, 11315, 1877, 54, 2995, 1847, 52

HATCHER, 397, 106, 15, 129, 104, 15

HAWTHORN, 108, 21, 0, 26, 21, 0

HAYES, 561, 96, 39, 127, 95, 39

HAYSE, 33, 7, 0, 10, 7, 0

HENDRICK, 241, 61, 22, 80, 55, 17

HINTON, 615, 44, 0, 65, 28, 0

HITE, 120, 58, 20, 68, 58, 20

HUISERD?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HUNT, 1517, 183, 10, 313, 175, 10

HUTCHERSON, 87, 17, 7, 29, 17, 7

ISBELL, 88, 21, 0, 30, 21, 0

JACKSON, 19100, 2897, 23, 4977, 2858, 23

JEFFERSON, 1786, 409, 4, 643, 402, 4

JEFFRESS, 98, 94, 45, 96, 94, 45

JEFFRIES, 032, 39, 2, 73, 36, 1

JIGGETS, 3, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

JOHNSON, 33402, 4458, 30, 7797, 4373, 26

JONES, 27193, 3894, 117, 6648, 3807, 114

KEEN, 155, 80, 5, 87, 78, 4

KING, 4979, 484, 25, 923, 469, 24

LAMBERT, 360, 52, 21, 78, 51, 21

LEIGH, 145, 60, 11, 69, 58, 11

LEWELLIN, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

LEWIS, 8707, 1513, 33, 2588, 1483, 25

LOCKETT, 241, 68, 14, 95, 67, 14

LOVE, 1109, 85, 11, 153, 82, 11

MASON, 2858, 547, 12, 917, 536, 12

MCADEN?, 10, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MOORE, 8698, 722, 9, 1434, 697, 9

MORTON, 1174, 350, 20, 465, 349, 20

MOSS, 935, 139, 29, 243, 136, 28

NEWTON, 594, 93, 20, 150, 92, 20

OGBORN?, 5, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0

OLIVER, 1482, 200, 53, 314, 194, 53

OVERBEY, 18, 13, 9, 13, 13, 9

PETTUS, 99, 37, 16, 43, 37, 16

PHILLIPS, 1974, 135, 15, 268, 129, 15

POOL, 572, 62, 4, 94, 53, 4

PULLIAM, 116, 5, 4, 9, 5, 4

PURYEAR, 144, 71, 64, 83, 71, 64

RAINEY, 190, 29, 17, 38, 29, 17

RAPELL, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

RAWLINS, 67, 9, 4, 23, 9, 4

REEKES?, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6

RICHARDS, 892, 91, 11, 169, 89, 11

ROBERTS, 3309, 304, 20, 543, 294, 20

ROFFE?, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2

SCOTT, 8407, 1609, 33, 2560, 1588, 32

SHANKS, 89, 8, 4, 13, 8, 4

SHAW, 1163, 24, 4, 97, 22, 4

SHELTON, 875, 246, 7, 362, 243, 7

SIMMONS, 2845, 187, 39, 343, 178, 39

SKIPWITH, 58, 48, 44, 56, 48, 44

SKIPWORTH, 9, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2

SMITH, 29087, 3499, 98, 6339, 3398, 92

SNEED, 315, 45, 1, 72, 45, 1

SONT, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

SPENCER, 1560, 227, 9, 359, 223, 9

TALLEY, 128, 24, 10, 35, 22, 8

TANNER, 300, 55, 14, 84, 52, 14

TARRY, 64, 33, 29, 43, 33, 29

TAYLOR, 11696, 1887, 31, 3149, 1849, 30

TERRY, 855, 187, 18, 300, 184, 17

THROWER, 53, 14, 6, 27, 13, 6

TISDALE, 142, 37, 11, 47, 37, 11

TOWNES, 122, 89, 53, 98, 89, 53

TUCKER, 2023, 429, 13, 669, 422, 13

TURPIN, 143, 41, 3, 51, 41, 3

VENABLE, 236, 129, 11, 145, 128, 10

WALKER, 8492, 1161, 70, 2024, 1142, 70

WALL, 535, 27, 3, 58, 27, 3

WARREN, 1697, 148, 10, 285, 134, 10

WASHINGTON, 9075, 1263, 0, 2593, 1231, 0

WATKINS, 2226, 509, 31, 764, 504, 30

WATSON, 3567, 415, 10, 759, 405, 10

WHITTLE, 58, 19, 9, 22, 19, 9

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2184, 20, 4695, 2087, 20

WILLIAMSON, 12289, 82, 4, 185, 77, 4

WINCKLER, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7

WOOD, 2672, 434, 13, 658, 418, 13

WRIGHT, 5428, 621, 3, 1010, 603, 10

YOUNG, 6185, 536, 28, 986, 520 28

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