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 HENRY COUNTY, VIRGINIA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, August 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with the largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Henry County, Virginia (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 1391) reportedly includes a total of 5,018 slaves. This transcription includes 69 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Henry County, accounting for 2,772 slaves, or about 55% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 353 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Where the enumerator listed slaves held by someone as owner followe by slaves held by the same person as employer, the combined total has been used here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Henry County, the number of slaves they held in the County and the first page number on which they were listed. No local disttricts were shown on this enumeration. The page numbers used are the numbers rubber stamped in the upper right corner of every other page of the census, with the intervening pages being reported here with a B added to the number of the preceding page. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Virginia in 1860 there were 641 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 2,882 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber, though not specifically looking for such named slaves, did not notice any such information while doing this transcription. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Henry County population included 6,773 whites, 314 “free colored” and 5,018 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population stayed about the same at 6,722, while the “colored” population had increased just under 5% to 5,581. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 31,221 whites, about a four and a half times increase, while the 1960 total of 9,110 “Negroes”was less than twice what the colored population had been 100 years before.) In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber was not aware of any relevant changes to County boundaries.

 

Where did the freed slaves go if they did not stay in the same County? Between 1860 and 1870, the Virginia colored population declined by about 36,000, to approximately 513,000, a 6.5% decrease. Two Virginia Counties that showed a significant increase in colored population between 1860 and 1870 were Henrico, with an increase of over 7,000, and Norfolk, with an increase of over 10,000. States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore possible places of relocation for colored persons from Henry County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); Florida, up 29,000 (46%); North Carolina, up 38,000 (8%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

ASPIRN?, Geo. W., 21 slaves, page 489B

BULLARD?, Wm., 22 slaves, page 495B

DANDRIDGE, Wm. A., 23 slaves, page 495

DAVIS, Mary, 20 slaves, page 474B

DESHAZO?, Geo., 24 slaves, page 489

DILLARD, Geo., 20 slaves, page 485B

DILLARD, Jno. L.?, 24 slaves, page 476

DILLARD, Matilda, 31 slaves, page 476

DILLARD, O. R., 22 slaves, page 487B

DREWRY, Henry, 50 slaves, page 487

FLOOD, Washington, 35 slaves, page 484

FRANCE, H. C., 33 slaves, page 495

GRAVELY (See also Martin, Gravely & Martin)

GRAVELY, Benja. F., 50 slaves, page 504

GRAVELY, Jabez, 30 slaves, page 481

HAIRSTON, Geo. J., 22 slaves, page 503

HAIRSTON, Geo. Pltn?, 23 slaves, page 475B

HAIRSTON, Geo. D.?, 65 slaves, page 502

HAIRSTON, Geo. Sr., 114 slaves, page 504B

HAIRSTON, Henry, 47 slaves, page 478B

HAIRSTON, Peter, 23 slaves, page 500B

HAIRSTON, Peter, 120 slaves, page 477B

HAIRSTON, R. H., 32 slaves, page 487B

HAIRSTON, Ruth, 121 slaves, page 479

HAIRSTON, Saml., 37 slaves, page 501B

HAIRSTON, Saml. H., 130 slaves, page 476B

HAIRSTON, Sarah, 35 slaves, page 502B

HOUSTON, Marshall of Miss., [Edwd. Towns overseer], 101 slaves, page 484B

HUGHES, Thomas J., 23 slaves, page 495

KAY, Sarah, 37 slaves, page 498B

KING, Camillus, 22 slaves, page 499B

KOGER, Jno., 21 slaves, page 491B

MARSHALL [one name only] of Miss., owner, Jose Sluydon overseer, 57 slaves, page 482

MARTIN, GRAVELY & MARTIN, 25 slaves, page 476

MARTIN, Sally, 77 slaves, page 479B

MARTIN, Thomas J., 41 slaves, page 480

MARTIN, William, 36 slaves, page 504

MOLITOR?, Silas Sr., 25 slaves, page 483B

PANNILL, Geo. In trust for minor heirs 5 in number, 27 slaves, page 502

PANNILL, George, 56 slaves, page 492B

PENN, Peter P., 60 slaves, page 497B

PENN, Wm. S., 22 slaves, page 501

PHILPOTT, Charles, 21 slaves, page 486

PRESTON, Wm. B., Jno C. Mitchell overseer, 35 slaves, page 496

PRESTON, Wm. B., Wm. Linkom? Overseer, 75 slaves, page 496

PRESTON, Wm. B., [Thos Mitchell overseer], 55 slaves, page 485

PRICE, Jno. P., 35 slaves, page 502

REAMEY, John, 26 slaves, page 474B

REDD, Jno. O., 54 slaves, page 496B

REDD, Sarah A., [Bo C. Anderson employer], 24 slaves, page 500B

SEALES, Mary, 60 slaves, page 475

SHEFFIELD, Wm. A., 20 slaves, page 501

SMITH, James M., 43 slaves, page 486B

SPENCER, David H., 42 slaves, page 497

STAPLES, Geo., 22 slaves, page 498

STARLING, Edwd. T., 26 slaves, page 503B

STONE, Ludwell, 27 slaves, page 476B

TERRY, Wm. P., 53 slaves, page 475

THOMAS, Nancy, 33 slaves, page 482

TRENT, Wm. B., 30 slaves, page 503

WADE, A. of Richmond, 39 slaves, page 490B

WALKER, Arnold of VA owner, [Saml. O. Smith employer], 28 slaves, page 489B

WALLER, Geo., 21 slaves, page 493B

WALLER, Maria, 23 slaves, page 493

WATKINS, Peter W., 53 slaves, page 499

WATKINS, Tho.? H., 26 slaves, page 491

WILSON, S. P., Oliver P. Shelton overseer, 36 slaves, page 494B

WILSON, S. P. [of] NC, Wm. R. Weam? Overseer, 36 slaves, page 494B

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

ASPIRN?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

BULLARD?, 146, 10, 4, 25, 9, 4

DANDRIDGE, 234, 120, 8, 156, 119, 8

DAVIS, 13725, 1281, 6, 2438, 1242, 6

DESHAZO, 9, 5, 5, 5, 4, 4

DILLARD, 568, 186, 48, 228, 179, 43

DREWRY, 37, 15, 0, 21, 15, 0

FLOOD, 244, 76, 11, 97, 75, 11

FRANCE, 69, 13, 12, 20, 13, 12

GRAVELY, 45, 42, 39, 42, 42, 39

HAIRSTON, 608, 380, 253, 456, 361, 244

HOUSTON, 976, 18, 0, 74, 18, 0

HUGHES, 1641, 220, 4, 376, 217, 4

KAY, 82, 8, 0, 12, 8, 0

KING, 4979, 484, 23, 923, 469, 23

KOGER, 28, 13, 4, 15, 13, 4

MARSHALL, 1756, 237, 5, 386, 231, 5

MARTIN, 5318, 436, 62, 820, 429, 60

MOLITOR?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

PANNILL, 45, 45, 15, 44, 44, 14

PENN, 397, 154, 28, 207, 154, 28

PHILPOTT, 49, 20, 20, 22, 20, 20

PRESTON, 703, 179, 46, 278, 176, 45

PRICE, 2888, 420, 18, 707, 400, 16

REAMEY, 11, 8, 8, 10, 8, 8

REDD, 273, 143, 21, 162, 143, 21

SEALES, 50, 8, 6, 13, 8, 6

SHEFFIELD, 126, 3, 3, 11, 3, 3

SMITH, 29087, 3499, 23, 6339, 3398, 21

SPENCER, 1560, 227, 22, 359, 223, 21

STAPLES, 150, 62, 10, 88, 62, 10

STARLING, 83, 6, 5, 6, 6, 5

STONE, 1070, 102, 6, 168, 100, 6

TERRY, 855, 187, 10, 300, 184, 10

THOMAS, 11418, 937, 14, 1866, 909, 14

TRENT, 219, 143, 7, 183, 143, 7

WADE, 1372, 208, 16, 314, 201, 15

WALKER, 8492, 1161, 9, 2024, 1142, 9

WALLER, 537, 156, 19, 211, 155, 19

WATKINS, 2226, 509, 14, 764, 504, 14

WILSON, 10819, 1146, 22, 2066, 1090, 17

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