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 AMELIA COUNTY, VIRGINIA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, July 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with the largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Amelia County, Virginia (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 1386) reportedly includes a total of 7,655 slaves. This transcription includes 130 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Amelia County, accounting for 5,056 slaves, or about 66% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 406 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Amelia County, the number of slaves they held in the County, the Magisterial District where enumerated and the first page number on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the numbers rubber stamped in the upper right corner of every other page of the census, with the intervening pages being reported here with a B added to the number of the preceding page. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In Virginia in 1860 there were 641 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 2,882 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber, though not specifically looking for such named slaves, did not notice any such information while doing this transcription. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Amelia County population included 2,897 whites, 189 “free colored” and 7,655 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased about 5% to 3,055, while the “colored” population had decreased about 13 % to 6,823. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 3,806 whites, about a one-third increase, while the 1960 total of 3,995 “Negroes”was only about half of what the colored population had been 100 years before.) In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber was not aware of any relevant changes to County boundaries.

 

Where did the freed slaves go if they did not stay in the same County? Between 1860 and 1870, the Virginia colored population declined by about 36,000, to approximately 513,000, a 6.5% decrease. Two Virginia Counties that showed a significant increase in colored population between 1860 and 1870 were Henrico, with an increase of over 7,000, and Norfolk, with an increase of over 10,000. States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore possible places of relocation for colored persons from Amelia County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); Florida, up 29,000 (46%); North Carolina, up 38,000 (8%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

ADAMS, Richard E. G., 40 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 168B

ANDERSON, Alfred, 24 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 147B

ANDERSON, Henry Estate, 1 legatee, 40 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 172

ANDERSON, J. B___?, 22 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 163

ANDERSON, James P., 20 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 172

ANDERSON, Joseph B., 31 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 146

ANDERSON, Richard G., 50 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 147

ANDERSON, Stephen C., 24 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 140B

ARCHER, Ann W., 31 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 165B

ARCHER, Marsha & Ann, 110 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 153B

ARCHER, Page? P., 32 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 166B

BAILEY, Mary W., 24 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 169B

BARKSDALE, Conway, 59 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 162

BARKSDALE, Robert J., 28 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 156*

BARKSDALE, William J. Estate, 6 legatees all slaveholders in their own right, 99 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 155B

BARRISTER, S. P., 118 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 161B

BAUGH, Martha, 20 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 135B

BERKELEY, Park T., 38 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 159

BLAND, Fannie & 3 others, minors, 35 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 170

BLAND, Matthew R., 30 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 166

BLANTON, Ann P., 31 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 152

BOISSEAU, Peter F., 46 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 157

BOISSEAU, Peter F., trustee for 7 legatees, 20 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 157

BOOKER, Lavinia W., 45 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 136

BOOTH, W. C., 29 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 182B

BRAGG, Joseph Estate, 2 legatees both slaveholders in their own right, 43 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 171B

BRIDGFORTH, Benjamin, 35 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 175

BURKE, Abner H., 21 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 180B

BURTON, Daniel W., 26 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 178B

CARSLEY, Elizabeth, 20 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 137B

CARTER, William R., 27 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 142B

CHAFFIN, Susan A. Owner, but resides and holds slaves in Henrico Co., 50 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 180

CHEATHAM, Willaim J., 44 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 170B

COLEMAN, E. H., 21 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 175

COUSINS, Robert, 26 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 178B

CRADDOCK, James, 28 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 150

CRENSHAW, Thos. A., 22 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 148

CROWDER, Levi B., 38 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 175

DUNN, Joseph B., 40 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 171B

EGGLESTON, Edward W., 34 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 160B

EGGLESTON, William & sister, 80 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 160B

FARMER, Charles W., 43 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 149

FEATHERSTON, Edward & 3 others, one being a slaveholder in his own right, 31 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 156B

FITZGERALD, C. W. Owner, but resides and holds slaves in Richmond, 29 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 173B

FITZGERALD, John owner, but resides and holds slaves in Nottoway Co., 40 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 177B

FOSTER, Wortham, 50 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 141

FOWLKES, Joseph M., 71 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 138

FOWLKES, Phineas, 52 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 181

FRETWELL, William W., 36 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 140

GILL, Miles A., 53 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 144B and 151

GILL, William, 21 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 140B

GREEN, William, 34 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 139B

GREGORY, H. C., 34 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 178B

GREGORY, W. J.? C., 50 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 183

HAMLIN, James B., 37 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 181

HARDAWAY, D. Estate, 6? Legateesall interested in other States, 25 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 173B

HARDAWAY, John S., 103 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 164B

HARRIS?, Lewis E., 56 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 162B

HARRISON, Willaim H., 41 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 152B

HENDRICK, Samuel T., 20 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 146

HOBSON, Jane L.?, 24 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 175B

JACKSON, Francis W., 41 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 173

JEFFERSON, John G., 65 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 159B

JOHN, James, 22 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 143B

JOHNSON, Edward R., 35 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 152

JONES, C., owner, but resides and holds slaves in Nottoway Co., 34 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 151

JONES, Samuel, 44 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 157B

JONES, William W., 20 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 176B

KNIGHT, John W., 24 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 170

LANE, John W., 56 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 156B

MABEN?, Jane B., 35 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 167B

MABEN?, Robert D., 22 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 167B

MANN, Robert W., 28 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 183B

MANN, Spencer A., 30 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 167

MARSHALL, J. W., 22 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 174B

MARSHALL, R. H., 23 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 174

MASON, John G., 74 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 155

MASTERS, Jane R. & 2 others, 20 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 164

MAYO, George, 23 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 157B

MCGEHEE, Lucy A., 27 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 139

MEADE, William E., 40 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 158

MEAUX, Thos. Estate, 34 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 158

MILESTONE, William A., 24 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 154B

NEAL, Thos. W., 25 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 163B

NOBLE, Milton F., 22 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 140

NOBLE, Wright E.?, 58 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 161

NORFLEET, Abram, 20 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 165B

PARKINSON, John E., 60 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 172B

PHILLIPS, William A., 33 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 152B

PRIDE, John T., 60 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 163B

PRIDE, Thos. A., 70 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 138B

PRIDE, William, 47 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 160

ROBERTSON, Mary B. & 1 other, 27 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 181B

ROBINSON, Edward C., 67 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 169

ROWLETT, William H., 31 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 170B

SCOTT, George C., 40 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 149

SCOTT, Hiram T., 32 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 182

SCOTT, Joseph M., 21 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 171

SCOTT, Martha, 24 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 148

SCOTT, Richard M., 27 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 168B

SEAY, Austin, 39 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 141B

SEAY, Selden A., 23 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 139B

SOUTHALL, Elizabeeth, 60 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 144B

SOUTHALL, Phiip T., 28 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 167

STEGER, John H. Estate, 8 legatees, 6 of whom hold slaves in their own right, 72 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 154

STRINGER, Robert R.?, 36 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 158B

TABB, Thos. Z., 77 slaves, Magisterial District 3, page 153

TAYLOR, Richard F., 93 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 176

TOWNES, Thos. J., 66 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 168

TUCKER, Elizabeth C. & 7 others, 20 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 146

VAUGHAN, Augustus Estate, 2 legatees, 68 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 149B

VAUGHAN, James A., 47 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 180B

VAUGHAN, Robert T., 37 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 147B

WADE, Newton, 23 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 145

WARRINER, Benjamin W., 20 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 164B

WEBSTER, Thos. W., 22 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 145B

WEBSTER, Thos. E., 22 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 145B

WEBSTER, William T., 41 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 173B

WILLIAMS, Robert P., 22 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 143B

WILLS, Richard A., 23 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 177

WILLSON, Joseph B., 32 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 182

WILLSON, Thos. C., 41 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 147

WILLSON, William H., 53 slaves, Magisterial District 4, page 166

WILEY?, John F., 31 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 137B

WILEY?, Thos., 83 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 142

WINGO, J. W. C., 25 slaves, Magisterial District 2, page 148

WOOD, Elizabeth, 34 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 134

WOOD, Henry C., 28 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 142

WOOD, R. R., 32 slaves, Magisterial District 1, page 135B

WORSHAM, William, 36 slaves, Magisterial District 5, page 183B

 

*This comment was written about Robert J. Barksdale:”Mr. Barksdale slaves are not now in this county, but as they have had no [set? _____?] residence for some months, Mr. B. Having broken up Campbell Co., where he formerly resided, I at his suggestion listed them here; he stating that they would probably not be listed at ll if not here.”

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

ADAMS, 4295, 353, 4, 654, 343, 4

ANDERSON, 8173, 1153, 58, 1969,1142, 58

ARCHER, 358, 98, 12, 139, 97, 12

BAILEY, 2281, 384, 10, 634, 374, 10

BARKSDALE, 300, 132, 1, 145, 131, 1

BARRISTER, 10, 1, 0, 3, 1, 0

BAUGH, 151, 34, 3, 46, 34, 3

BERKELEY, 15, 12, 4, 13, 12, 4

BLAND, 594, 221, 23, 296, 221, 23

BLANTON, 154, 7, 0, 16, 7, 0

BOISSEAU, 21, 14, 3, 14, 14, 3

BOOKER, 1338, 545, 105, 698, 541, 105

BOOTH, 361, 72, 0, 110, 72, 0

BRAGG, 267, 44, 4, 70, 43, 4

BRIDGFORTH, 18, 5, 0, 8, 5, 0

BURKE, 4452, 54, 0, 95, 54, 0

BURTON, 1530, 196, 1, 323, 189, 1

CARSLEY, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

CARTER, 7164, 1833, 8, 2110, 1810, 8

CHAFFIN, 28, 16, 0, 17, 15, 0

CHEATHAM, 384, 117, 1, 150, 116, 1

COLEMAN, 4329, 932, 6, 1515, 922, 6

COUSINS, 214, 122, 2, 143, 118, 2

CRADDOCK, 83, 28, 2, 37, 28, 2

CRENSHAW, 366, 42, 0, 69, 41, 0

CROWDER, 253, 38, 0, 68, 38, 0

DUNN, 994, 45, 0, 102, 44, 0

EGGLESTON, 88, 36, 19, 48, 36, 19

FARMER, 569, 85, 1, 138, 83, 1

FEATHERSTON, 47, 9, 2, 14, 9, 2

FITZGERALD, 341, 131, 13, 157, 131, 13

FOSTER, 2611, 258, 8, 504, 253, 8

FOWLKES, 132, 118, 4, 124, 118, 4

FRETWELL, 13, 3, 0, 3, 3, 0

GILL, 591, 51, 0, 92, 50, 0

GREEN, 11070, 1257, 37, 2240, 1236, 37

GREGORY, 726, 178, 2, 226, 163, 2

HAMLIN, 204, 66, 0, 98, 66, 0

HARDAWAY, 124, 19, 3, 40, 19, 3

HARRIS?, 11315, 1827, 26, 2995, 1847, 26

HARRISON, 3639, 371, 15, 693, 353, 15

HENDRICK, 241, 61, 5, 80, 55, 5

HOBSON, 299, 100, 7, 131, 100, 7

JACKSON, 19100, 2897, 45, 4977, 2858, 45

JEFFERSON, 1789, 409, 27, 643, 402, 27

JOHN, 444, 20, 0, 69, 20, 0

JOHNSON, 33402, 4458, 88, 7797, 4373, 88

JONES, 27193, 3894, 77, 6648, 3807, 77

KNIGHT, 834. 101, 0, 140, 90, 0

LANE, 1402, 97, 0, 202, 95, 0

MABEN?, 11, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1

MANN, 558, 72, 5, 137, 72, 5

MARSHALL, 1756, 237, 3, 386, 231, 3

MASON, 2858, 547, 11, 917, 536, 11

MASTERS, 28, 3, 0, 5, 3, 0

MAYO, 403, 191, 7, 228, 190, 7

MCGEHEE, 185, 10, 0, 21, 10, 0

MEADE, 114, 70, 23, 86, 70, 23

MEAUX, 49, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MILESTONE, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

NEAL, 1145, 100, 3, 171, 95, 3

NOBLE, 268, 17, 0, 41, 15, 0

NORFLEET, 130, 29, 2, 29, 27, 2

PARKINSON, 11, 1, 0, 4, 1, 0

PHILLIPS, 1974, 135, 3, 268, 129, 3

PRIDE, 200, 45, 9, 75, 44, 9

ROBERTSON, 2878, 543, 6, 832, 535, 6

ROBINSON, 8046, 1242, 47, 2251, 1233, 47

ROWLETT, 51, 28, 0, 29, 28, 0

SCOTT, 8407, 1609, 36, 2560, 1588, 36

SEAY, 107, 27, 6, 37, 27, 6

SOUTHALL, 89, 36, 0, 45, 34, 0

STEGER, 40, 8, 0, 11, 8, 0

STRINGER, 118, 7, 0, 13, 7, 0

TABB, 154, 93, 3, 114, 92, 3

TAYLOR, 11696, 1887, 15, 3129, 1849, 15

TOWNES, 122, 89, 21, 98, 89, 21

TUCKER, 2023, 429, 10, 669, 422, 10

VAUGHAN, 480, 174, 21, 207, 174, 21

WADE, 1372, 208, 3, 314, 201, 3

WARRINER, 3, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0

WEBSTER, 886, 98, 3, 213, 97, 3

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2184, 8, 4695, 2087, 8

WILLS, 409, 67, 0, 104, 66, 0

WILLSON, 542, 53, 20, 104, 52, 20

WILY, 580, 46, 9, 100, 42, 9

WINGO, 38, 7, 2, 13, 7, 2

WOOD, 2672, 434, 1, 658, 418, 1

WORSHAM, 72, 17, 5, 23, 16, 5

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