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EDGEFIELD COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

Transcribed by Tom Blake, October 2001

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held in Edgefield County, South Carolina, in 1860, is either non-existent or not readily available. It is possible to locate a free person on the Edgefield County, South Carolina census for 1860 and not know whether that person was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave census, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census.

Those who have found a free ancestor on the 1860 Edgefield County, South Carolina census can check this list to learn if their ancestor was one of the larger slaveholders in the County. If the ancestor is not on this list, the 1860 slave census microfilm can be viewed to find out whether the ancestor was a holder of a fewer number of slaves or not a slaveholder at all. Whether or not the ancestor is found to have been a slaveholder, a viewing of the slave census will provide an informed sense of the extent of slavery in the ancestral County, particularly for those who have never viewed a slave census. An ancestor not shown to hold slaves on the 1860 slave census could have held slaves on an earlier census, so those films can be checked also. In 1850, the slave census was also separate from the free census, but in earlier years it was a part of the free census.

African American descendants of persons who were enslaved in Edgefield County, South Carolina in 1860, if they have an idea of the surname of the slaveholder, can check this list for the surname. If the surname is found, they can then view the microfilm for the details listed regarding the sex, age and color of the slaves. If the surname is not on this list, the microfilm can be viewed to see if there were smaller slaveholders with that surname. To check a master surname list for other States and Counties, return to Home and Links Page.

The information on surname matches of 1870 African Americans and 1860 slaveholders is intended merely to provide data for consideration by those seeking to make connections between slaveholders and former slaves. Particularly in the case of these larger slaveholders, the data seems to show in general not many freed slaves in 1870 were using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder. However, the data should be checked for the particular surname to see the extent of the matching.

The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and they would have been counted as a separate slaveholder in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with larger slaveholders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work.

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Edgefield County, South Carolina (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 1230) reportedly includes a total of 24,060 slaves, which ranks as the fourth highest total in the State and the sixth highest in the U.S. in 1860. This transcription includes 138 slaveholders who held 40 or more slaves in Edgefield County, accounting for 8,445 slaves, or just over 35% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 1,543 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest's CD "African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census", available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County (actually shown as "District" on the census page), the number of slaves they held in the County where the slaves were enumerated and the first census page of that County on which they were listed. The holders on pages 375B through 427, were shown as in the Saluda Regiment, but no locality was shown for the holders on the other pages. The page numbers used are the rubber stamped numbers in the upper right corner of every set of two pages, with the previous stamped number and a "B" being used to designate the pages without a stamped number. The census shows no subdivisions within the County. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term "County" is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of "slave owners", the transcriber has chosen to use the term "slaveholder" rather than "slave owner", so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In South Carolina in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves. The transcriber did not notice any such slaves in the course of making this transcription, except for 100 year old female Betty, held by Dam(?) on page 473B and 103 year old male Lewis, held by Rambo on 481B. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Edgefield County population included 15,653 whites, 173 "free colored" and 24,060 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased 9% to 17,040, and the "colored" population had increased 5% to 25,417. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 6,581 whites, only about 42% of the 1860 figure, and the 1960 total of 9,153 "Negroes"was only about 38% of what the colored population had been 100 years before.) It should be noted however, that in comparing census data for 1870 and 1960, the transcriber did not take into consideration any relevant changes in county boundaries.

Where did the freed slaves go? Charleston County saw an increase in colored population of almost two thirds between 1860 and 1870, so likely that is where many went. No other South Carolina County showed a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the South Carolina colored population only increased by 4,000, to 416,000, a 1% increase. States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Edgefield County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

ADAMS, Dr. J. F., 83 slaves, page 463

ADAMS, Hiram, 44 slaves, page 456B

ADAMS, John, 69 slaves, page 487B

ADAMS, R. W., 48 slaves, page 448B

ADDISON, G. A., 68 slaves, page 384

ANDREWS, J.?, 110 slaves, page 379

BANHAM, Hon. M. L., 60 slaves, page 443B

BANSKETT?, Col. J., 68 slaves, page 518B

BEASELEY, T. P. Agent, 65 slaves, page 381B

BETTIS, Benj., 74 slaves, page 439

BLALOCK, B. R., 43 slaves, page 442B

BLAND?, J. A., 60 slaves, page 437B

BOATWRIGHT, B. T., 79 slaves, page 429B

BOLES, Maj. Isaac, 41 slaves, page 458

BONES, Jno. Ga. Owner, J. H. Hughes employer, 57 slaves, page 452B

BONKNIGHT, W., 62 slaves, page 405B

BRIGGS, George, 41 slaves, page 506B

BROOKS, J. Hamden, 42 slaves, page 388

BROOKS, M. P.?, 112 slaves, page 387

BROOKS, Q.? L., 62 slaves, page 477B

BROWNING, T. B. Agt., 40 slaves, page 402B

BUCKHALTER, Tandy, 61 slaves, page 466B

BUTLER, R. J., 41 slaves, page 481

BUTLER, Seth, 54 slaves, page 482B

CALHOUN, P. L., 47 slaves, page 508

CLARK, Samuel, 86 slaves, page 480

CLARY, W. M., 40 slaves, page 402B

COLES, J. S.?, 58 slaves, page 392B

CRAFT, Dr. T. G., 104 slaves, page 431B

CRAFTON?, Jas., 55 slaves, page 511B

CRAFTON?, M. A., 50 slaves, page 512B

CURRY, Joel, 58 slaves, page 505

DAM?, M. B., 181 slaves, page 473B

DANIEL, William, 68 slaves, page 398B

DEARRING, A. L., 85 slaves, page 408B

DEVORE, Dr. J. A., 46 slaves, page 483

DEVORE, Elbert, 50 slaves, page 458B

DEVORE?, Mrs. C., 41 slaves, page 469B

DOZIER, A. S. Senr., 58 slaves, page 421B

DUNOVANT, R. G. M., 47 slaves, page 484B

DYSON, T. J., 68 slaves, page 392

FRAZIER, Col. H.?, 41 slaves, page 520B

FRAZIER, M., 64 slaves, page 390B

FREEMAN, C. M., 79 slaves, page 500

FREEMAN, S. S., 41 slaves, page 498B

GAUTT?, Thos., 76 slaves, page 489B

GLOVER, Wiley, 64 slaves, page 487

GRIFFIN, J. B., 61 slaves, page 461B

HALLER, R. M., 45 slaves, page 470

HAMMOND, Chas., 76 slaves, page 486

HAMMOND, Mrs. S., 62 slaves, page 485

HARRISON, Jas., 46 slaves, page 469

HAWKINSON, B. J., 47 slaves, page 447

HENDERSON, Nat, 42 slaves, page 383

HERIOT?, Col. John, 53 slaves, page 442B

HILL, Lad?, 53 slaves, page 391

HOLLAND, Daniel, 70 slaves, page 447B

HOLLINGSWORTH, J. H., 59 slaves, page 453

HOLLINGSWORTH, Mrs. B., 91 slaves, page 460

HOLMES, Col. Wyatt, 80 slaves, page 493

HOLOWAY, J. W., 74 slaves, page 389

HOLSTEIN, Moses, 76 slaves, page 417

HOLSTEIN, Wade, 63 slaves, page 418

HUGHES, A. J., 54 slaves, page 441

HUGHES, Maj. J. H., 40 slaves, page 452B

JENNINGS, Dr. J. H., 42 slaves, page 473

JENNINGS, Dr. W. D., 48 slaves, page 510B

JENNINGS, Robert, 69 slaves, page 510

JOHNSON, L. S., 42 slaves, page 443

JONES, Mrs. M., 46 slaves, page 507B

LAMAR, Thos. G., 58 slaves, page 517B

LAMHORN, J. M., 40 slaves, page 484

LAMHORN, Josiah, 61 slaves, page 491B

LANIER, Silas, 44 slaves, page 506

MAYS, H. H., 47 slaves, page 385

MCKIE, Dr. T. J., 45 slaves, page 496B

MCKIE, G. A., 131 slaves, page 488

MCKIE, Mary E. and one other, 47 slaves, page 495

MCKIE, Thos., 129 slaves, page 496B

MERAWEATHER, Jas., 48 slaves, page 497B

MEREWETHER, Dr. S. G., 50 slaves, page 496

MERIWETHER, Robt., 55 slaves, page 504

MERRIWEATHER, Dr. N., 49 slaves, page 495B

MIDDLETON, J. W., 54 slaves, page 494B

MILLER, B. H., 40 slaves, page 440

MIMS, Dr. R. J., C. M. Gray agent for, 48 slaves, page 513B

MIMS, Dr. E. J., Mathis agent for, 56 slaves, page 515

MOBLEY, Eldred S., 49 slaves, page 420B

MOBLEY, W. S., 51 slaves, page 399B

MOBLEY, William, 45 slaves, page 398

MOSS, Col. W. H., 41 slaves, page 517B

NICHOLSON, S. W., 68 slaves, page 515B

NIEHLEMAN?, Mrs. E. J., 57 slaves, page 449

PADGETT, William, 50 slaves, page 425

PAYNE, David, 56 slaves, page 401B

PAYNE, Thomas, 87 slaves, page 386B

PERRY, Bennett, 42 slaves, page 405

PERRY, E. W., 42 slaves, page 418B

PICKENS, F. W., W. B. Martin agent for, 84 slaves, page 513

PRESCOT?, W.? F., 40 slaves, page 492B

PRESCOTT, Danl., 60 slaves, page 463B

PROCTOR, Daniel, 44 slaves, page 392B

RAINSFORD, John, 87 slaves, page 502

RAINSFORD?, Jas., 69 slaves, page 453B

RAMBO, A. J., 87 slaves, page 481B

RICHARDSON, J. M., 41 slaves, page 395B

RIGES?, Wm., 43 slaves, page 431

ROPER, Mrs. S. A., 45 slaves, page 504

ROUNDTREE, D., 42 slaves, page 498

SEARING, A. L., M. A. Selack for, 96 slaves, page 391B

SEARLS, E., 42 slaves, page 499

SEARLS, T. Decd., E. Searls Admr. of, 69 slaves, page 499B

SHARPTON, A. Senr., 63 slaves, page 507

SHEPHERD, S. L., 69 slaves, page 378B

SMITH, Whitfield Agt., 72 slaves, page 403

SMYLY, J. S., 54 slaves, page 375B

SMYLY, J. C., 45 slaves, page 397

STROTHER, G. J., 43 slaves, page 395

STROTHER, W. R., 113 slaves, page 449

STROTHER, W. A., 45 slaves, page 400B

TALBERT, B. M., 55 slaves, page 470B

TALBERT, J., 70 slaves, page 472

TALBERT, Miss. S. H., 56 slaves, page 472B

THURMOND, Ellenor, 44 slaves, page 512

TICKEM?, Col. F. W., 193 slaves, page 516

TILLMAN, Mrs. S. A., 86 slaves, page 484

TOMPKINS, James, 113 slaves, page 509

TUCKER, Landon, 43 slaves, page 501B

WALKER, D. J., 78 slaves, page 444B

WATSON, Chloe, 63 slaves, page 427

WATSON, Elijah, 95 slaves, page 419

WATSON, Estate of S.? Deceased, 72 slaves, page 426B

WATSON, Hon.? T., 105 slaves, page 429

WATSON, Mrs. L., 55 slaves, page 428B

WELLS, Chesley, 42 slaves, page 501

WILLIAMS, I.? J., 71 slaves, page 471B

WILSON, Steven, 42 slaves, page 445B

WISE, W., 59 slaves, page 476B

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

(SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

ADAMS, 4295, 322, 49, 495, 303, 45

ADDISON, 312, 54, 13, 63, 54, 13

ANDREWS, 1160, 69, 30, 98, 68, 29

BANHAM, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

BANSKETT?, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

BEASELEY, 8, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

BETTIS, 67, 9, 8, 10, 8, 7

BLALOCK, 114, 12, 11, 14, 9, 9

BLAND?, 594, 27, 19, 38, 27, 19

BOATWRIGHT, 41, 17, 7, 20, 17, 7

BOLES, 135, 40, 0, 42, 40, 0

BONES, 36, 6, 4, 8, 6, 4

BONKNIGHT, 14, 14, 14, 14, 14, 14

BRIGGS, 600, 45, 11, 55, 43, 10

BROOKS, 4486, 164, 45, 274, 157, 44

BROWNING, 252, 17, 1, 22, 14, 1

BUCKHALTER, 32, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

BUTLER, 4225, 320, 76, 451, 307, 73

CALHOUN, 560, 117, 5, 185, 117, 5

CLARK, 5807, 222, 27, 379, 203, 24

CLARY, 67, 20, 9, 22, 20, 9

COLES, 387, 13, 1, 17, 13, 1

CRAFT, 159, 5, 0, 9, 5, 0

CRAFTON?, 43, 10, 10, 12, 10, 10

CURRY, 936, 75, 0, 37, 24, 0

DAM?, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DANIEL, 1765, 88, 23, 116, 87, 23

DEARRING, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

DEVORE, 20, 16, `12, 15, 14, 11

DOZIER, 327, 65, 29, 69, 62, 28

DUNOVANT, 5, 5, 0, 5, 5, 0

DYSON, 256, 12, 1, 13, 11, 1

FRAZIER, 967, 159, 29, 220, 157, 28

FREEMAN, 2493, 109, 33, 174, 105, 30

GAUTT?, 16, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0

GLOVER, 1147, 320, 40, 394, 307, 38

GRIFFIN, 2464, 151, 33, 235, 143, 30

HALLER, 19, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

HAMMOND, 632, 101, 31, 121, 91, 30

HARRISON, 3639, 299, 57, 446, 286, 57

HAWKINSON, 8, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0

HENDERSON, 3706, 174, 19, 302, 160, 18

HERIOT?, 11, 10, 0, 10, 10, 0

HILL, 6675, 272, 53, 489, 256, 49

HOLLAND, 1301, 57, 7, 80, 50, 6

HOLLINGSWORTH, 120, 12, 12, 15, 12, 12

HOLMES, 2804, 430, 68, 541, 419, 66

HOLOWAY, 50, 8, 8, 10, 8, 8

HOLSTEIN, 9, 4, 4, 5, 4, 4

HUGHES, 1641, 80, 4, 149, 78, 4

JENNINGS, 848, 97, 31, 135, 94, 29

JOHNSON, 33402, 1870, 133, 2773, 1789, 122

JONES, 27193, 1346, 119, 1922, 1261, 107

LAMAR, 285, 5, 3, 19, 5, 3

LAMHORN, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

LANIER, 260, 4, 2, 17, 4, 2

MAYS, 433, 41, 27, 62, 38, 25

MCKIE, 39, 5, 5, 7, 5, 5

MERAWEATHER, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MEREWETHER, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

MERIWETHER, 80, 4, 4, 12, 3, 3

MERRIWEATHER, 109, 4, 3, 5, 4, 3

MIDDLETON, 916, 373, 9, 431, 369, 8

MILLER, 6577, 530, 33, 769, 503, 31

MIMS, 267, 66, 34, 77, 65, 33

MOBLEY, 378, 168, 43, 185, 164, 43

MOSS, 935, 44, 20, 56, 40, 19

NICHOLSON, 453, 12, 10, 27, 11, 10

NIEHLEMAN?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

PADGETT, 28, 12, 9, 10, 9, 7

PAYNE, 1603, 21, 10, 49, 21, 10

PERRY, 2432, 235, 31, 335, 227, 30

PICKENS, 251, 48, 6, 72, 47, 6

PRESCOT?, 13, 7, 4, 7, 7, 4

PRESCOTT, 69, 16, 15, 19, 15, 15

PROCTOR, 435, 42, 0, 49, 41, 0

RAINSFORD, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9

RAMBO, 52, 1, 1, 7, 1, 1

RICHARDSON, 3741, 492, 22, 620, 478, 20

RIGES?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

ROPER, 217, 57, 13, 60, 53, 12

ROUNDTREE, 155, 22, 1, 41, 21, 1

SEARING, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

SEARLS, 13, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

SHARPTON, 5, 4, 4, 5, 4, 4

SHEPHERD, 591, 25, 0, 39, 24, 0

SMITH, 29087, 1487, 82, 2156, 1407, 78

SMYLY, 18, 2, 0, 5, 2, 0

STROTHER, 392, 30, 15, 43, 29, 14

TALBERT, 220, 51, 34, 55, 51, 34

THURMOND, 49, 6, 4, 8, 6, 4

TICKEM?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

TILLMAN, 437, 39, 22, 67, 39, 22

TOMPKINS, 316, 23, 18, 52, 22, 17

TUCKER, 2023, 153, 0, 198, 148, 0

WALKER, 8492, 515, 41, 778, 486, 38

WATSON, 3567, 287, 37, 404, 277, 35

WELLS, 1647, 76, 15, 127, 74, 14

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2124, 188, 3049, 2007, 168

WILSON, 10819, 844, 19, 1210, 819, 19

WISE, 520, 75, 30, 92, 73, 30

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