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CLARENDON COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, April 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with these largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Clarendon County, South Carolina (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 1233) reportedly includes a total of 8,566 slaves. This transcription includes 114 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Clarendon County, accounting for 6,163 slaves, or about 72% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 423 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the County, the number of slaves they held in the County where the slaves were enumerated and the first census local page number of that County on which they were listed. There were no subdivisions listed within the County. In the enumeration of slaves held by some of these Clarendon slaveholders, some census lines include multiple slaves of the same age, sex and color, instead of enumerating one slave per line. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname. The term “County” is used to describe the main subdivisions of the State by which the census was enumerated.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In South Carolina in 1860 there were 482 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,359 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list should not be a difficult research task, but it is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber did not notice any such information on the enumeration of the transcribed slaveholders, except for 100 year old male black Len, held by J. H. Tindall on page 21, 100 male black Dublin, held by S. W. Nelson on page 30, 100 female black Quilla, held by Cantry on page 41, 100 male black Charles, held by T. C. Richardson on page 58, and 100 female black Patience, held by R. C. Richardson on page 79. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Clarendon County population included 4,378 whites, 151 “free colored” and 8,566 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased about 64% to 4,660, while the “colored” population had increased about 13 % to 9,366. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 9,360 whites, about a two times increase, while the 1960 total of 20,122 “Negroes”was also about two times more than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber was not aware of any relevant changes to County boundaries. Where did the freed slaves go? Charleston County saw an increase in colored population of almost two thirds between 1860 and 1870, so likely that is where many went. No other South Carolina County showed a significant increase. Between 1860 and 1870, the South Carolina colored population only increased by 4,000, to 416,000, a 1% increase. States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore more likely possible places of relocation for colored persons from Clarendon County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); North Carolina, up 31,000 (8%); Florida, up 27,000 (41%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

SKINNER, V. C. And six others, 32 slaves, page 1

TINDALL, J. S., 49 slaves, page 2

REYNOLDS, W. L., 29 slaves, page 3

HARVIN, Jno., 22 slaves, page 4

WINTER, R. J., 23 slaves, page 4

RHAME, , Mary, Warren and James, 22 slaves, page 4

TINDALL, H. F., 86 slaves, page 5

HARVIN, C. R., 25 slaves, page 7

PLATT, David, 41 slaves, page 7

MCDONALD, W. L., 20 slaves, page 8

PUGH, E. J., 34 slaves, page 9

WEEKS, J. D., 59 slaves, page 9

BOYD, S. R., 86 slaves, page 10

JAMES, W. M., 54 slaves, page 12

RICHARDSON, C. M., 26 slaves, page 12

CONNORS, M. H., 58 slaves, page 13

HOLLADAY, W. W., 22 slaves, page 14

RAGIN, Maria, 25 slaves, page 14

RAGIN, Jno. J., 25 slaves, page 14

RAGIN, Jno. J. For two others, 246 slaves, page 15

RHAME, A. D. Est., 6 owners, 39 slaves, page 17

RHAME, L. F., 74 slaves, page 17

BUTLER, P. M., 47 slaves, page 18

LIVINGSTON, M. R., 26 slaves, page 19

BOCHETT?, W. H., 25 slaves, page 20

CONNORS, T. H., 60 slaves, page 20

COBIA, Jno., 20 slaves, page 21

TINDALL, J. H., 64 slaves, page 21

BRIGGS, Thos. W., 100 slaves, page 22

DUKES, Wm. C., 97 slaves, page 22

MCKNIGHT, J. H., 24 slaves, page 23

DINGLE?, J. H. Jr., 31 slaves, page 24

RAGIN, R. J., 35 slaves, page 24

BENBOW, M. M., 31 slaves, page 25

BENBOW, H. L., 23 slaves, page 25

BENBOW, W.W., 65 slaves, page 26

THOMAS, J. R., 20 slaves, page 27

BENBOW, P. G., 82 slaves, page 27

NELSON, Jas. M., Est., 60 slaves, page 28

NELSON, S. R., 51 slaves, page 29

MELLETT, M. E., 53 slaves, page 30

NELSON, S. W., 132 slaves, page 30

DINGLE, R. R., 64 slaves, page 31

ROMTIN, Alexander, 27 slaves, page 31

DUKES, George, 28 slaves, page 32

MCKNIGHT, W. H., 24 slaves, page 32

HORTON, Jno. W., 23 slaves, page 32

NELSON, P. H., 70 slaves, page 33

SPROTT, Jos., 28 slaves, page 33

HILTON, Jno. W., 23 slaves, page 34

HUGGINS, G. A., 23 slaves, page 34

INGRAHAM, Jno. J., 30 slaves, page 35

LESESNE, W. T. & S. M., 30 slaves, page 37

MCFADDIN, J. S., 43 slaves, page 37

MCFADDIN, Sarah J., 22 slaves, page 38

FRINSON, J. J., 85 slaves, page 38

FRINSON, J. N., 53 slaves, page 39

HILTON, T. K., 25 slaves, page 39

COSKREY, W. R., 62 slaves, page 40

CANTRY?, M. A.? E. And 4 others, 84 slaves, page 41

CANTRY?, W. J., 30 slaves, page 42

PLOWDEN, E. W.?, 40 slaves, page 44

MONTGOMERY, Henry, 32 slaves, page 45

EVANS, D. E., 52 slaves, page 46

WORSHAM, P. S., 38 slaves, page 46

REARDON, Jno. J. Jr., 22 slaves, page 47

EPPS, James, 60 slaves, page 48

PLOWDEN, E. R., 39 slaves, page 48

PLOWDEN, S. E., 28 slaves, page 49

WETHERSPOON, R. J., 36 slaves, page 49

HODGE, B. E., 20 slaves, page 50

HODGE, D. E., 34 slaves, page 50

HARVIN, Saml., 53 slaves, page 51

WETHERSPOON, C. L., 23 slaves, page 51

BURGESS, Jno. A., 51 slaves, page 52

BURGESS, S. A., 64 slaves, page 52

ROSE, S. T., 29 slaves, page 54

MCFADDEN, Jno. J., 54 slaves, page 54

MANNING, Brown, 68 slaves, page 56

RICHARDSON, Jno. P., 194 slaves, page 57

RICHARDSON, T. C. For 3 others, 121 slaves, page 58

HARVIN, Jno. J., 22 slaves, page 58

HARVIN, Jno. J., for 6 others, 50 slaves, page 59

PLOWDEN, Gabriel, 35 slaves, page 59

MCDOWD, Jas., 29 slaves, page 60

MCFADDEN, Hugh, 149 slaves, page 61

MCFADDEN, Hugh for 2 others, 59 slaves, page 61

MCFADDIN, W. J., 36 slaves, page 62

BRAND, Wm., 39 slaves, page 63

ROSE, Robt. M., 27 slaves, page 64

WHITWORTH, J. S., 21 slaves, page 65

BURGESS, W. R., 51 slaves, page 65

MCFADDIN, Saml., 24 slaves, page 66

COWSAR?, N.? R., 30 slaves, page 67

HAYNSWORTH, R. P., 69 slaves, page 67

DAVIS, M. M., 124 slaves, page 68

MANNING, R. J., 105 slaves, page 70

HODGE, Jno. M., 37 slaves, page 71

MONTGOMERY, R. M., 45 slaves, page 72

PLOWDEN, M.? H., 27 slaves, page 72

DURANT, Wm. J., 42 slaves, page 72

NELSON, J. J., 38 slaves, page 73

DURANT, A. A., 181 slaves, page 74

DURANT, R. Mc., 31 slaves, page 75

HARVIN, Jas. A., 39 slaves, page 75

CONYERS, J. J., 22 slaves, page 76

COLCLOUGH, J. H., 69 slaves, page 77

OWENS, W. W., 26 slaves, page 78

COLCLOUGH, J. A. Est., 102 slaves, page 78

RICHARDSON, W. H. B., 163 slaves, page 78

MANNING, Jno. L., 27 slaves, page 79

RICHARDSON, R. C., 215 slaves, page 79

DUBOSE, D. StP., 210 slaves, page 80

DUBOSE, Mrs. M., 24 slaves, page 80

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

BENBOW, 35, 22, 19, 25, 22, 19

BOCHETT?, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2

BOYD, 1905, 185, 13, 268, 179, 13

BRAND, 98, 13, 8, 16, 13, 8

BRIGGS, 600, 45, 5, 55, 43, 5

BURGESS, 425, 98, 34, 115, 98, 34

BUTLER, 4225, 320, 8, 451, 307, 8

CANTRY?, 1, 0 ,0, 1, 0, 0

COBIA, 6, 5, 4, 5, 5, 4

COLCLOUGH, 43, 30, 2, 30, 30, 2

CONNORS, 19, 14, 14, 14, 14, 14

CONYERS, 78, 23, 7, 25, 23, 7

COSKREY, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1

COWSAR?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DAVIS, 13725, 10965, 32, 1500, 1019, 31

DINGLE, 65, 42, 15, 42, 42, 15

DUBOSE, 252, 47, 4, 106, 44, 4

DUKES, 152, 36, 13, 42, 34, 12

DURANT, 107, 82, 3, 88, 81, 3

EPPS, 568, 51, 8, 53, 51, 8

EVANS, 3275, 238, 9, 353, 234, 9

FRINSON, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

HARVIN, 53, 33, 22, 37, 31, 21

HAYNSWORTH, 11, 11, 0, 11, 11, 0

HILTON, 162, 24, 21, 24, 22, 21

HODGE, 592, 36, 16, 56, 35, 16

HOLLADAY, 62, 7, 5, 9, 7, 5

HORTON, 745, 26, 4, 50, 25, 4

HUGGINS, 194, 61, 6, 66, 58, 6

INGRAHAM, 123, 9, 0, 14, 8, 0

JAMES, 3993, 397, 35, 560, 389, 34

LESESNE, 16, 16, 4, 15, 15, 4

LIVINGSTON, 296, 67, 2, 83, 65, 2

MANNING, 448, 55, 6, 77, 54, 6

MCDONALD, 899, 69, 3, 109, 67, 3

MCDOWD, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

MCFADDEN, 225, 121, 38, 137, 119, 38

MCFADDIN, 47, 21, 9, 33, 21, 9

MCKNIGHT, 315, 130, 18, 144, 130, 18

MELLETT, 5, 5, 2, 5, 5, 2

MONTGOMERY, 1303, 163, 22, 249, 157, 22

NELSON, 3371, 359, 24, 488, 347, 23

OWENS, 1747, 194, 1, 268, 190, 1

PLATT, 63, 10, 2, 15, 10, 2

PLOWDEN, 42, 18, 7, 19, 17, 6

PUGH, 343, 14, 5, 21, 13, 4

RAGIN, 45, 26, 26, 29, 25, 25

REARDON, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

REYNOLDS, 1197, 68, 1, 94, 64, 1

RHAME, 15, 14, 13, 14, 14, 13

RICHARDSON, 3741, 492, 34, 620, 478, 34

ROMTIN, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

ROSE, 977, 71, 10, 82, 67, 10

SKINNER, 550, 8, 2, 21, 8, 2

SPROTT, 9, 3, 3, 2, 1, 1

THOMAS, 11418, 474, 7, 796, 451, 7

TINDALL, 33, 3, 0, 2, 2, 0

WEEKS, 324, 21, 3, 24, 20, 3

WETHERSPOON, 64, 7, 0, 19, 7, 0

WHITWORTH, 35, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

WINTER, 141, 5, 0, 7, 4, 0

WORSHAM, 72, 1, 0, 1, 1, 0

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