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WARREN COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, June 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with the largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Warren County, North Carolina (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 927) reportedly includes a total of 10.401 slaves. This transcription includes 162 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Warren County, accounting for 7,710 slaves, or about 74% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 402 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. In addition to the usually difficult letters to distinguish, on this Warren County census, the capital letters T and J were also hard to distinguish. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Warren County, the number of slaves they held in the County and the first page number on which they were listed. The page numbers used are the numbers rubber stamped in the upper right corner of every other page of the census, with the intervening pages being reported here with a B added to the number of the preceding page. Pages 333 through 341 and page 345 had Warrenton written at the top, while the other pages had no local district indicated. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In North Carolina in 1860 there were 311 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,184 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber, though not specifically looking for such named slaves, did not notice any such information while doing this transcription. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Warren County population included 4,923 whites, 402 “free colored” and 10,401 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased about 7% to 5,276, while the “colored” population had increased about 15% to 12,492. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 6,939 whites, about a 1.4 times increase, while the 1960 total of 12,306 “Negroes”was about 1.1 times more than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber did not consider any changes to County boundaries, such as the taking of part of Warren County in 1881 for formation of Vance County. Where did the freed slaves go if they did not stay in the same County? Charleston County, South Carolina saw an increase in colored population of about 24,000 between 1860 and 1870, so possibly that is where some went, even though the overall colored population in South Carolina remained about the same in 1870 as it was in 1860. Between 1860 and 1870, the North Carolina colored population increased by about 31,000, to approximately 392,000, an 8% increase, with these Counties being some that showed significant increases (from around 10% to 50%): Craven; Edgecombe; Granville, Mecklenberg; New Hanover, Wake and Wayne. States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore possible places of relocation for colored persons from Warren County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); Florida, up 29,000 (46%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

ALLEN, Ed, 25 slaves, page 343

ALSTON, A. D., 81 slaves, page 375

ALSTON, Alfred, 39 slaves, page 352B

ALSTON, B. N. F., 29 slaves, page 339

ALSTON, Ed, 30 slaves, page 376

ALSTON, Eliz. C., 48 slaves, page 375

ALSTON, G. B., 25 slaves, page 380

ALSTON, George, 40 slaves, page 380

ALSTON, K. P., 60 slaves, page 354

ALSTON, M. H., 58 slaves, page 375B

ALSTON, M. P., 67 slaves, page 356B

ALSTON, P. G., 44 slaves, page 357

ALSTON, S. F. Sr., 83 slaves, page 376

ALSTON, T. N. F., 45 slaves, page 362

ALSTON, W. T., 32 slaves, page 364

BALL, James, 25 slaves, page 344

BOBBITT, Miles, 20 slaves, page 366B

BOBBITT, Saml., 36 slaves, page 371

BOYD, J. C., 42 slaves, page 360B

BOYD, R., 62 slaves, page 381B

BRAME, A. F., 25 slaves, page 359

BRODIE, W. L.?, 47 slaves, page 350B

BROWN, J. E., 20 slaves, page 392

BROWN, William, 27 slaves, page 343

BROWNE, Ida, 36 slaves, page 372

BROWNE, J. F., 42 slaves, page 371B

BROWNE, L. E., 29 slaves, page 371B

BROWNE, M. L., 32 slaves, page 371

BROWNE, Mary C., 59 slaves, page 372

BROWNE, R., 22 slaves, page 371

BULLOCK, J. H., 66 slaves, page 395

BULLOCK, L. H., 50 slaves, page 393B

BULLOCK, R. Sr., 183 slaves, page 363

BULLOCK, Rich. Sr., 35 slaves, page 364

BURGESS, John, 88 slaves, page 374B

BURT, Emily, 27 slaves, page 374

BURWELL, W. A., 46 slaves, page 395B

CARR, W. B., 47 slaves, page 349B

CARROLL, Thomas, 65 slaves, page 393

CASTER, L., 26 slaves, page 368

CAWTHORN, J. V., 63 slaves, page 340

CHEATHAM, J. A., 23 slaves, page 394B

CHEEK, E. A., 81 slaves, page 346

CHEEK, J. S., 80 slaves, page 350

CHEEK, M. H., 25 slaves, page 354

CLANTON, R. K., 20 slaves, page 368B

CLANTON, W. C., 98 slaves, page 369

CLEMENTS?, G. R., 38 slaves, page 385B

COOK, B. E., Sr., 32 slaves, page 336

COOK, L. M., 29 slaves, page 349

CROPON?, J.? M., 64 slaves, page 337B

DAVIS, , Edward, 39 slaves, page 378

DAVIS, H. J., 119 slaves, page 336B

DAVIS, J. S.?, 27 slaves, page 337

DAVIS, P. R., 53 slaves, page 347

DAVIS, Saml., 43 slaves, page 378B

DOWNEY, James, 43 slaves, page 389

DOWTON, W. A., 26 slaves, page 341B

DRAKE, M. M., 38 slaves, page 392B

EATON, Buckner, 34 slaves, page 392

EATON, S. W., 27 slaves, page 351

EATON, W. Jr., 30 slaves, page 342

EATON, William Sr., 154 slaves, page 339

EDWARDS, W. N., 73 slaves, page 368

ELTON, Eliz., 21 slaves, page 380

FALKNER, A. M., 71 slaves, page 334B

FALKNER, W. A. K., 21 slaves, page 334

FIELDS, George, 39 slaves, page 367

FITTS, H. E., M. M. Drake Adm. Of, 20 slaves, page 382B

FLEMING, S., 29 slaves, page 341B

FOOTE, H. A., 33 slaves, page 358B

GERMAN, T. P., 32 slaves, page 394B

GREEN, J.? E., 70 slaves, page 338

GREEN, S. T., 3 slaves, page 380B

GREEN, T.? J. & W. J., 95 slaves, page 352

HARRIS, Henry, 21 slaves, page 373B

HARRIS, J. H., 26 slaves, page 342

HAWKINS, M. E., 25 slaves, page 349

HAWKINS, Mary F., 41 slaves, page 347

HAWKINS, W. J., 66 slaves, page 388B

HAWKINS, W. W., 29 slaves, page 348B

HAYES, Eliz. J., 23 slaves, page 348

HENDERSON, Len?, 97 slaves, page 396

HOOPER, J. Deb., 22 slaves, page 373

HUNT, W., 49 slaves, page 382

HUNTER, H. B., 33 slaves, page 341

JOHNSON, A. M., 37 slaves, page 373

JOHNSON, J. P., 35 slaves, page 373B

JONES, A. S., 72 slaves, page 353B

JONES, HG. J., 20 slaves, page 346

JONES, J. S., 51 slaves, page 390

JONES, J. W., 50 slaves, page 353

JONES, J. E., 69 slaves, page 384

JONES, Mary C., 53 slaves, page 347B

JONES, W. D., 171 slaves, page 383

KEARNEY, Edward, 44 slaves, page 373

KEARNEY, Richard, 28 slaves, page 343B

KEARNEY, W. K., 140 slaves, page 351

KEARNEY, W. H. A., 76 slaves, page 354B

LITTLE, George, 80 slaves, page 397

MAYFIELD, J. O. K., 59 slaves, page 385

MAYFIELD, J. W., 27 slaves, page 385B

MAYFIELD, J. H., 23 slaves, page 385

MILAM, N., 44 slaves, page 370

MITCHELL, P., 59 slaves, page 348

MONTGOMERY, T. A., 34 slaves, page 334B

MOSEBY, R. E., 33 slaves, page 370B

NEWELL, Mary, 50 slaves, page 369B

PACK, W. H., 31 slaves, page 339

PALMER, Horace, 53 slaves, page 361

PALMER, J. M.?, 29 slaves, page 391B

PARKER, Jacob, 26 slaves, page 335B

PATTILLO, J. W., 30 slaves, page 361B

PERRY, M. P., 29 slaves, page 374

PITCHFORD, T. J., 36 slaves, page 3799B

PLUMMER, Alfred, 38 slaves, page 395B

PLUMMER, E., 101 slaves, page 333

PLUMMER, H. L., 53 slaves, page 388

PLUMMER, T.? G., 29 slaves, page 340B

POWELL, Benj., 28 slaves, page 377B

POWELL, J. B., 27 slaves, page 366

POWELL, Peter D., 78 slaves, page 377B

POWELL, W. M., 52 slaves, page 376

REAVIS, Charity, 22 slaves, page 344

ROBERSON, J. C., 32 slaves, page 344B

ROBERSON, R. B., 36 slaves, page 341

ROBERTSON, L.?, 28 slaves, page 377

RODWELL, Eliz., 34 slaves, page 360

ROGERS, A. J., 20 slaves, page 345

RUPELL, James T., 66 slaves, page 387

RUPELL, R., J. T. Rupell Guard. For, 70 slaves, page 387

SHEARIN, J. R., 27 slaves, page 359

SKINNER, C., 44 slaves, page 386B

SLEDGE, G. R., 32 slaves, page 364B

SOMERVILLE, children, Jas. S. Jones Guard for, 75 slaves, page 384B

SOMERVILLE, E. M., 104 slaves, page 390

SOUTHERLAND, S. Guard., 20 slaves, page 345

SOUTHERLAND, S., 21 slaves, page 345

STALLINGS, Sol?, 28 slaves, page 349B

STEED, Abner, 34 slaves, page 346

TAYLOR, J. T., 42 slaves, page 387B

THORNTON, F. A., 62 slaves, page 365B

THROWER, H. E., 32 slaves, page 360

WARD, T. For eward, 24 slaves, page 393B

WATKINS, E. W., 20 slaves, page 365

WATSON, J., 59 slaves, page 353

WATSON, W. Sr., 29 slaves, page 342B

WATSON, W. Jr., 29 slaves, page 335B

WILLIAMS, J. B., 123 slaves, page 356

WILLIAMS, J. A., 94 slaves, page 357B

WILLIAMS, J. T., 84 slaves, page 389

WILLIAMS, M. K., 36 slaves, page 338B

WILLIAMS, R. E., 38 slaves, page 355B

WILLIAMS, S. A., 83 slaves, page 397B

WILLIAMS, Sol, 75 slaves, page 355

WILLIAMS, Sol, 52 slaves, page 357B

WILLIAMS, W. C., 54 slaves, page 362B

WILSON, T.? E., 38 slaves, page 336B

WORTHAM, John, 36 slaves, page 366

WRIGHT, Henry, 20 slaves, page 381

YANCEY, J. G., 60 slaves, page 386

YOUNG, D. E., 25 slaves, page 345

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

 

ALLEN, 6198, 435, 20, 628, 420, 20

ALSTON, 960, 479, 165, 543, 474, 163

BALL, 797, 17, 5, 24, 15, 4

BOBBITT, 37, 23, 14, 21, 21, 13

BOYD, 1905, 131, 18, 175, 117, 17

BRAME, 81, 30, 8, 32, 30, 8

BRODIE, 53, 30, 1, 30, 28, 1

BROWN, 27013, 1089, 85, 1613, 1005, 70

BROWNE, 85, 24, 0, 23, 23, 0

BULLOCK, 531, 270, 63, 289, 263, 62

BURGESS, 425, 35, 9, 40, 33, 8

BURT, 332, 37, 2, 63, 36, 2

BURWELL, 238, 55, 11, 56, 47, 7

CARR, 1316, 124, 1, 187, 123, 1

CARROLL, 676, 68, 23, 64, 53, 9

CASTER, 80, 3, 0, 4, 3, 0

CAWTHORN, 15, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6

CHEATHAM, 384, 29, 1, 33, 27, 1

CHEEK, 140, 39, 2, 51, 39, 2

CLANTON, 152, 34, 12, 47, 34, 12

CLEMANTS?, 364, 35, 2, 47, 34, 2

COOK, 3149, 124, 10, 228, 118, 10

CROPON?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

DAVIS, 13725, 1116, 143, 1515, 1051, 139

DOWNEY, 91, 17, 0, 25, 17, 0

DOWTON, 5, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2

DRAKE, 647, 77, 19, 126, 76, 19

EATON, 222, 80, 24, 101, 73, 22

EDWARDS, 3741, 339, 23, 480, 329, 19

ELTON, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

FALKNER, 119, 18, 7, 22, 17, 7

FIELDS, 1794, 72, 13, 98, 58, 5

FITTS, 64, 15, 15, 15, 14, 14

FLEMING, 722, 49, 8, 71, 46, 6

FOOTE, 105, 6, 3, 10, 6, 3

GERMAN, 70, 11, 9, 3, 3, 1

GREEN, 11070, 540, 50, 783, 509, 47

HARRIS, 11315, 729, 43, 1074, 704, 40

HAWKINS, 2816, 208, 52, 308, 192, 47

HAYES, 561, 77, 1, 91, 74, 1

HENDERSON, 3706, 260, 32, 397, 246, 32

HOOPER, 423, 64, 0, 72, 62, 0

HUNT, 157, 194, 20, 228, 161, 9

HUNTER, 2838, 245, 9, 364, 236, 7

JOHNSON, 33402, 1230, 63, 1962, 1144, 54

 

JONES, 27193, 1868, 98, 2779, 1760, 68

KEARNEY, 118, 87, 57, 88, 86, 56

LITTLE, 984, 244, 13, 340, 241, 13

MAYFIELD, 316, 51, 35, 55, 50, 34

MILAM, 84, 9, 9, 12, 9, 9

MITCHELL, 4089, 304, 8, 449, 294, 7

MONTGOMERY, 1303, 66, 7, 87, 60, 7

MOSEBY, 101, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

NEWELL, 174, 28, 19, 33, 28, 19

PACK, 77, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0

PALMER, 1211, 90, 3, 111, 84, 2

PARKER, 4448, 438, 7, 582, 426, 7

PATTILLO, 17, 0, 0, 5, 0, 0

PERRY, 2432, 399, 17, 512, 393, 16

PITCHFORD, 25, 8, 7, 8, 8, 7

PLUMMER, 230, 67, 53, 66, 60, 46

POWELL, 2420, 362, 47, 474, 355, 47

REAVIS, 29, 17, 0, 18, 17, 0

ROBERSON, 1638, 94, 1, 133, 86, 1

ROBERTSON, 2878, 93, 0, 143, 81, 0

RODWELL, 26, 19, 14, 21, 19, 14

ROGERS, 2129, 243, 5, 325, 240, 5

RUPELL, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

SHEARIN, 19, 14, 14, 14, 14, 14

SKINNER, 550, 150, 7, 188, 148, 6

SLEDGE, 240, 30, 9, 55, 28, 9

SOMERVILLE, 155, 33, 28, 38, 29, 24

SOUTHERLAND, 88, 51, 14, 52, 49, 13

STALLINGS, 137, 39, 7, 44, 39, 7

STEED, 80, 26, 12, 30, 25, 11

TAYLOR, 11696, 678, 19, 1003, 637, 13

THORNTON, 1504, 55, 22, 76, 52, 21

THROWER, 53, 9, 7, 11, 8, 6

WARD, 2525, 2373, 7, 387, 269, 6

WATKINS, 2226, 163, 21, 186, 133, 12

WATSON, 3567, 312, 35, 428, 304, 34

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2061, 209, 2969, 1967, 205

WILSON, 10819, 560, 7, 836, 524, 6

WORTHAM, 149, 50, 8, 61, 48, 8

WRIGHT, 5428, 305, 28, 448, 280, 20

YANCEY, 192, 52, 19, 54, 49, 17

YOUNG, 6185, 305, 6, 471, 295, 5

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