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HALIFAX COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

LARGEST SLAVEHOLDERS FROM 1860 SLAVE CENSUS SCHEDULES

and

SURNAME MATCHES FOR AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS

 

Transcribed by Tom Blake, June 2003

 

PURPOSE. Published information giving names of slaveholders and numbers of slaves held is almost non-existent. It is possible to locate an ancestor on a U.S. census for 1860 or earlier and not realize that ancestor was also listed as a slaveholder on the slave schedules, because published indexes almost always do not include the slave census. The last U.S. census slave schedules were enumerated by County in 1860 and included 393,975 named persons holding 3,950,546 unnamed slaves, or an average of about ten slaves per holder. The actual number of slaveholders may be slightly lower because some large holders held slaves in more than one County and would have been counted in each County. Excluding slaves, the 1860 U.S. population was 27,167,529, with about 1 in 70 being a slaveholder. It is estimated by this transcriber that in 1860, slaveholders of 200 or more slaves, while constituting less than 1 % of the total number of U.S. slaveholders, or 1 out of 7,000 free persons, held 20-30% of the total number of slaves in the U.S. The process of publication of slaveholder names beginning with the largest holders will enable naming of the holders of the most slaves with the least amount of transcription work. Surname matching of slaveholders with 1870 African Americans is intended merely as suggesting another possibility for further research by those seeking to make connections between slaves and holders.

 

SOURCES. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Halifax County, North Carolina (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 923) reportedly includes a total of 10,349 slaves. This transcription includes 149 slaveholders who held 20 or more slaves in Halifax County, accounting for 6,803 slaves, or about 65.7% of the County total. The rest of the slaves in the County were held by a total of 546 slaveholders, and those slaveholders have not been included here. Due to variable film quality, handwriting interpretation questions and inconsistent counting and page numbering methods used by the census enumerators, interested researchers should view the source film personally to verify or modify the information in this transcription for their own purposes. Census data for 1860 was obtained from the Historical United States Census Data Browser, which is a very detailed, searchable and highly recommended database that can found at http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/ . Census data on African Americans in the 1870 census was obtained using Heritage Quest’s CD “African-Americans in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census”, available through Heritage Quest at http://www.heritagequest.com/ .

 

FORMAT. This transcription lists the names of those largest slaveholders in the Halifax County, the number of slaves they held in the County and the first page number on which they were listed. The holders up to and including page 429 were reported as in the Eastern Division and those page 430 and above as in the Western Division. The page numbers used are the numbers rubber stamped in the upper right corner of every other page of the census, with the intervening pages being reported here with a B added to the number of the preceding page. Following the holder list is a separate list of the surnames of the holders with information on numbers of African Americans on the 1870 census who were enumerated with the same surname.

 

TERMINOLOGY. Though the census schedules speak in terms of “slave owners”, the transcriber has chosen to use the term “slaveholder” rather than “slave owner”, so that questions of justice and legality of claims of ownership need not be addressed in this transcription. Racially related terms such as African American, black, mulatto and colored are used as in the source or at the time of the source, with African American being used otherwise.

 

PLANTATION NAMES. Plantation names were not shown on the census. Using plantation names to locate ancestors can be difficult because the name of a plantation may have been changed through the years and because the sizeable number of large farms must have resulted in lots of duplication of plantation names. In North Carolina in 1860 there were 311 farms of 1,000 acres or more, the largest size category enumerated in the census, and another 1,184 farms of 500-999 acres. Linking names of plantations in this County with the names of the large holders on this list is beyond the scope of this transcription.

 

FORMER SLAVES. The 1860 U.S. Census was the last U.S. census showing slaves and slaveholders. Slaves were enumerated in 1860 without giving their names, only their sex and age and indication of any handicaps, such as deaf or blind Slaves 100 years of age or older were supposed to be named on the 1860 slave schedule, but there were only 1,570 slaves of such age enumerated, out of a total of 3,950,546 slaves, and the transcriber, though not specifically looking for such named slaves, did not notice any such information while doing this transcription. Freed slaves, if listed in the next census, in 1870, would have been reported with their full name, including surname. Some of these former slaves may have been using the surname of their 1860 slaveholder at the time of the 1870 census and they may have still been living in the same State or County. Before presuming an African American was a slave on the 1860 census, the free census for 1860 should be checked, as almost 11% of African Americans were enumerated as free in 1860, with about half of those living in the southern States. Estimates of the number of former slaves who used the surname of a former owner in 1870, vary widely and from region to region. If an African American ancestor with one of these surnames is found on the 1870 census, then making the link to finding that ancestor as a slave requires advanced research techniques involving all obtainable records of the holder.

 

MIGRATION OF FORMER SLAVES: According to U.S. Census data, the 1860 Halifax County population included 6,641 whites, 2,452 “free colored” and 10,349 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had decreased about 3% to 6,418, while the “colored” population had increased about 9 % to 13,990. (As a side note, by 1960, 100 years later, the County was listed as having 26,492 whites, about a four times increase, while the 1960 total of 31,926 “Negroes”was about 2.5 times more than what the colored population had been 100 years before.) In comparing census data for different years, the transcriber was not aware of any relevant changes to County boundaries. Where did the freed slaves go if they did not stay in the same County? Charleston County, South Carolina saw an increase in colored population of about 24,000 between 1860 and 1870, so possibly that is where some went, even though the overall colored population in South Carolina remained about the same in 1870 as it was in 1860. Between 1860 and 1870, the North Carolina colored population increased by about 31,000, to approximately 392,000, an 8% increase, with these Counties being some that showed significant increases (from around 10% to 50%): Craven; Edgecombe; Granville, Mecklenberg; New Hanover, Wake, Warren and Wayne. States that saw significant increases in colored population during that time, and were therefore possible places of relocation for colored persons from Halifax County, included the following: Georgia, up 80,000 (17%); Texas, up 70,000 (38%); Alabama, up 37,000 (8%); Florida, up 29,000 (46%); Ohio, up 26,000 (70%); Indiana, up 25,000 (127%); and Kansas up from 265 to 17,000 (6,400%).

 

SLAVEHOLDER LIST:

 

ALLEN, Marcus A., 21 slaves, page 433

ALSTON, Amarellas, 31 slaves, page 428

ALSTON, Charles J. P., 62 slaves, page 436B

ANTHONY, John H., 34 slaves, page 411

ANTHONY, John, 35 slaves, page 414

ARRINGTON, Jas. C., Agt. For above? [unnamed] minors, 32 slaves, page 452

ARRINGTON, Louis, 35 slaves, page 443B

BAILY, Valentine, 22 slaves, page 427B

BARNES, G. N.?, 25 slaves, page 422

BASS, Turner, 50 slaves, page 404

BATCHELOR, L.? W., 33 slaves, page 455B

BELL, D.? B., 36 slaves, page 424

BELL, Hudson, 20 slaves, page 404B

BEVINS, John, 20 slaves, page 400

BISHOP, Heshman, 37 slaves, page 405

BOWENS, James B., 42 slaves, page 435

BRADLEY, James guardian for 3 minor heirs, 25 slaves, page 394

BRANCH, John, 77 slaves, page 425

BRANCH, S. W., 39 slaves, page 393

BRICKELL, William W., 33 slaves, page 447B

BRYANT, Joseph, 29 slaves, page 403

BURGES, Thomas L., 35 slaves, page 440

BURNEY, Jno. R., 20 slaves, page 432B

BUSTIAN, Wm., 51 slaves, page 427B

CLARK, David C., 23 slaves, page 437B

CLARK, David, 192 slaves, page 457

CLARK, Wm. R., 20 slaves, page 405B

CONIGLAND, Edward, 22 slaves, page 396B

CROWELL, T. M., 31 slaves, page 392

DANIEL, A. M., 30 slaves, page 424

DANIEL, J. R. P., 51 slaves, page 423

DANIEL, Joseph J., 20 slaves, page 445B

DANIEL, W. W. Trustee for seven minors, 68 slaves, page 446

DANIEL, W. A. Gua. For 3 minor heirs, 72 slaves, page 396

DAVIS, Archibald H., 36 slaves, page 439

DAVIS, John H., 27 slaves, page 413B

DAVIS, M. W., 25 slaves, page 411

DAVIS, Thaddeus and two other minor heirs, 37 slaves, page 445

DAY, Mary B. & eight other minor heirs, 81 slaves, page 450

DEVERAUX, Thomas R.?, 221 slaves, page 414

DRAUGHAN, Will, G. W. Buson? Agt., 32 slaves, page 401B

EDMONDS, A. T.?, 48 slaves, page 411B

EDMONDSTON, P. M., 98 slaves, page 415B

EDMUNDS, Benja. C., 20 slaves, page 442

EDMUNDS, Virginia E., 25 slaves, page 412

EPPS, Martha B., 115 slaves, page 451

EPPS, Wiley J., 34 slaves, page 450B

FAULCON, Isaac N., 103 slaves, page 433B

FAULCON, Jessee M., 33 slaves, page 434B

FAULCON, John, 24 slaves, page 434

FENNER, John H., 100 slaves, page 398B

FENNER, W. E., 46 slaves, page 422

FENNER, Wm. Guar. For 2 minor heirs, 21 slaves, page 413B

FERRALE?, M. Guar. For one minor heor, 21 slaves, page 421B

GARY, G. G., 24 slaves, page 396

GARY, J. M.?, 26 slaves, page 446B

GUNTER, Andrew, 29 slaves, page 425B

HALE, Lewis, 53 slaves, page 392B

HARRIS, Thos. W., 97 slaves, page 437

HARRISON, John H.?, 35 slaves, page 452B

HARRISON, Martha, 20 slaves, page 430B

HENRY, G. R., H. J. Henry Admr., 22 slaves, page 429

HIGGS, Jacob, 42 slaves, page 410

HIGGS, Jacob Guar. For 3 minor heirs, 23 slaves, page 410

HILL, W. J., 27 slaves, page 416

HINES, Peter R., 37 slaves, page 443B

HOOD, Sarah, 25 slaves, page 393B

HUNTER, Benja., 20 slaves, page 453

HUNTER, Thomas, 24 slaves, page 428B

HUNTER, William, 23 slaves, page 428

HUNTER, Wm. Guar for one minor heir, 27 slaves, page 428

HYMAN, John H., 43 slaves, page 416

HYMAN, P.? B., 25 slaves, page 407

HYMAN, Samuel, 20 slaves, page 407

IVEY, Benj. W., 30 slaves, page 431B

IVEY, John, 32 slaves, page 431

JOHNSON, Benja., 74 slaves, page 442

JOHNSTON, James C., 271 slaves, page 397

JOHNSTON, Margaret M., 46 slaves, page 448B

JOHNSTON, Wade, 30 slaves, page 432B

JONES, Mariah, 46 slaves, page 436

JONES, Rebecca J., 39 slaves, page 436B

JOYNER, Henry, 28 slaves, page 429

JOYNER, Sarah W., 41 slaves, page 444B

LANE, Sarah, 22 slaves, page 399B

LAWRENCE, James T., 22 slaves, page 405B

LAWRENCE, T. D., 28 slaves, page 407B

LAWRENCE, W. T., 34 slaves, page 402

LINTER?, Jas. M., 34 slaves, page 411B

LONG , W. L., 40 slaves, page 395

LONG, N. M. Sen., 133 slaves, page 426

LONG, N. M. Jun., 31 slaves, page 427

LOWE, Thomas G., 37 slaves, page 422B

MARTIN, Thomas, 24 slaves, page 431B

MOORE, John R., 27 slaves, page 434B

MOSELEY, Richard, 31 slaves, page 430

NICHOLSON, Thomas W., 51 slaves, page 443

OUSBY, James S., 27 slaves, page 392

PARKER, Frank M., 22 slaves, page 451B

PARKER, James H., 24 slaves, page 410B

PARKER, Richd. D., 21 slaves, page 448B

PERRY, Elijah B., 23 slaves, page 438B

PIERCE, R. B., 52 slaves, page 447

PONTON, A.? M. T., 41 slaves, page 458B

PONTON, Emily R., 47 slaves, page 458B

PONTON, William H., 62 slaves, page 449B

POPE, W. B., 41 slaves, page 423

POWELL, J. W., 71 slaves, page 403B

POWELL, Rebecca J. & three other minors, W. L. Johnston Guardian for, 31 slaves, page 448

PRICE, J. L.?, 24 slaves, page 435B

PURNELL, Mungo? P., 24 slaves, page 446B

ROPER, William C., 21 slaves, page 439B

SAVAGE, L. L., 34 slaves, page 404B

SHIELDS, Charles C., 23 slaves, page 407B

SHIELDS, Wm. H., 35 slaves, page 408

SHINE, Mary W., 37 slaves, page 449

SIMMONS, A.W., 35 slaves, page 448

SIMS?, Eli, 28 slaves, page 395

SMALLWOOD, R., 24 slaves, page 402B

SMITH, George A., 40 slaves, page 421

SMITH, James M., 165 slaves, page 418B

SMITH, Moses, 64 slaves, page 409B

SMITH, Peter E., 58 slaves, page 419B

SMITH, R. H. Guar. For 3 minor heirs, 54 slaves, page 418

SMITH, Richard H., 207 slaves, page 416B

SMITH, W. H., 59 slaves, page 421

SMITH, Wm. R., 155 slaves, page 420

SNOW, Jas. S., 39 slaves, page 438

SOLOMON, William D., 102 slaves, page 456

TAYLOR, W. W., 25 slaves, page 424B

TILLERY, J. B., 23 slaves, page 402B

TILLERY, John, 143 slaves, page 412B

TILLERY, Wm. H., 69 slaves, page 394

TILLMAN, O. T.?, 29 slaves, page 399B

WALKER, Richd. H., 22 slaves, page 447B

WEBB, R. H., 34 slaves, page 406

WHITAKER, F. H., 29 slaves, page 400B

WHITAKER, M. T., 39 slaves, page 401

WHITAKER, M. C., 34 slaves, page 429

WHITAKER, R. T., 35 slaves, page 399

WHITAKER, W. O.?, 26 slaves, page 401

WHITAKERL.? H., 26 slaves, page 400

WHITEHEAD, J. B., 20 slaves, page 396B

WHITFIELD, J. G., 39 slaves, page 424B

WIGGINS, Mason L., 58 slaves, page 455B

WILLIAMS, James M., 37 slaves, page 441

WILLIAMS, Solomon, James W. Browning agt. For, 25 slaves, page 426

WILLIAMS, Virginia, 63 slaves, page 456B

WILLS, William H., 32 slaves, page 442

 

SURNAME MATCHES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS ON 1870 CENSUS:

(exact surname spellings only are reported, no spelling variations or soundex)

SURNAME, # in US, in State, in County, born in State, born and living in State, born in State and living in County)

 

ALLEN, 6198, 435, 16, 628, 420, 16

ALSTON, 960, 479, 77, 543, 474, 76

ANTHONY, 660, 55, 31, 76, 55, 31

ARRINGTON, 270, 108, 21, 133, 107, 21

BAILY, 732, 41, 10, 59, 39, 10

BARNES, 2155, 310, 9, 399, 300, 9

BASS, 764, 112, 7, 171, 110, 7

BATCHELOR, 58, 25, 6, 26, 25, 6

BELL, 4784, 298, 11, 471, 290, 10

BEVINS, 48, 1, 0, 2, 1, 0

BISHOP, 605, 46, 6, 55, 43, 4

BOWENS, 59, 9, 0, 12, 9, 0

BRADLEY, 1305, 65, 15, 99, 64, 15

BRANCH, 976, 100, 32, 137, 97, 31

BRICKELL, 11, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9

BRYANT, 2129, 296, 7, 459, 287, 7

BURGES, 81, 10, 9, 13, 10, 9

BURNEY, 178, 23, 0, 29, 22, 0

BUSTIAN, 7, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3

CLARK, 5807, 382, 55, 549, 358, 53

CONIGLAND, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4

CROWELL, 108, 32, 16, 49, 32, 16

DANIEL, 1765, 229, 42, 287, 219, 41

DAVIS, 13725, 116, 40, 1515, 1031, 39

DAY, 1002, 115, 20, 144, 113, 20

DEVERAUX, 10, 7, 6, 8, 7, 6

DRAUGHAN, 20, 17, 13, 15, 15, 13

EDMONDSTON, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

EDMONDS, 279, 16, 7, 28, 16, 7

EDMUNDS, 203, 21, 19, 30, 20, 19

EPPS, 568, 44, 14, 47, 35, 13

FAULCON, 41, 30, 23, 30, 30, 23

FENNER, 76, 39, 27, 43, 39, 27

FERRALE?, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

GARY, 263, 35, 22, 44, 32, 20

GUNTER, 162, 34, 12, 40, 32, 12

HALE, 569, 19, 7, 33, 17, 7

HARRIS, 11315, 729, 39, 1074, 704, 39

HARRISON, 3639, 199, 17, 316, 189, 16

HENRY, 2782, 126, 3, 221, 122, 3

HIGGS, 79, 19, 12, 33, 19, 12

HILL, 6675, 635, 43, 867, 613, 40

HINES, 929, 174, 7, 211, 168, 7

HOOD, 561, 43, 0, 56, 40, 0

HUNTER, 2838, 245, 28, 364, 235, 26

HYMAN, 103, 79, 8, 82, 78, 8

IVEY, 212, 45, 24, 54, 45, 24

JOHNSON, 33402, 1230, 167, 1962, 1144, 161

JOHNSTON, 2186, 234, 17, 260, 218, 16

JONES, 27193, 1868. 131, 2779, 1760, 123

JOYNER, 364, 199, 16, 201, 196, 16

LANE, 1402, 194, 10, 265, 191, 10

LAWRENCE, 950, 105, 12, 142, 102, 12

LINTER?, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

LONG, 1828, 270, 46, 354, 237, 43

LOWE, 529, 35, 11, 51, 35, 11

MARTIN, 5318, 372, 13, 544, 359, 13

MOORE, 8698, 953, 10, 1342, 934, 10

MOSELEY, 490, 44, 0, 51, 43, 0

NICHOLSON, 453, 84, 25, 106, 81, 25

OUSBY, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7

PARKER, 4448, 438, 22, 582, 426, 20

PERRY, 2432, 399, 7, 512, 393, 7

PIERCE, 852, 70, 17, 92, 68, 17

PONTON, 33, 24, 22, 24, 24, 22

POPE, 989, 86, 12, 117, 81, 12

POWELL, 2420, 362, 28, 474, 355, 28

PRICE, 2888, 216, 12, 303, 196, 12

PURNELL, 405, 9, 7, 35, 9, 7

ROPER, 217, 24, 2, 31, 23, 2

SAVAGE, 484, 84, 16, 98, 81, 16

SHIELDS, 471, 18, 14, 23, 16, 14

SHINE, 49, 16, 7, 19, 16, 7

SIMMONS, 2845, 256, 18, 362, 242, 16

SIMS?, 1411, 23, 0, 67, 10, 0

SMALLWOOD, 359, 63, 6, 73, 62, 6

SMITH, 29087, 1805, 128, 2639, 1722, 125

SNOW, 239, 28, 16, 37, 28, 16

SOLOMON, 365, 27, 16, 42, 27, 16

TAYLOR, 11696, 678, 31, 1003, 637, 27

TILLERY, 88, 66, 52, 66, 66, 52

TILLMAN, 437, 20, 0, 29, 20, 0

WALKER, 8492, 451, 5, 665, 420, 3

WEBB, 1752, 159, 16, 248, 151, 16

WHITAKER, 513, 13161, 132, 743, 34,

WHITEHEAD, 614, 76, 23, 104, 73, 23

WHITFIELD, 689, 127, 1, 219, 124, 1

WIGGINS, 753, 159, 16, 206, 158, 16

WILLIAMS, 28865, 2061, 109, 2969, 1967, 105

WILLS, 409, 13, 3, 21, 13, 3

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